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What REALLY Works in the Middle? Kathy Paul Extended Learning Coordinator Extended Learning Coordinator Middle Grades Teacher Middle Grades Teacher Johnston.

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Presentation on theme: "What REALLY Works in the Middle? Kathy Paul Extended Learning Coordinator Extended Learning Coordinator Middle Grades Teacher Middle Grades Teacher Johnston."— Presentation transcript:

1 What REALLY Works in the Middle? Kathy Paul Extended Learning Coordinator Extended Learning Coordinator Middle Grades Teacher Middle Grades Teacher Johnston Middle School Johnston Middle School Johnston, Iowa Johnston, Iowa PowerPoint site-

2 Johnston Community School District: Formerly 6-8 building Currently students per grade at middle level Suburb of Des Moines, Iowa

3 Extended Learning Programming Levels of Service General Enrichment Classroom teachers observe students for talents and meet their needs. Occasionally, these students are also involved in scheduled classes or flexible groups to provide enrichment or extensions. Strength Area ELP teachers provide support for classroom teacher, often through extensions, teaching strategies or materials. Students may also participate in a specific class or group for delivery of services. Extended Studies (Personalized Ed. Plan) Some students need differentiated curriculum to progress academically. Services are documented and include specific academic classes or opportunities.

4 Delivery of Service Scheduled ELP classes Flexible periods: Using class time from Character Development Classes/Seminar Extra curricular activities Cluster grouping in language arts Accelerated classes in math and science Classroom differentiation—became building focus

5 Study Began in : Surveyed students and teachers of G/T students Looked at options chosen Which options utilized Which options needed to be utilized Staff meetings/Administrative meetings held Plans for increasing differentiation

6 Teacher response

7 Teacher Comments “Student choice is most effective, especially when they propose their own.” -9 th grade teacher “Because I have students with wide ranging abilities, I use flexible groups for most activities.” -8 th grade teacher “Student choice is the most effective for me. Students take more ownership and put more effort into something that they can control.” –8 th grade teacher “It is most effective when I provide assignments that allow student to make choices without singling them out as ahead or behind the others.” -7 th grade teacher “All options can be effective. It depends upon the group you have.” – 8 th grade teacher

8 Student Survey Response

9 Student Comments: What I wish my teacher knew about me I wish they knew what stage I was at or what I could already do. – 7 th grader I am very interpersonal and I love choices. –7 th grader I am responsible and can handle more than most average students. –7 th grader I get things quickly. And I can’t just sit and read a textbook all the time. – 7 th grader I like to read and write, and be faced with incredibly challenging problems –7 th grader I don’t want to be so different from all of the other kids. I don’t want ELP to be too public. –7 th grader I wish my teachers knew that I like to figure out problems without help. It would be fine to give me tips, but not to tell me what to do the whole time. –7 th grader I love pretests, but I’ve not been offered them very often. –8 th grader I love pretests, but I’ve not been offered them very often. –8 th grader

10 I don’t like to work alone. –8 th grade I don’t have patience with people who can’t understand things. –8 th grader I don’t want to be any more advanced than I already am. –8 th grader who has been accelerated two years in math I don’t want to be any more advanced than I already am. –8 th grader who has been accelerated two years in math Testing out of sections works well, along with providing many options. –8 th grader Pre-tests and study guides work best for me, although only occasionally offered. –8 th grader Pre-tests and study guides work best for me, although only occasionally offered. –8 th grader Normally I choose to not do all I can in writing because I don’t want my teachers I just met to read my writing, because it’s so personal. I also don’t like to share in front of the whole class, unless it’s a speech that is prepared. –8 th grader I like staying in my classroom and not being pulled out. –8 th grader I usually get it after a few problems. I get frustrated with long assignments where the problems don’t change. –8 th grader

11 To learn best, I need: To hear it and read it. It helps if it’s not boring. –7 th grader Flexibility and lots of choices. I love tests! I don’t want anyone to underestimate me or hold me back. –7 th grader To do projects and work with my hands. –7 th grader Something challenging that makes me think deeply. –7 th grader To have choices and work with a group. –7 th grader To be faced with a problem and given time to solve it. –7 th grader Variety. Not just grammar packets or worksheets, actual activities so I can remember it. –8 th grader To be challenged, to have curriculum that is interesting to me, and to have time to work on my own. –8 th grader Faster pace. Direct instruction. –8 th grader A good learning environment, but not without the ability to talk to others and help/be helped by peers. –8 th grader To hear it and read it. It helps if it’s not boring. –7 th grader Flexibility and lots of choices. I love tests! I don’t want anyone to underestimate me or hold me back. –7 th grader To do projects and work with my hands. –7 th grader Something challenging that makes me think deeply. –7 th grader To have choices and work with a group. –7 th grader To be faced with a problem and given time to solve it. –7 th grader Variety. Not just grammar packets or worksheets, actual activities so I can remember it. –8 th grader To be challenged, to have curriculum that is interesting to me, and to have time to work on my own. –8 th grader Faster pace. Direct instruction. –8 th grader A good learning environment, but not without the ability to talk to others and help/be helped by peers. –8 th grader

12 Options Used : Informal teacher in-service outside of school In-service as part of professional development, usually 1-2 hours a year Graduate credit offered through classes Monthly differentiation bulletins with ideas One-on–One with teachers to assist in planning and in classroom differentiation

13 Spring 2010 Principal request to assist with differentiation Worked with AEA staff to design training Gathered resources & created a Google doc Prepared staff: read two articles and discussed Announced training would begin in fall Response: Make it practical and personal

14 Session 1: 3 hours First afternoon back in August Set up plans with time, topic, materials list, notes Variety of activities/modeled the strategies we taught Differentiated our differentiation training! First session: Connect this years’ work to previous work on assessment and lesson planning, as well as articles last spring. Creative exercise using synectics as intro. Key principles of differentiation from Tomlinson/Strickland Video clips with examples of teachers modeling strategies for differentiation Readings by dividing up material/report out Stations (differentiation by choice) Lay foundation for future sessions

15 The fact that students differ may be inconvenient, but it is inescapable. Adapting to that diversity is the inevitable price of productivity, high standards, and fairness to kids. — Theodore Sizer

16 Welcoming and Safe Classroom Environment

17 ImportantFocusedEngaging Demanding Scaffolded High Quality Curriculum

18 On-going Assessment

19 Respectful Work

20 Flexible Grouping

21 Key Elements By addressing student… Readiness Interests Learning Profile You can differentiate the… Content Process Product Learning Environment

22 Pre- Assessment Student Curriculum Process (how you teach— strategies, grouping) Content (what you teach) Product (assessment of content) Summative Evaluation

23 Differentiation Example While viewing the video clip, focus on the element that matches your number and list strategies used 1.Welcoming and safe environment 2.Ongoing assessment 3.Respectful work 4.Flexible grouping 5.How students respond 6.Classroom management

24 Differentiation Example 1.Get in groups with representatives from each element Discuss the strategies and ideas you saw 3.Discuss how these strategies translate into your own situations. What can you use? What changes might need to be made?

25 Explaining Differentiation 1.Within your PLC, divide the three articles by Heacox, Nunley, and Tomlinson so that each one is read 2.After reading, discuss with your PLC how you would define differentiation to parents. 3.How would you explain it to students?

26 Stations: Choose 1 Station 1 RAFT- Role Audience Format Topic Station 2 Tic-Tac- Toe Boards Learning Menus Station 3 Think Dots (variation on cubing)

27 Exit Card Name, subject, grade Areas in which I want to learn more (pick 3) Identifying Knows, Understands, and Dos Assessing interests Assessing learning profile Small group instruction Tiered instruction Independent Learning and Contracts Learning stations Adapting for students with IEPs, ELL students, or ELP students (specify which) Flexible grouping

28 Next steps: Provided multiple copies of books to support differentiation available in library for teacher check-out (Listed in resource section) Analyzed teacher choices on exit card and prepared to differentiate our September presentation, 3 hours Asked teachers to bring a laptop and a unit to work on with their curricular team

29 Session 2 overview 5-Intro : follow up on requests (pre-assessments and grading listed by most) and humorous pre-test examples 30-Pre-assessment ppt. At table, discuss 1-2 ways to incorporate pre-assessment. 45- Curriculum adaptations to support differentiation. Examples from all areas. Template. Try it out with a unit and then share at PLC. 10- Grading - Introduce Wormeli’s book. Will be reading sections as part of Professional Learning Communities Flexible grouping: What it is and then place teachers for work on choices from exit card 5- Wrap up. Differentiation bingo card challenge

30 Pre-Assessment

31 Why Plan for Pre-Assessment? Establishes the starting point for learning Students can’t learn what they already know Match instructional strategies to individual needs Saves learning time Ensure students have constant challenge Proves rationale for your teaching Differentiation is not defensible without it 31

32 Preassessment Tools End of unit test Open-ended question Journal Index card Mind map InventoriesLetterChecklistCharts Product or performance Interview or observation 32

33 Key Questions in Planning a Differentiated Unit 1.What are my unit objectives? 2.Do I need to differentiate this unit? 3.If so, when and where would work best (both for me and my students)? 4.How can I ensure that my differentiation is respectful? 5.Over time, are my differentiated practices balanced? Do I use a variety of differentiation techniques, including flexible grouping?

34 Geometry unit example

35 Template from Designing Services & Programs for High Abilty Learners, NAGC publication

36 Flexible Grouping Activity What: Tiered planning activity Who: individuals, pairs, or small groups Why: to increase the flexibility of groups

37 Directions Self-assessment: Do I do a lot with flexible groups or am I just starting out? Choose the activity that seems right for you. Read and follow the activity directions to plan some differentiated grouping strategies for an upcoming unit. (This activity allowed teachers to look at flexible grouping based on interest, learning profile, and readiness.)

38 Upcoming: Grading in the Differentiated Classroom In the book, Fair is Not Always Equal, there are ten practices to avoid when differentiating instruction and assessment. Read about practice #5 on pages Read about practice #5 on pages In your PLC next week, discuss and respond to these two questions. In your PLC next week, discuss and respond to these two questions. ①Which idea(s) in this reading connect with your work last year on formative and summative assessments? ②How could you apply an idea from this reading?

39 Bingo Cards Varied options for “playing” with differentiation For some of your PLC conversations, choose an option to work on and then discuss during your team time Different people within a PLC may choose different options The PLC can choose one to work on together

40 Bingo Card

41 October Differentiation Wiki is established so that teachers may turn in notes/questions from PLC’s. Staff developers may add articles and use comments to inform next in-service Plans for in-service: Intro on “The Greatest Teacher” with Julie Andrews- youtube video singing “DO-RE-MI” Grading in the our middle school Tiering Stations on adapting for special populations- Special Ed English Language Learners Gifted

42 “The Greatest Teacher”

43 Walk Around Survey

44 Walk-Around Survey for Use of Group Grades

45 Critical knowledge or skill More basic Original task More complex Tiered Assignments

46 Tiered assignments are the most prescriptive, learner-responsive, and sophisticated strategy for differentiation. -Heacox

47 Use a tiered assignment when students differ on... Developmental stages Developmental stages Readiness for learning Readiness for learning Learning preferences Learning preferences Amount of structure or support Amount of structure or support Amount of time, instruction or practice Amount of time, instruction or practice Reading skill or prior knowledge Reading skill or prior knowledge Whether instruction or a task is necessary or appropriate Whether instruction or a task is necessary or appropriate

48 Use a tiered assignment when you know... something will be too easy or hard for some students something will be too easy or hard for some students some students need more basic work or others need more complex work some students need more basic work or others need more complex work

49 What makes a well-designed tiered assignment?

50 Tiering by Level of Independence Task One: Ecosystems 1.Review the words in the word bank. 2.Identify the four ecosystems. 3.Determine which words are characteristics that describe each ecosystem. 4.Create your own chart, diagram, or graphic organizer to present each of the four different ecosystems and their characteristics.

51 Tiering by Level of Independence Task Two: Ecosystems 1.Review the words in the word bank. 2.Find the characteristics in the word bank that go with each ecosystem. 2.Find the characteristics in the word bank that go with each ecosystem. 3.Notice that the chart is divided into four sections, one for each ecosystem. Copy the characteristics in the box of the ecosystem it describes. ForestsWater DesertsGrasslands

52 Tiering by Level of Independence Task Three: Ecosystems 1.Review the words in the word bank. 2.Select the words from the word bank that match each ecosystem. 3.You have one graphic organizer for each ecosystem: forests, water, deserts, grasslands. The boxes on each organizer tell you how many facts you need to find for each ecosystem. Copy the words from the word bank onto the correct graphic organizer. Forests

53 Steps in Designing Tiered Assignments 1.Determine whether a tiered assignment is necessary. 1.Determine whether a tiered assignment is necessary. 2.Determine the most appropriate way to tier. 2.Determine the most appropriate way to tier. 3.Shop for ideas, then design, modify, or redesign tasks that provide "just right, right now" experiences. 4.Do a fairness check. tasks reflect different work, not just more or less tasks are equally active, engaging, and interesting tasks reflect equal demands on time tasks are clearly focused on a significant and critical learning goal 5.Determine which students need to be assigned to each tier. 6.Determine type of group (independent, partners, small). 7.Create work cards or directions sheets that can stand alone.

54 Tiering: 3 stations Teachers chose level at which they wanted assistance Packet with examples and instructions at each station Range from Basic to Complex. Analogy of how students feel when trying new task.

55 Adapting for special populations Chose small group to attend Video clips Student examples and feedback (What I wish teachers knew about me) Discussion / share modifications that work

56 PLC “Homework” Read the article on the web (link is on the Wiki) regarding differentiation through technology and answer the questions Due on Nov. 12 Exit Card (on Wiki) What have you learned that will be most useful to you? What have you implemented? What do you need more information about?

57 Exit Ticket: Learned Some of our pre-conceptions about differentiation were inaccurate. Tiered assignments are not always needed, l but we know when and how to use them. Tiers can help meet learning differences Planning lessons using tiering helps me see the application in my classroom. We can structure our tiering to be more manageable, had been too complex.

58 Exit Ticket: Used since last time: Student choice Tiers Graphic organizers Assessing student readiness Exit slips Tic-Tac-Toe board Differentiated in content and process

59 Exit Ticket: Need to Know How to successfully differentiate in a large class (60 plus for music) Grading for tiered assignments How does tiering work in a skills-based class like math? Timing- When to tier and the flow of the lesson More examples of successful tiering Setting up productive group work

60 November Answers to questions generated by teachers written by trainers and published in wiki Planning for next session- Follow up on management questions about how to successfully manage a differentiated classroom

61 Managing the Classroom November 18, 2010 Johnston Middle School As a result of today’s work, you should be able to describe develop routines to manage a differentiated classroom

62 Three Major Roles of Teachers 1)Making wise choices about the most effective instructional strategies to employ 2)Designing classroom curriculum to facilitate student learning 3)Making effective use of classroom management techniques Each of these components is critical to the creation of an effective classroom, but none in isolation will guarantee instructional effectiveness or student learning.

63 Management Hot Spots Work on your own to fill in the first column, “Hot Spot” areas you encounter or anticipate in managing a classroom where students are engaged in multiple activities or groups. Discuss with your PLC possible problem areas. Add to your Hot Spots list.

64 Video: Managing the Classroom As you watch the video use the sheet, “Plus-Minus- Questions” to… List ideas or approaches that seem positive or promising (+) in the first column. List ideas or approaches that seem negative or not as likely to work (–) in the second column. List questions you still have (?) in the third column.

65 Reflection From the Plus-Minus-Questions sheet, discuss with your PLC Possible Solutions (column 2 on Management Hot Spots sheet). Fill in possible solutions; those you could try in your classroom. Star (*) the ones you will try soon.

66 December: PLC (subject areas) 3x One day/week- each hour, different PLC groups Chance to share and discuss Review materials Discussion of strategies and tools used in differentiating the classroom Language arts teachers discussed how scaffolding helped with the writing assessment prompt. Additional structure/information was added to the same sheet as the original prompt. The sheet was handed to all students, but those who might need additional support were quietly urged to use the information Language arts teachers discussed how scaffolding helped with the writing assessment prompt. Additional structure/information was added to the same sheet as the original prompt. The sheet was handed to all students, but those who might need additional support were quietly urged to use the information The current Status Quo project all students are involved with has different product options based on interest, learning profile, and readiness The books Never Work Harder than your Students and Tomlinson’s new book Leading and Managing a Differentiated Classroom were referenced as great sources. Next week: Denise and Holly will discuss how the format of the reading lab could better assist struggling readers and Kate and Sara will talk about differentiation for the ELP students.

67 Another December PLC session: 5 th hour World Languages and PE/Consumer Science: French class looked at learning styles for a BINGO activity. She had 20 options that helped to format future work. Alice used learning styles for a project that gave students, once again, choice. (When students have options at times, they are often more willing work on the non-optional requirements.) PE uses a lot of choice but provides guidelines to make sure all students are exposed to curriculum. They incorporate an activity that consists of small parts, each with specific point values. The groups have to get to 31 points, with certain parameters. This promotes a lot of logical thinking also! Danyel presented (Family /Consumer Sci) a template for a unit on eating disorders, which she analyzed for differentiation. An obstacle is having time to differentiate lessons. Next time, there will be resources available and time to work.

68 January-February planning Teachers asked to sign up for one activity from the Differentiation Bingo Card that they will try and then report back to their peers the end of February. PLC continue to read and discuss materials. Topics for February in-service involve outside resources. Principal from nearby district to speak about their switch in grading to support differentiation, special ed coordinator, reading, and math specialist from district. School board members invited to view the session.

69 Bingo card (ASCD) with choices of teacher tasks: provide choice, design an anchor activity, pre-assess, use a graphic organizer, teach a lesson, scaffold a text, etc.

70 February session- 8:00-11:40 AM BINGO - Will switch every 3 minutes, 3 times per letter. Hand out copy of chart. Every one under letter B will share first. Use table tents to show topics. Facilitators switch tents for each new letter. BINGO - Will switch every 3 minutes, 3 times per letter. Hand out copy of chart. Every one under letter B will share first. Use table tents to show topics. Facilitators switch tents for each new letter. Common Assessments: Specialists leading discussion: what is working for you in your discipline, what questions do you still have, what can you use from today’s session? Principal from Waukee on assessments Common Assessments: Specialists leading discussion: what is working for you in your discipline, what questions do you still have, what can you use from today’s session? Principal from Waukee on assessments Technology-Training in future PLC groups by district tech specialist. “My Blackberry is not working”– BBC clip: Technology-Training in future PLC groups by district tech specialist. “My Blackberry is not working”– BBC clip:

71 Technology Clip

72 Final sessions: April 2 days, each PLC group NAGC Webinar on leadership in differentiation– show selected sections and then discuss. Used January 2011 Tomlinson/Imbeau webinar. ascd.org/professional- development/webinars/tomlinson-imbeau- webinar.aspx Staff checklist of differentiation skills Share strategies working

73 Staff (41) responses to Differentiation 41: Uses a variety of strategies 41: Uses a variety of strategies 34: Responds to student differences by reteaching/extending 34: Responds to student differences by reteaching/extending 31: Assignments tiered for students through different tasks/resources/ levels of challenge. 36: Some students complete modified/adapted tasks. 36: Some students complete modified/adapted tasks. 29: Activities reflect differences in readiness/interest/preferences. 29: Activities reflect differences in readiness/interest/preferences. 30: Technology used to create different experiences for some. 30: Technology used to create different experiences for some. 34: Using formal/informal preassessment. 34: Using formal/informal preassessment. 35: Gathering formative assessment data. 35: Purposefully grouping for activities. 35: Purposefully grouping for activities.

74 Staff responses continued 33: Student choice in content, process, or product. 38: Students choice to work alone/pair/small group. 38: Students choice to work alone/pair/small group. 20: Class resources have different depths of content. 20: Class resources have different depths of content. 22: Class resources have different reading levels. 16: Using anchor activities for students finished early. 16: Using anchor activities for students finished early. 28: Students begin independent work when ready. 28: Students begin independent work when ready. 14: Workstations represent a range of skill progressions. 14: Workstations represent a range of skill progressions. 10: Workstation print resources at different levels. 10: Workstation print resources at different levels. 14: Students assigned to specific stations/tasks.

75 Summary 20 hours of in-service time Focus for entire year- built upon past literacy initiatives, assessments. Link into district initiative for Fishers’ Framework for Learning, which advocates for differentiation through gradual release. Continue to survey students/ teachers Information available- More teachers asking for assistance. Monthly differentiation bulletin provided. Resources checked out.

76 Fall 2011 Survey of 70 Ninth grade students: What have you experienced THIS year? 61____Pre-assessment 64____ Formative assessment (checking for understanding through an informal quiz, exit slips, etc.) 55____ Tiered assignments (different levels of same assignment are provided for different learners) 24____ Compacting (eliminating work that student has already demonstrated mastery) 70____ Student choice in projects/product/ process 54____Independent study 49___Flexible grouping (rotate in and out of a small group of students within a class) 59____ Advanced or adapted content materials 32____Workstations/Learning centers 64____Techniques involving technology (using technology to change or adapt the way you show learning)

77 Fall 2011 Middle School Teachers (20) Survey Strategies used THIS school year: 18____Pre-assessment 17____ Formative assessment (checking for understanding through an informal quiz, exit slips, etc.) 14____ Tiered assignments (different levels of same assignment are provided for different learners) 3____ Compacting (eliminating work that student has already demonstrated mastery) 19____ Student choice in projects/product/ process 7____Independent study 13___Flexible grouping (rotate in and out of a small group of students within a class) 19____ Advanced or adapted content materials 11____Workstations/Learning centers 16____Techniques involving technology (using technology to change or adapt the way you show learning)

78 Which works best? Choice Flexible Grouping TieringPre-assessment Formative Assessment

79 Fall 2011 Middle School 8 th grade students (90) Survey Strategies used THIS school year: 87___ Pre-tests 65___ Formative assessment (checking for understanding through an informal quiz, exit slips, etc.) 25___ Tiered assignments (different levels of same assignment are provided for different learners) 22___ Compacting (eliminating work that student has already demonstrated mastery) 82___ Student choice in projects/product/ process 73___Independent study 60___Flexible grouping - rotate in and out of a small group of students within a class 50___ Advanced or adapted content materials 59___Workstations/Learning centers 70___Techniques involving technology - using technology to change or adapt the way you show learning

80 Which works best? 8 th grade responses Choice Independent study Pre-test Flexible grouping Compacting Formative assessment Advanced content

81 Fall 2011 Middle School 9 th grade students (70) Survey Strategies used THIS school year: 61___ Pre-tests 64___ Formative assessment (checking for understanding through an informal quiz, exit slips, etc.) 55___ Tiered assignments (different levels of same assignment are provided for different learners) 24___ Compacting (eliminating work that student has already demonstrated mastery) 70___ Student choice in projects/product/ process 54___Independent study 49___Flexible grouping - rotate in and out of a small group of students within a class 59___ Advanced or adapted content materials 32___Workstations/Learning centers 64___Techniques involving technology - using technology to change or adapt the way you show learning

82 Which works best? 9 th grade responses Choice Tiered assignments Techniques involving technology Advanced materials Pre-tests

83 How has your teaching changed as a result of training? More student-centered More student-centered Better able to address student needs Better able to address student needs Created new assignments to meet needs More effective to meet all learners More effective to meet all learners Use pre-testing and formative data to see where students are and where they need to be Use pre-testing and formative data to see where students are and where they need to be Have looked at how my students learn best

84 References Related to Differentiation Allen, Linda. Differentiated Assessment and Grading. Peterborough, NH: Staff Development for Educators, Cash, Richard. Advancing Differentiation. Minneapolis: Free Spirit Publishing, Cash, Richard. Advancing Differentiation. Minneapolis: Free Spirit Publishing, Chapman, Carolyn and Rita King. Differentiated Instructional Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press, (Similar titles for writing and social studies.) Coleman, Mary Ruth. “The Importance of Cluster Grouping”. Gifted Child Quarterly. January/February Gregory, Gayle and Carolyn Chapman. Differentiated Instructional Strategies. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press, Gregory, Gayle and Carolyn Chapman. Differentiated Instructional Strategies. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press, Gregory, Gayle. Differentiated Instructional Strategies In Practice. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press, Gregory, Gayle. Differentiated Instructional Strategies In Practice. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press, Gregory, Gayle and Lin Kuzmich. Data Driven Differentiation in the Standards-Based Classroom. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press, Heacox, Diane. Differentiating Instruction in the Regular Classroom. Minneapolis: Free Spirit, Heacox, Diane. Differentiating Instruction in the Regular Classroom. Minneapolis: Free Spirit, 2002.

85 References, continued. Heacox, Diane. Making Differentiation a Habit. Minneapolis: Free Spirit, Hollas, Betty. Differentiating Instruction in a Whole-Group Setting gr Petersborough, NH: SDE, Kingore, Bertie. Centers in Minutes. Austin, Texas: Professional Associates Publishing Kingore, Bertie. Differentiation: Simplified, Realistic, and Effective. Austin, Texas: Professional Associates Publishing *Nunley, Kathie F. Differentiating in the High School Classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Reis, Sally, Debra Burns, and Joseph Renzulli. Curriculum Compacting: The Complete Guide to Modifying the Regular Curriculum for High Ability Students. Mansfield Center: CT: Creative Learning Press, Strickland, Cindy A. Professional Development for Differentiating Instruction. Alexandria: ASCD, 2009.

86 References, continued. *Tomlinson, Carol Ann and Caroline Eidson. Differentiation in Practice, Grades 5-9. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, (Also one for grades K-5 and 9- 12) *Tomlinson, Carol Ann and Caroline Eidson. Differentiation in Practice, Grades 5-9. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, (Also one for grades K-5 and 9- 12) *Tomlinson, Carol Ann. Fulfilling the Promise of the Differentiated Classroom, Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Tomlinson, Carol Ann. How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed- Ability Classrooms, 2 nd ed. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Tomlinson, Carol Ann. How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed- Ability Classrooms, 2 nd ed. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, *Winebrenner, Susan. Teaching Gifted Kids in the Regular Classroom, 2 nd ed. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit, (Also Teaching Kids with Learning Difficulties) Wormeli, Rick. Differentiation from Planning to Practice gr Portland, Maine: Stenhouse Publishers, *Wormeli, Rick. Fair Isn’t Always Equal. Portland, Maine: Stenhouse Publishers, *Wormeli, Rick. Fair Isn’t Always Equal. Portland, Maine: Stenhouse Publishers, *Purchased multiple copies for professional library


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