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Behavior Management: Applications for Teachers (5th Ed.) Thomas J. Zirpoli Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 CHAPTER 13: SPECIFIC BEHAVIOR CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES
Behavior Management: Applications for Teachers (5th Ed.) Thomas J. Zirpoli Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 CHAPTER OVERVIEW This chapter focuses on specific challenging behaviors that are commonly problematic to children, parents, and teachers. These behaviors include behaviors related to conduct (disruptive and oppositional defiant behaviors, noncompliance, aggression, bullying, and temper tantrums), to attention and activity (inattentive, hyperactive, impulsivity, and stereotypy), and to mood (separation anxiety and depression).
Behavior Management: Applications for Teachers (5th Ed.) Thomas J. Zirpoli Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 CHAPTER OUTLINE I.Introduction II.Behaviors Related to Conduct A. Disruptive and oppositional defiant behaviors 1. Common causes and antecedents of disruptive and oppositional defiant behavior a.Deficits in learned behavior b.Deficits in school readiness skills c.Deficits in curriculum and teaching strategies 2.Interventions for disruptive and oppositional behavior a.Functional assessment b.Early intervention c.Avoid pitfalls d.Teaching self-discipline skills e.School wide and classroom rules B.Noncompliant behavior 1.Common causes and antecedents of noncompliant behavior a.Teacher-student interactions b.Parent-child interactions 2.Interventions for noncompliant behavior a.Functional assessment b.Teach compliance c.School wide and classroom rules C.Aggressive behavior 1.Common causes and antecedents of aggressive behavior a.Developmental b.Modeled aggressive behavior c.Media influence d.Social skills deficits 2.Interventions for aggression a. Functional assessment b.School wide and classroom rules D.Bullying behavior 1.Common causes and antecedents of bullying behavior 2.Interventions for bullying behavior E.Temper tantrum behavior 1.Common causes and antecedents of tantrum behavior 2.Interventions for tantrum behavior
Behavior Management: Applications for Teachers (5th Ed.) Thomas J. Zirpoli Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 CHAPTER OUTLINE III.Behaviors Related to Attention and Activity A. Inattentive behavior 1.Common causes and antecedents of inattentive behavior a.Genetics b.Learning to be attentive 2.Interventions for inattentive behavior a.Teach attentive behavior b.Teach self-instruction and monitoring skills B.Hyperactive behavior 1.Common causes and antecedents of hyperactive behavior a.Environmental factors b.Parent-student interactions 2.Interventions for hyperactivity a.Teach appropriate social skills C.Impulsive behavior 1.Common causes and antecedents of impulsive behavior a.Multiple factors b.Failure to self-monitor c.Parent-child interactions 2.Interventions for impulsive behavior a.Teach waiting and self-control skills b.Give smaller and shorter tasks one at a time\ D.Stereotypic behavior 1.Self-stimulatory behavior a.Common causes and antecedents of self-stimulatory behavior 2.Self-injurious behavior a.Common causes and antecedents of self-injurious behavior 3.Interventions for stereotypic behavior IV.Behaviors Related to Separation Anxiety and Depression A.Separation anxiety 1. Common causes and antecedents of separation anxiety 2.Interventions for separation anxiety B.Depression 1. Common causes and antecedents of depression 2.Interventions for depression
Behavior Management: Applications for Teachers (5th Ed.) Thomas J. Zirpoli Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 5 CHAPTER SUMMARY Throughout this chapter we have attempted to give you a brief overview of common challenging behaviors that teachers and others are confronted with in the school and other settings. Typical challenging behaviors demonstrated by students and adolescents include disruptiveness, oppositional defiant behaviors, noncompliance, agressiveness, bullying, temper tantrums, inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. In addition to these externalizing behaviors, separation anxiety, depression and sterotypy may also be observed by teachers. For each of these challenging behaviors we provided a brief discussion on (a) typical observable, measurable behaviors; (b) common causes and antecedent stimuli; and (c) ideas for interventions to teach, promote, and support acceptable behaviors. It is suggested that effective interventions be designed based on data from functional assessment since all behavior has a purpose. Once the function of behavior has been determined, teachers and parents will find their work to develop an effective intervention simplified. In addition, since all students are observed to engage in some level of prosocial behavior, we promote the reinforcement of pro-social behaviors as a means to replace and eliminate inappropriate behaviors. We hoped to provide teachers with ideas for helping their students to learn how to manage their own behavior and consequently experience academic and social success.
Behavior Management: Applications for Teachers (5th Ed.) Thomas J. Zirpoli Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 6 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS FROM TEXT Read the following paragraph and answer the questions that follow. Carla, a 13-year-old seventh grader, is repeatedly truant from school. When asked what she does when she does not attend school, Carla replies that she has a tough time getting out of bed in the morning. She figures that since she will be late for her first class and will get a tardy slip she may as well just blow off the entire school day. Her teachers and counselors have tried to talk to her about this and maintain that it is in fact better to be late fore the first hour than to miss the whole day. Her homeroom teacher has even tried to help Carla by calling her in the morning to get her out of bed. Carla answers the phone, says “thanks for calling,” replies that she will get up, and then goes back to sleep. Punishing Carla with detention and failing grades has not been effective in helping her to change her behavior. 1.What do you suppose is the main behavior problem demonstrated by Carla? What category of behavior problem does this behavior fall under? 2.If you were to conduct a functional assessment of Carla’s behavior, what might the hypothesis statement look like? 3.Develop a list of possible interventions that you would predict to be effective in helping Carla develop replacement behaviors for her truant behavior.
Behavior Management: Applications for Teachers (5th Ed.) Thomas J. Zirpoli Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 7 ADDITIONAL DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1. For each of the behaviors outlined in this chapter, give examples of specific examples observed in your classroom. 2. Discuss the influence of the media on aggression and other behaviors listed in this chapter. How may strong parents influence this influence? 3.How may community conferencing, as described in Classroom Connection 13.2, work in your school? 4.What do you think of Maria’s response to Michael’s mother in Classroom Connection 13.3?
Behavior Management: Applications for Teachers (5th Ed.) Thomas J. Zirpoli Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 8 Table 13.1. Examples of Target Behaviors for Physical and Verbal Aggression. Examples of Physical Aggression: Examples of Physical Aggression: Kicking: A student uses his or her foot/feet to make contact with another’s body in a manner that inflicts discomfort, pain, and/or injury. Hitting: A student uses his or her hand(s) (i.e., open or in a fist) to strike another person’s body with the intention of inflicting discomfort, pain, and/or injury. Spitting: A student projects saliva onto another person, which causes the other person’s body parts or clothing to become wet. (Note that sometimes students may pretend to spit on another. Even though no saliva is actually projected, the behavior is considered aggressive because it may result in the same effect—degradation and discomfort on the part of the other person.) Biting: The student’s teeth make contact with another’s skin and cause discomfort, pain, and/or injury. Grabbing/holding: A student forcibly takes another person with his or her hand(s) and then inhibits the movement of the other in a manner that results in discomfort, pain, and/or injury. Fighting: Two or more students are engaged in hitting, kicking, grabbing, and/or holding behavior, which may result in one or more students falling to the ground or being shoved against a structure (e.g., wall, door, ledge, cupboard). This behavior results in discomfort, pain, and/or injury to the aggressor and aggressee. Throwing: A student directs materials (e.g., book, pencil, objects, furniture, papers) towards a person by sending the object through the air with a motion of the hand or arm. This is considered aggressive behavior (a) if the prerequisite body language is present and (b) whether or not the object actually strikes the targeted person causing pain or injury—the intention is enough to consider the behavior to be aggressive. Examples of Verbal Aggression: Bossy behavior: The student commands others in a demanding tone. Teasing others: The student makes fun of another person(s) by verbally expressing words that result in emotional discomfort, pain, and/or injury of the other person. The other person demonstrates his or her feelings of hurt by crying, running away, verbal aggression, and/or pretending to ignore the aggressor. Tattling: The student repeatedly reports on trivial behaviors of others that are not endangering others to an adult who is in authority (e.g., teacher, paraprofessional). An example would be a student who reports to the teacher that “Billy is pulling Susan’s hair” in an exaggerated tone of voice. Nonconstructively criticizing the work of others: The student puts down the work of others using condescending terms (e.g., “That’s a stupid idea”), which results in the other person expressing hurt feelings or anger. Picking on others: The student says things to another person that emphasize a perceived fault of the other (e.g., “Hey, Angela, look at Jose. He can’t even do these baby math problems!”), which results in the person feeling humiliation, hurt, and/or anger. Behaviors of the person being picked on that demonstrate these feelings include a dejected look, verbal retorts, and/or anger outbursts. Making sarcastic remarks: The student uses phrases to comment on another’s appearance, performance, and so on, that are derogatory in nature and result in emotional discomfort and/or pain in the person to whom the remarks were directed. The remarks are generally made in a sarcastic tone of voice (e.g., words exaggerated, nasty tone). An example of a sarcastic remark is “Don’t count on Barbara to show up. She always has more important things to do,” which is voiced in a nasty tone of voice. Sarcastic remarks can also be made in a pleasant tone of voice, but the result is that the other person is hurt.
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