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S TUDENTS R EADING B ELOW G RADE L EVEL : 4 TH G RADE Annie La EDU 7201, Fall 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "S TUDENTS R EADING B ELOW G RADE L EVEL : 4 TH G RADE Annie La EDU 7201, Fall 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 S TUDENTS R EADING B ELOW G RADE L EVEL : 4 TH G RADE Annie La EDU 7201, Fall 2011

2 T ABLE OF C ONTENTS Statement of Problem Review of Literature Current Instructional strategies The Debate: Read A Loud The Debate: Guided Reading Theorists & Practitioners Statement of Hypothesis References

3 S TATEMENT OF P ROBLEM 46% of large city public schools in the fourth grade read below reading level. The National Center for Education Statistics (2009) 34% of the Nations public schools in the fourth graders are below reading level. The National Center for Education Statistics (2009)

4 C URRENT I NSTRUCTIONAL S TRATEGY Read A Loud Bridges testing and reading gaps through fluency strategies Adamson et al. (2006) Many public schools in Brooklyn conduct read alouds Lee, V., personal communication (2011)

5 T HE D EBATE : R EAD A L OUD Pros Increases comprehension of text, build vocabulary and familiarity with sound Cummins, S. & Stellmeyer-Gerade, C. (2011) Provide students with reading fluency Adamson et al. (2006) Cons Does not teach reading strategies and skills: Phonetics and decoding Brenda, B., Buck, K., & Giles, R. (2009) Prevents beginning readers from reading independently Kruse, M. (2007)

6 T HE D EBATE : G UIDED R EADING Pros Students become independent readers Ford & Opitz (2011) Increase reading comprehension, accuracy, fluency and vocabulary Ford & Opitz (2011) Build comprehension strategies Ferguson & Wilson (2009) Cons The strategies taught in guided reading are redundant and can be seen in other lessons throughout the day. Ferguson & Wilson (2009) Reading skills and strategies are taught as part of a lesson within the curriculum Ferguson & Wilson (2009)

7 T HEORISTS & P RACTIONERS Francis Galton: mental measurement Lewis Terman- intelligence test in 1922 Cadenhead, K. (1987) Fountas & Pinnell: A-Z text gradient Thomas. (n.d.) Guided Reading: Emmett Betts- directed reading activity in 1946 Lillian Gray and Dora Reese- guided reading questions Ford & Opitz (2011)

8 S TATEMENT OF H YPOTHESIS Over the course of 7 months, providing fourth grade students in Brooklyn, NY with an opportunity for additional reading during guided reading programs, after school, will increase students’ reading level. Over the course of 7 months, providing fourth grade students in Brooklyn, NY with an opportunity for additional reading during guided reading programs, in the morning, will increase students’ reading level.

9 R EFERENCES ACT. Reading between the lines: what the ACT reveals about college readiness in reading. Retrieved from 65B5-4DD4-9FAE-EE0C99ACB370/0/ACTReportSummary.pdfhttp://schools.nyc.gov/NR/rdonlyres/FF204E0B- 65B5-4DD4-9FAE-EE0C99ACB370/0/ACTReportSummary.pdf Adamson, P., Adamson, B., Anderson, L., Clausen-Grace, N., Earnes, A., Einarson, C., … Wooten, A. (2006). Read and write it out loud!: Guided oral literacy strategies. School Library Journal, 52, p. 90. Alliance for Excellent Education. (2006, February). Adolescent literacy [Fact sheet]. Retrieved from 48F F2A129416D28/0/AdolescentLiteracyFactSheet.pdfhttp://schools.nyc.gov/NR/rdonlyres/F62A486B-B05E- 48F F2A129416D28/0/AdolescentLiteracyFactSheet.pdf Brenda, B., Buck, K., & Giles, R. (2009). First-grade reading gains following enrichment: phonics plus decodable texts compared to authentic literature read aloud. Reading Improvement, 46 (4), Cadenhead, K. (1987). Reading level: A metaphor that shapes practice. The Phi Delta Kappan, 68 (6), p Cooper, D. (n.d.). Stopping reading failure: Reading intervention for upper- grade students. Retrieved from book.com/strategies/strategies_ htmlhttp://www.beyond-the- book.com/strategies/strategies_ html Cummins, S. & Stellmeyer-Gerade, C. (2011).Teaching for synthesis for informational texts with read-alouds. Reading Teacher, 64 (6), p English Language Arts [Chart]. (2011). Retrieved from New York City Department of Education website:

10 R EFERENCES Ferguson, J. & Wilson, J. (2009). Guided reading: It’s for the primary teachers. College Reading Association Yearbook, 30, p Ford, M & Opitz, M. (2011). Looking back to move forward with guided reading. Reading Horizons, 50 (4), p Kruse, M. (2007). Read- alouds? Think again. School Library Journal, 53 ( 6), p Mounce, A. (n.d.). Strategies to teach students reading below grade level. Retrieved from ay.cfm&CONTENTID=9647&CAT=none ay.cfm&CONTENTID=9647&CAT=none National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Science. (2009). Trial urban district snapshot report: Reading [Data set]. Retrieved from Ross, J. (2004). Effects of running records assessment on early literacy achievement. Journal of Education Research, 97 (4), p Santa, C. & Hoien, T. (1999). An assessment of early steps: A program for early intervention of reading problems. Reading Research Quarterly Thames, D., Reeves, C., Kazelskis, R., York, K., Boling, C., Newell, K. & Yang, W. (2008). Reading comprehension: Effects of individualized, integrated language arts as a reading approach with struggling readers. Reading Psychology, 29, p Thomas. (n.d.). Fountas and Pinnell- Early literacy experts offer new reading intervention program. Retrieved from early-literacy-experts-offer-new-reading-intervention-program/http://www.openeducation.net/2009/05/15/fountas-and-pinnell- early-literacy-experts-offer-new-reading-intervention-program/


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