Presentation on theme: "FOCUS CALENDAR: FCAT Testing Clusters: Draws Conclusions (3-5) Makes and Confirms Inferences (3-5) “… All learning depends on the ability to question,"— Presentation transcript:
FOCUS CALENDAR: FCAT Testing Clusters: Draws Conclusions (3-5) Makes and Confirms Inferences (3-5) “… All learning depends on the ability to question, reason, formulate ideas, pose hypotheses, and exchange ideas with others.” -A. Browne (1996)
Clarifying the Benchmarks The Benchmarks: Reads text and determines the main idea or essential message; identifies relevant supporting details and facts, and arranges events in chronological order. (LA.A.2.2.1 Grades 3-5) Definition: Draw Conclusions: uses background knowledge and text information to form an opinion regarding information not given in a text; specifically able to draw conclusion, when, why, or something happened or who was involved in an action. Infers: combines prior knowledge and information found in texts to predict or make a judgment. Good readers often make inferences or draw conclusions based on the information they have. If they see a big tent and there are clowns standing outside, they would probably think that there is a circus in town. What they think is happening may not always be correct, but they make the best guesses-or inferences-they can from the information they have.
What Is Inferring, the Cornerstone of Comprehension? A reader makes logical connections to their personal trove of background experiences and knowledge to determine what the author is implying. A proficient reader makes inferences by “reading between the lines” to match his or her experiences and knowledge with relevant clues or hints provided by the author.
Let’s Try Inferring Together… “It seemed that the pitch had barely left the southpaw’s hand when the ballpark resounded with a loud thwack. Morgan dropped his head in dejection as Ramirez began to trot the bases.” What just happened here? What is the author implying without directly stating it? What clues did you use to figure things out?
There are many types of inferences we make as we read. Can you write some clues for each type? Location Figuring out a place from clues given Agent Deciding an occupation or role Time Determining when things occurred Category Classifying names or ideas into different groups
Other types of inferences we make as we read. Can we write clues for each type? Object Confirming the item being talked about Cause-Effect Deciding the reason why something occurred Problem-Solution Deciding how the problem could be solved. Feelings-Attitudes Deciding why someone is acting in a certain way.
What Is “Drawing Conclusions?” A reader’s conclusions make up an overall sense of what a reading selection means. After making some inferences, readers look for connections among their inferences and observations. The connections lead to conclusions. It’s like seeing the big picture after putting the puzzle pieces together!
Let’s Practice Drawing Conclusions! What might you conclude if you read a report that pointed out that the bald eagle is listed as an endangered animal in 43 states? Conclusions might include 1.) that the bald eagle is considered worth protecting or 2.) that the bald eagle is in danger of dying out. The report also explains the many reasons for the deaths of the bald eagle as well. What might you conclude from this information? Conclusions might include 1.) that people have been investigating the causes of deaths or 2.) that correcting the problem will probably not be easy.
More Practice Read the story and answer the questions by drawing conclusions
Maria opened her eyes and ran to the window. No, she thought, she hadn't been dreaming. Everything in front of her eyes looked unfamiliar. Instead of the bright warm sun, there were gray, cold-looking skies. There was harsh, loud noise everywhere. And she could see no warm, blue-green sea off in the distance. She thought to herself, "What is this strange new world I have come to? Suddenly, Maria heard her aunt's voice calling her. She rushed quickly to the other room. She hoped that seeing her aunt would make her feel more at home here in the United States. "Well, Maria," her aunt asked, "how did you sleep your first night here?" She spoke a little slowly so that Maria wouldn't have trouble understanding her. Maria waited a moment to answer. She wanted to say everything correctly. Soon she would be in school, where she could work on her English--she wanted to be the best in her class, just as she had been back home! "Very well," she said, smiling in surprise at how clear her words sounded.
1.Where do you think Maria is? A. in school B. in her bedroom C. at the beach D. in a strange place
2. What kind of place has she recently come from? A. one like the northern United States B. a cold, snowy place C. a hot place D. a quiet place near the sea
How does Maria feel about speaking English? A. like she’ll never learn English B. a little uncertain C. very confident
What will Maria be doing while she’s here? A. planting flowers B. swimming C. participating in the Olympics D. going to school
5. Where could Maria be from? A. New York B. Alaska C. France D. New Mexico
Self-questioning helps readers construct meaning, and draw conclusions Questioning and inferring work in tandem to enhance the understanding of text. - Harvey and Goudvis Strategies That Work
Sample Question Stems: What conclusions can be drawn about…? Support your answer with information and details from the passage. What conclusions can be drawn from the fact that…? What examples can you find to support the conclusion that…? What facts would you select to show that…? What facts justify the conclusion that…? Finish the sentence stems with statements that you could use with topics or content that your students read in your subject.
Learn to Think…Think to Learn Effective questioning helps students… 1. make predictions, 2. give reasons, 3. distinguish fact from opinion, 4. determine bias, & 5. check the validity of evidence Students remember when asked to… brainstorm new ideas, think up solutions to problems, weigh pros &cons, make decisions, & debate evidence. Teaching Students To Think Analytically!
Making Predictions: Before Reading : Have students make predictions or “educated guesses” about what’s to come in a text by looking at the title, subtitles, headings, illustrations, graphics and captions. During Reading: Revise predictions based on asking yourself “What new information did I find?” and “How should I change my predictions to make them more accurate?” Then ask yourself “What new predictions can I make?” After Reading : Confirm all predictions by finding and citing evidence and details from the entire passage.
Use Critical Thinking to Distinguish Statements of Fact, Opinion, and Probability. Statements of fact can be proved or disproved. They are either true or false. Statements of opinion tell what someone likes or dislikes or what they value or believe about something or someone. Statements of probability are guesses or predictions about the future.
Let’s try it…Tell if the statement is Fact, Opinion, or Probability. 1. American Indians made pottery and handicrafts. 2. American Indians made beautiful pottery and handicrafts. 3. The Navajo and Sioux were part of the Grand Council Fire of American Indians. 4. Greater numbers of automobiles will be engineered to produce more fuel efficiency due to the scarcity of oil production world-wide. 5. Physical education classes should be compulsory throughout a student’s school years. 6. According to the UNESCO charter, the practice of physical education and sport is a fundamental right for all students. 7. Expanding the use of snowmobiles and off-road vehicles in national parks will jeopardize wildlife and natural habitats.
Verifying the Facts: FACTS are verifiable with… 1. definitions and can be proved with a dictionary… 2. observations and can be verified by observing. 3. consulting a reliable source such as a reference book or knowledgeable person. A. Lobsters molt or shed their shells many times as they mature. B. When lobsters are cooked, their shells turn bright red. C. Lobsters are crustaceans. Match the statement below with the method you would use to verify the fact:
Synthesizing Information, Constructing Meaning, and Drawing Conclusions “Proficient readers use images to draw conclusions, to create distinct and unique interpretations of the text, to recall details significant to the text, and to recall a text after it has been read.” ~ Ellin Keene, Mosaic of Thought
What Does It Look Like on FCAT ? 3rd Grade Item Type – Multiple Choice Passage Attributes Passages maybe literary text or informational text The passage will include one or more of the following: - a stated or strongly implied main idea _ a stated or strongly implied essential message _ details or facts that support the main idea or essential message - chronological order or other sequence of events
3rd Response Attributes Multiple Choice- Distracters may include, but or not limited to, the following: Facts or details that are drawn form the passage but are not main ideas Events that are drawn from the passage and presented out of order Plausible but incorrect responses based on the text
What Does It Look Like on FCAT? 4th Grade Item Type – multiple Choice Passage Attributes □ Passages maybe literary text or informational text □ The passage will include one or more of the following: - a stated or strongly implied main idea _ a stated or strongly implied essential message _ details or facts that support the main idea or essential message - chronological order or other sequence of events
4 rd Response Attributes Multiple Choice- Distracters may include, but or not limited to, the following: □ Facts or details that are drawn from the passage but are not main ideas □ Facts or details that are drawn from the passage but are mot significant □ Events that are drawn from the passage and presented out of order □ Inferences not supported by the text □ Plausible but incorrect responses based on the text Short Response/Extended Response- items will be scored with a holistic rubric that identifies the performance criteria for each score point
What Does It Look Like on FCAT? 5th Grade Item Type – multiple Choice Passage Attributes □ Passages maybe literary text or informational text □ The passage will include one or more of the following: - a stated or strongly implied main idea _ a stated or strongly implied essential message _ details or facts that support the main idea or essential message - chronological order or other sequence of events
5 rd Response Attributes □ Multiple Choice- Distracters may include, but or not limited to, the following: □ Facts or details that are drawn from the passage but are not main ideas □ Facts or details that are drawn from the passage but are mot significant □ Events that are drawn from the passage and presented out of order □ Inferences not supported by the text □Plausible but incorrect responses based on the text □ Short Response/Extended Response- items will be scored with a holistic rubric that identifies the performance criteria for each score point
Key Question Phrases: □ What is the main idea of this story or article? □ What is the best title for the story? □ What is this story mostly about? □ What is the most important lesson….? □ What would be a good summary of this story?
Lesson Connections for Inferring and Synthesizing From the authors of Strategies That Work by Stephanie Harvey and Anne Goudvis this website has its all: Definitions, Posters, and Lesson Web Resources and Lessons. You can also select the best level for your students by choosing lesson resources by 1) Primary, 2) Intermediate, or 2) Upper. Click on me!