Presentation on theme: "Warm Up: Describe the symbolic importance of pyramids in Mayan Civilization?"— Presentation transcript:
Warm Up: Describe the symbolic importance of pyramids in Mayan Civilization?
Writers Workshop Discuss as a group: How did you approach the question? Were there any specific documents that you had a difficult time with? How did each use groupings of documents for analysis? How did you approach point of view? What types of additional sources or documents did you think would be helpful?
Peer Grading For each essay there are three rubrics: Each essay is to be graded by all of the members of your group. Write the name of the grader on the top of each rubric. Grade the essay according to the rubric On the bottom of the rubric there is a space for comments: What did the writer did well? Suggestions for improvement? Was the essay easy or difficult to grade? How could the writer make the essay easier on the grader?
II. Postclassical Period in Mesoamerica, A.Continuity and Change 1.Continuity Religious beliefs and practices Architecture Social Organization 2.Change Population growth in postclassical period -Increased warfare -Improved agricultural techniques More centralized government Larger military focused on conquest
II. Postclassical Period in Mesoamerica, B.Toltecs 1.Conquest State Arrived in central Mexico in the 10 th century Warlike people Conquest based on military power Controlled from modern Mexico City to Central America
II. Postclassical Period in Mesoamerica, Rule Capital city of Tula, founded in 968 Civilization based on achievements of Teotihuacan Ruled by dual kings -probably caused the internal struggle Destroyed by invaders around 1175 C. E
II. Postclassical Period in Mesoamerica, C. The Aztecs 1.Origins Migrated to central Mexico following the collapse of the Toltecs Settled in the Lake Texcoco area Established the cities of Tenochtitlan and Tlatelolco around 1325 Developed a monarchical system of government
II. Postclassical Period in Mesoamerica, Kingship and Empire Kings chosen from royal family by council of aristocrats Ruler proved legitimacy through military conquests Kings increased their wealth and power by means of territorial conquest
II. Postclassical Period in Mesoamerica, Social Class Kings and aristocrats possessed massive estates -Cultivated by slaves and landless commoners Little social mobility -Exceptions: military and priesthood Highest social ranks reserved for nobles Great inequalities in wealth and privilege
II. Postclassical Period in Mesoamerica, Population Growth increased agricultural production in the capital area land reclamation projects -5 ½ mile long, 23 foot tall dike constructing irrigated fields and chinampas. Tribute System -Conquered people supplied food and other goods to the capital
II. Postclassical Period in Mesoamerica, Trade No wheeled vehicles or pack animals Commerce dominated by small lightweight items -Gold, jewels, feathered garments, cacao, animal skins Merchants became wealthy -Lacked privileges of high nobility No system of money or credit -barter
6.Cities Populations of Tenochtitlan and Tlatelolco approached 500,000 island city Network of canals and streets Connected to lakeshore by three major causeways
II. Postclassical Period in Mesoamerica, Religion Polytheistic Included jaguar god and Quetzalcoatal Most gods had dual nature -male and female Huitzilopochtil -God of war and the sun -Required a diet of human hearts to sustain him -War captives were preferred sacrificial victims -Tens of thousands sacrificed every year