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Module 3: Heavy Equipment. Overview of Module 3 Introduction, Types Of Heavy Equipment Hazards Associated with Heavy Equipment Injury / Illness Prevention.

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Presentation on theme: "Module 3: Heavy Equipment. Overview of Module 3 Introduction, Types Of Heavy Equipment Hazards Associated with Heavy Equipment Injury / Illness Prevention."— Presentation transcript:

1 Module 3: Heavy Equipment

2 Overview of Module 3 Introduction, Types Of Heavy Equipment Hazards Associated with Heavy Equipment Injury / Illness Prevention For Heavy Equipment Operations Summary Applicable Standards

3 Heavy Equipment Examples of heavy equipment: –Excavating equipment –Lifting equipment –Loading and hauling equipment –Compaction equipment –Grading and finishing equipment –Paving and surface treatment equipment Integral part of roadway construction/maintenance

4 Excavating Equipment Backhoes (used for surface or subsurface excavation of soft soils and sludge) Excavators (large backhoes, hydraulic powered) Front – End Loaders (self- contained unit mounted on rubber tires or tracks; can be equipped to operate as a loader, dozer, scraper, clamshell, forklift, backhoe, crane, auger, or sweeper) Excavator Front - end loader

5 Lifting Equipment Cranes are the most commonly used lifting equipment Cranes are used for raising, shifting and lowering loads They use projecting swinging arm or hoisting apparatus supported on an overhead truck Crane

6 Loading and Hauling Equipment Loaders –Used to excavate and move soft materials and load/unload trucks Dozer (Bulldozer): –Used for pushing and pulling loads typically in earthwork operations and demolition work Scrapers –Used for loading, hauling, dumping, and spreading loose materials Dump Trucks –Most common type of hauling equipment due to their versatility. Wagons –Earth moving trailers pulled by tractors

7 Loader Dozer WagonDump truck Scraper Loading and Hauling Equipment

8 Compaction Equipment Rollers: –Used for compacting road materials like soil, aggregates and bituminous mixtures Commonly used rollers are: –Static steel-wheeled rollers –Vibratory steel-wheeled rollers –Pneumatic rollers Steel Wheeled Roller Pneumatic Tire Roller

9 Grading and Finishing Equipment Graders: Multi-purpose equipment used for: –Finishing –Shaping –Bank sloping –Ditching –Mixing –Spreading –Side casting –Leveling and crowning –Site striping operations –Earth road maintenance Grader

10 Paving and Surface Treatment Equipment Heavy equipment typically used in pavement and surface treatment operations are: –Aggregate spreaders –Asphalt distributors, asphalt kettles –Asphalt pavers –Rotary power brooms –Blowers or water sprays –Pavement profilers Asphalt Distributor Pavement Profiler

11 General Hazards Poor repairs or service Obstructed view in backing Dirty or broken windows can block operators’ view of hazards

12 General Hazards Striking people and collision with other equipment Pinch points between equipment and objects Worker under equipment

13 General Hazards Riders falling off equipment or bucket Overturning of equipment Traveling empty at excessive speeds Over turned truck

14 General Hazards Unexpected electrical shock (e.g. overhead and underground power lines) Failure of lifting mechanisms/operational failures Ingress/egress difficulties Runaway machines ( Not blocking wheels upon parking or operator’s inability to control) Being struck by limbs of trees or other overhead obstructions, and by moving equipment Nearby Power Lines and Trees Risk of Hitting Power Line

15 Collision accident

16 Tip over accident

17 Rollover accident


19 Injury/Illness Prevention for Heavy Equipment Operations Safety rules for equipment operators Service and repairs Safety check for heavy equipment Safe operation around heavy equipment Other safety measures (using personal protective equipment, area and terrain hazards, unattended equipment) Safety measures for specific heavy equipment

20 Safety Rules for Equipment Operators Only authorized persons should operate the heavy equipment (with appropriate training and/or licenses) Operators should know and understand the limitations of the machinery. They should follow safe operating procedures, utilize safety features, and heed the manufacturer ’ s warnings Operators should notify their supervisors when they are sick, fatigued, or taking medication that may affect their ability to safely operate machinery

21 Safety Checks for Heavy Equipment Before the start of each shift, the operator should use a check list and do the following: –Approach equipment, walk fully around it and look for hazards –Check lights, tires, suspension and steering system, fluid levels, exterior hoses and filters. Look for unguarded moving parts or other unsafe conditions. –Inside the cab, remove trash, make sure windows are clean, adjust mirrors, check fire extinguisher, turn on all exterior lights, make sure seatbelt is ready to use. –Start engine; check gauges and warning lights; check engine sounds. –Before moving, warn people in the area; test equipment’s movements; make sure back up alarms can be heard.

22 Safe Operation Around Heavy Equipment On-foot workers should be trained to work safely around the equipment –Wear high visibility clothing –Do not assume operators can see you Signal person may be used to assist the operator Good communication is essential –Use standardized hand signals –Use walkie-talkies (two-way-radios) Keep back up alarms working properly at all times This worker is clearly visible!

23 Hand Signals

24 Other Safety Measures Heavy equipment must be equipped with a rollover protective measures (e.g. outriggers).  Use seat belt and required PPE when operating your equipment (e.g. hard hats, gloves, steel toe shoes, reflective clothing) Use appropriate hearing protection when working on or around loud equipment. Do not wear loose fitting clothes that may caught in moving parts Types of Hearing Protection Proper seat belt use on equipment

25 Other Safety Measures Never jump onto or off the equipment (three point rule: having both feet and one hand, or one foot and both hands in contact with the ladder access all the time) Never operate any of the controls from any position except the operator’s seat Never permit anyone to ride on the equipment Never refuel when the engine is running DO NOT SMOKE when refueling Worker with Hearing Protection

26 Other Safety Measures Be aware of area and terrain! –Stumps, rocks, and hidden debris can cause overturns –Watch for low tree limbs; they can knock an operator off the equipment –Inspect banks and slopes for stability –Plan path of travel downhill on steep slopes –Beware of wet or icy surfaces –Never take shortcuts –Check the area for underground utilities and overhead power lines Trees, traffic signals & power lines in close proximity Temporary road near edge of embankment

27 Other Safety Measures When equipment is left unattended make sure that: –All elevated work surfaces such as buckets and lifts are lowered –All moving parts are disengaged and their motion has stopped –Transmission is in appropriate parking position –Engine is off, and vehicle is secure –Equipment is secure against movement Heavy equipment on bridge project

28 Safety Measures for Specific Heavy Equipment For crane operations: Never hoist any unknown weights When handling a heavy load, raise it a few inches first to ensure whether the load is balanced Before hoisting near-capacity load, keep the hoisting line vertical Dual lift shall be done with only supervision Note that coverage is limited here. For detailed information refer to OSHA standard (Subpart N 1926.550) for cranes.

29 Safety Measures for Specific Heavy Equipment For asphalt paving operations: Make sure fire-extinguishing equipment (foam type) is present at all times. Ensure that asphalt distributor or asphalt kettle are in a level position (before heating) and are located at a safe distance from buildings and any flammable materials. Avoid exposure to fumes from hot bituminous material-stay on the windward side. Wear gloves and full body clothing to avoid prolonged skin contact or burns from hot bituminous material

30 Case Study Worker Run Over By a Dump Truck (Source: Minnesota FACE Report No. 92MN007)

31 Case Study: Facts A member of a highway paving crew died from being run over by a rear end dump truck that was backing up The dump trucks were hauling/unloading concrete to a paver for spreading Victim was guiding drivers of several dump trucks while repositioning their vehicles Victim died from loss of excessive blood

32 Case Study: Operation and Initial Circulation Pattern of Dump Trucks Dump trucks drove towards the paver, turned around in a blacktopped area, and proceeded backwards to the paver where they dumped their concrete load Trucks drove away on the left side, opposite to normal traffic patterns Dump Trucks Paver Turn-a-round

33 Case Study: Paver had advanced to a position where the blacktopped area could no longer be used by trucks to make the turn-a-round A new circulation pattern was to be used to access the paver –Trucks waiting in line had to reposition themselves –Victim was guiding the truck movements

34 Case Study: Incident Details Victim was asked to instruct the drivers of dump trucks waiting in line to a different position –Victim was behind Truck 1 (see next slide) and gave the signal to back up –At the same time another truck (Truck 2) was pulling up to join the line of trucks –As victim was signaling Truck 2 to stop, he entered the blind spot of the driver of Truck 1 and was in the vehicle’s path –Truck 1’s back-up alarm was operational and the driver of Truck 2 was trying to warm the worker Victim was hit by Truck 1and was pushed 14 feet on the blacktop

35 Case Study: Intended Route of Backing Truck at Time of Incident Truck 1Truck 2 Victim Paver Turn-a-round

36 Case Study: NIOSH Recommendations Workers should direct only traffic moving in one direction on busy, noisy construction sites In employee safety training, include information about human inaccuracy in estimating the arrival time of a moving vehicle Equip trucks used on construction sites with rearview sonar which alarms drivers of close proximity to objects behind them

37 Applicable Standards OSHA – Construction –1926.600, Motor vehicles, mechanized equipment and marine operations. –1926.601, Motor vehicles. –1926.602, Material handling equipment. MIOSHA – Section B Construction –CS Part 10, Lifting and digging equipment –CS Part 13, Mobile equipment –CS Part 25, Concrete construction CALOSHA – Subchapter 4 Construction Safety –Article 9, Derricks, Cranes, Boom-Type Excavators (Section 1581-1589) –Article 10, Haulage and Earth Moving (Sections 1590-1596)

38 Summary of Module Various types of heavy equipment are used in highway construction projects Large machinery operating in confined area with potential threat of: –Striking on-foot worker due to vision restrictions/inattention –Striking overhead/underground power lines –Being involved in collision with other equipment

39 Summary of Module General safety precautions covered in this module are applicable to all heavy equipment –Specific operating instructions and warnings should be carefully reviewed Understanding the hazards associated with heavy equipment and their injury prevention techniques are critical to improve worker safety


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