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Writing and Reading Poetry

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1 Writing and Reading Poetry
Tonja L. Root, Ed. D. & Margie Tullos, M. Ed. Early Childhood & Reading Education Valdosta State University Valdosta, GA

2 What is Poetry? “…writing that formulates a concentrated imaginative awareness of experience in language chosen and arranged to create a specific emotional response through meaning, sound, and rhythm” -Webster’s Dictionary

3 The Poet Says A poem is a part of me A part of me you do not see.
You see my head. You see my hind. But you can’t see what’s in my mind.

4 So I must write that part of me
The part of me you cannot see. I take some paper, A pencil or pen, To write what’s in my mind, and then . . .

5 You have a poem To read and . . . See! I’ve given you A part of me.
Hadusiewicz, B.B. Poetry works. Cleveland: Modern Curriculum Press.

6 Inside a Poem It doesn’t always have to rhyme,
but there’s the repeat of a beat, somewhere an inner chime that makes you want to tap your feet or swerve in a curve; a lilt, a leap, a lightening-split-- thunderstruck the consonants jut, while the vowels open wide as waves in the noon-blue sea.

7 You hear with your heals, your eyes feel
what they never touched before: fins on a bird, feathers on a deer; taste all colors, inhale memory and tomorrow and always the tang is today. Merriam, E. (1967). An invitation to poetry. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley.

8 Vital Question If a poem doesn’t rhyme— How do you know It’s a poem?
If it’s about sunsets and flowers, well okay. But some of them might be about termites, and rats, Cockroaches, earwigs, bedbugs and silverfish, Battalions of cooties, And are more like the exterminator’s report Than a poem. So how do you know it’s a poem If it doesn’t rhyme? --Jeremy Bloom (Korman)

9 Definition A poem. Rhyme salad, Chopped by the word processor,
Garnished with pictures, Sprinkled with adjectives, Tossed by a poet-chef. Lettuce, onions, tomatoes, images— A poem Jeremy Bloom (Korman)

10 Rhymed Verse Forms Children need to understand that not all poems rhyme. (But these do!) The message of the poem is always more important than adhering to any of these poetic forms.

11 Poetry Anthologies on Poetry & Writing
Goldstein, B.S. (1992). Inner chimes. Honesdale, PA. Hopkins, L.B. (1990). Good books, good times! New York: HarperCollins. Hopkins, L.B. (1999). Book poems: Poems from National Children’s Book Week New York: Children’s Book Council.

12 Guidelines for Sharing Poetry
Read or recite only poems that are personal favorites. Rehearse poem: feel of words, rhythm, pauses, accent of words, phrases. Collect favorite poems. Keep poetry books in classroom. Set up a listening center.

13 Guidelines for Sharing Poetry
Share poetry orally, not just silently. Have students read & share poetry. Encourage learning & sharing poetry with others--not memorization. Have students voluntarily share personal meaning of poetry--not analysis of meaning or rhyme scheme.

14 Poetry may involve: *using language in unique ways
*word images as powerful as images on a canvas *using language in unique ways *using space creatively *music and rhythm *ear-tickling sounds *an invitation

15 Poetic Devices Comparison: Use of images, feelings & actions to other things using metaphors & similies. Alliteration

16 Comparisons People are like birds
who are constantly getting their feathers ruffled. People are like alligators who find pleasure in evil cleverness. People are like bees who are always busy. People are like penguins. Who want to have fun. People are like platypuses -- unexplainable! Sixth grader Tompkins, G.E., & Hoskisson, K. (1995). Language Arts. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill.

17 Poetic Devices (cont.) Alliteration: Repetition of the same initial consonant sound in consecutive words. Alliteration Tradebooks

18 Alliteration My Alliteration Alphabet About Foods A Acting apples
B Bouncing bananas C Campaigning cantaloupes D Dribbling doughnuts E Exercising eggplants F Flying fish G Galloping grapes H Hopping hamburgers I Interviewing ice cream

19 Alliteration Steig, J., & Steig, W. (1992). Alpha beta chowder. New York: HarperCollins. Gackenbach, D. (1986). Timid Timothy’s tongue twisters. New York: Holiday House.

20 Onomatopoeia: Use of sound words to make writing more sensory & vivid.
Poetic Devices (cont.) Onomatopoeia: Use of sound words to make writing more sensory & vivid.

21 Onomatopoeia Merriam, E. (1972). Bam, zam, boom! New York: Walker.
Spier, P. (1971). Gobble, growl, grunt. New York: Scholastic.

22 Poetic Devices (cont.) Repetition: Use of repetition of words & phrases. Rhyme: Natural use of rhyme so it does not interfere with word play & creation of vivid images. Avoid equating rhyme with poetry.

23 Couplets *Last words in each line rhyme. *Written in two lines.
Dogs bark In the park. Nothing comes out of this bottle. Shake it and then a lot’ll. Triplets

24 Couplet Poems The sky is blue. Flowers are pink.
I love you. But sometimes they stink. The light is bright The ocean is blue. but not at night. A Martian is, too. Stars glow at night. Don’t you dare They are small but bright. Scare a bear. First graders

25 I Like Poems *Pairs of couplets I like jelly on my bread.
I like apples that are red. I like rocks and balls and bats. I like wearing funny hats.

26 Triplets Triplet *Written in three lines.
*Last words in each line rhyme. This is a pig. This is a wig. This is a pig with a wig. There was a skunk. On top of my bunk. PHEW—EE! It stunk.

27 Triangle Triplet Make it a triangle triplet!
Write each line of your triplet on one side of a triangle. (You could use the same idea for a quatrain and a square.)

28 Limericks *Believed to have originated in Limerick, Ireland
*Popularized by Edward Lear ( ) *5 lines: aabba rhyming pattern *Various syllable patterns: 99669, 99559, 88558,… *Third and fourth lines are shorter

29 Limerick Poem Write a limerick now. Say there was
Advice on writing a limerick: Write a limerick now. Say there was An old man of some place, what he does, Or perhaps what he doesn’t, Or isn’t or wasn’t. Want help with it? Give me a buzz. --David McCord

30 Limerick Poem There was an old man with a beard,
Who said, “It is just as I feared! Two owls and a hen, Four larks and a wren, Have all built their nests in my beard!”

31 Clerihew Poetry *named for Edmund Clerihew Bentley who invented the form *4 lines that describe a person *1st line: the person’s name 2nd line: the last word rhymes with the last word in the first line 3rd and 4th lines: last words in these lines rhyme

32 Rhyming Poetry Degen, B. (1983). Jamberry. New York: Harper and Row.
dePaola, T. (1884). Mice squeak, we speak. New York: Scholastic.

33 Formula Poetry These provide a scaffold for beginning poets.
Although some seem more like prose, they help students begin to learn about poetic expression.

34 Formula Poetry Hink-pinks:
Short rhymes that either take the form of an answer to a riddle or describe something. Composed with two 1-syllable rhyming words.

35 Hink-pinks What do you call an astronaut? A sky guy. Ghost
White fright Heller, L.G. (1981). Riddling: A playful way to explore language. Language Arts, 58,

36 Formula Poetry “I wish…” Poetry: Each line begins with, “I wish”.
Each line is completed with a wish.

37 “I Wish” Poem I wish I had all the money in the world.
I wish I had a cat. I wish it wouldn’t rain today.

38 Expanded “I Wish” Poetry
Students can choose one wish and expand on it. I wish I had a cat, Orange and white, Who liked to sit on my lap and purr, Whenever I felt lonely.

39 “I wish…” Poems Our Wishes I wish I had a cat.
I wish I was a star fallen down from Mars. I wish I were a teddy bear. Second graders I Wish I wish I were a teddy bear Who sat on a beautiful bed Who got a hug every night By a little girl or boy. Maybe tonight I’ll get my wish And wake up on a little girl’s bed And then I’ll be as happy as can be. Tompkins, G.E., & Hoskisson, K. (1995). Language Arts. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill.

40 Formula Poetry Color Poetry: Begin each line with a color.
Repeat same color in each line or choose a different color. Tell what it is.

41 Color Poem Yellow is shiny galoshes splashing through mud puddles.
Yellow is a street lamp beaming through a dark, black night. Yellow is the egg yolk bubbling in a frying pan... Yellow is the sunset and the warm summer breeze…Seventh grader Tompkins, G.E., & Hoskisson, K. (1995). Language Arts. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill.

42 Color Poem Purple is my moustache when I drink grape Kool-aid.
Purple is a king’s robe made of velvet And covered with fur. Purple is …

43 Color Poetry Hubband, P. (1996). My crayons talk. New York: Henry Holt and Company. O’Neill, M. (1961). Hailstones and halibut bones: Adventures in color. Garden City, NJ: Doubleday. Zolotow, C. (1962). Mr. Rabbit and the lovely present. New York: Harper and Row.

44 Formula Poetry An ending comment is often added. Five-Senses Poetry:
Write about a topic using each of the five senses. Poem is usually 5 lines long with 1 line for each sense. An ending comment is often added. OR Poem can explore one sense.

45 Five-Senses Poem Looks like an expensive doll from Toys ‘R Us
Smells like baby powder or something else Tastes like a sweet kiss Feels like a cuddly pillow Sounds like a broken police siren Our new baby!


47 If I Were” Poetry

48 Five-Senses Poem Being Heartbroken Sounds like thunder
Looks like a carrot going through a blender Tastes like sour milk Feels like a splinter in your finger Smells like a dead fish It must be horrible! Sixth grader Tompkins, G.E., & Hoskisson, K. (1995). Language Arts. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill.

49 Formula Poetry “If I were…” Poetry:
Write about what they would do & how they would feel. Begin with “If I were” & tell what it would be like to be that thing. Use personification in composing, explore ideas & feelings. Consider world from different perspective.

50 “If I Were” Poem If I were a duck I’d like this rainy day
I would quack and splash and swim and look for juicy wiggling worms Then waddle over to see my friends.



53 “If I were…” Poem If I were a Tyrannosaurus Rex
I would terrorize other dinosaurs And eat them up for supper. Second grader Tompkins, G.E., & Hoskisson, K. (1995). Language Arts. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill.

54 “If I were…” Poetry Proimos, J. (2002). If I were in charge the rules would be different! New York: Scholastic.

55 Formula Poetry “I used to be…, but now I am…” Poem:
Begin 1st (& odd-numbered) line with, “I used to be”. Begin 2nd (& even-numbered) line with, “But now I am” Explore ways they & other things change.

56 “I used to be…, but now I am…” Poem
I used to be a tadpole But now I am a frog. First grader I used to be an apple But now I am a core. Fourth grader I used to be a cookie But now I am a crumb. First grader I used to be a seedling But now I am a tree. Fourth grader Tompkins, G.E., & Hoskisson, K. (1995). Language Arts. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill.

57 Formula Poetry Definition Poem:
Choose a topic (peace, freedom, wind,…). Brainstorm descriptions and examples, including metaphors and similes. Describe or define that topic. Describe what meaning it has for the poet. Begin each line with the topic and the word is.

58 Definition Poem Beauty is a smile on the face of someone you love.
Beauty is the sunset at the beach. Beauty is a flower growing up between the cracks of a sidewalk. Beauty is under all of the makeup and hairdos. Beauty is a heart that gives everything it has.


60 Definition Poems Books are… Fun to read. You can learn
From them easily. Monday is … A day you wake up with the birds And a day that you go to school. The world is… Round and rough With land, water, trees, Grass, fields, animals, And most of all people. Third graders

61 Definition Poetry Krauss, R. (1952). A hole is to dig: A first book of first definitions. New York: Harper and Row.

62 Formula Poetry Preposition Poem: Each line begins with a preposition.

63 Preposition Poem Superman Within the city In a phone booth
Into his clothes Like a bird In the sky Through the walls Until the crime Among us is defeated! Seventh grader Tompkins, G.E., & Hoskisson, K. (1995). Language Arts. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill.

64 Formula Poetry Acrostic Poem: Write a key word vertically.
Write a poem about that key word. Sentences and/or phrases are written using the letters. (Each line may begin with the letter of the word that is on that line, but this is not required).

65 Acrostic Poem Night No one else is awake. I sit at my computer
Glancing at the cat on the windowsill, Hearing the clock tick -- Tired.

66 Acrostic Poem Columbus Day Columbus Day is October 12st.
COlumbus discovered America. We’re Lucky he did. YoU wouldn’t be here if he didn’t. The Main food was fish. Be happy Columbus lived. The U.S.A. was discovered in 1492. The Sails were white. The Date he founded the U.S. is Oct. 12, 1492. NinA, Pinta, and Santa Maria are ships. StudYing maps and geography was what he did. Kristi Soutar, fourth grade

67 Acrostic Poetry Schnur, S. (1999). Spring: An alphabet acrostic. New York: Clarion Books.

68 Free Form Poetry This is a difficult form to “teach”.
No rules about rhyme or syllables. Number of lines and punctuation vary. Students can write sentences about a topic then “unwrite” them by deleting unnecessary words. Arrange the words to fit the ideas.

69 Free Form Poem In the morning it is hard to get up when I hear that little voice upstairs call cheerfully, “Mommy, come play!” My alarm clock says it’s 5 a.m. --and I need sleep. But these days pass quickly. I can sleep later. Morning Cheerful little call “Mommy, come play!” Alarm clock says 5 a.m. These days pass Quickly Sleep later

70 Concrete Poetry Poems written so that their printed shape communicates a meaning related to the subject. The words and visual images interact. Words, phrases & sentences written in the shape of an object.

71 Concrete Poetry Introduce concrete poetry through word pictures. Write an individual word in a way that reflects its meaning: up, around, shiver, smile, tent… Word pictures are inserted within poems written from left to right & top to bottom.

72 Concrete Poetry To make a concrete poem, have students draw a simple outline of an object. Next brainstorm words that might describe that object. Place a second sheet over the drawing and replace the lines with words related to the shape outlined. Words are often repeated.

73 Concrete Poem c c c c c frosting frosting frosting CAKE CAKE CAKE CAKE
a a a a a n n n n n d d d d d l l l l l e e e e e frosting frosting frosting CAKE CAKE CAKE CAKE

74 Riddles Riddle strategies (Opie, 1959):
Use multiple referents for a noun: What has an eye but cannot see? A needle. Combine literal & figurative interpretations for a single phrase: Why did the kid throw the clock out the window? He wanted to see time fly.

75 Riddle Strategies Shift word boundaries to suggest another meaning: Why did the cookie cry? Its mother was a wafer (away for) so long. Separate a word into syllables to suggest another meaning: When is a door not a door? When it’s ajar (a jar). Create a metaphor: What are polka dots on your face? Pimples.



78 Syllable and Word-Count Poetry
Many of these forms of unrhymed verse developed in Japan because the Japanese language is filled with similar vowel sounds and does not lend itself to rhyming.

79 Syllable- & Word-Count Poetry
Haiku: Japanese poetic form of 17 syllables arranged in 3 lines, Is written about nature or seasons & presents a single clear image. Does not rhyme. Uses few articles and pronouns.

80 Haiku Poem Stargazer lily Perfumes my room with sweetness
Not to be ignored

81 Haiku Poem Beauty in Nature As the light rain fell,
My flowers filled with cool drops. Soon they will bloom. Spring The first flower blooms, And the sun shines upon it. Spring is here at last. Amy Reed, sixth grade

82 Haiku Behn, H. (1964). Cricket songs. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World.

83 Syllable- & Word-Count Poetry
Senryu: Is similar to haiku form but has looser syllable pattern. Is written about human events. Is often humorous.

84 Senryu Poem Skiing down the mountain, I need to split in half
To avoid a tree.

85 Syllable- & Word-Count Poetry
Tanka: Is more popular than haiku in Japan. (They call it “waka”.) Is older than haiku; dates back to 4th century. Is written about nature. Is 5 lines: 31 syllables (5,7,7,7,5)

86 Tanka Poem Crystal ice daggers Glisten in the winter trees
Bending branches to the ground. Cold swirling wind gusts and blows. Tree drops its weapons.

87 Tanka Poem The summer dancers Dancing in the midnight sky,
Waltzing and dreaming, Stars glistening in the night sky. Wish upon a shooting star. Seventh grader Tompkins, G.E., & Hoskisson, K. (1995). Language Arts. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill.

88 Syllable- & Word-Count Poetry
Lanterne: Is 5 lines Is composed of 11 syllables (1,2,3,4,1) Is written in the shape of a Japanese lantern

89 Lanterne Poem Ghosts Making Shrieks, howls, screams Rustling, silence BOO!

90 Syllable- & Word-Count Poetry
Tanka: Japanese poetic form 31 syllables arranged in 5 lines syllables/line:

91 Syllable- & Word-Count Poetry
Cinquain: 5 line poem of 22 syllables in a pattern. Describes something or tells a story. 2 syllables naming the subject 4 syllables describing subject (adjectives) 6 syllables showing action (verbs) 8 syllables expressing feeling or observation about the subject 2 syllables describing or renaming subject (synonym or adjective)

92 Cinquain *Simplified to require a specific number of WORDS per line
*Thought pattern version of the cinquain *Simplified to require a specific number of WORDS per line 1: 1 word, title, or subject of poem (noun) 2: 2 words to describe title or subject (adjectives) 3: 3 words showing action (verbs) 4: 4 words expressing feeling or observation about subject or title 5: 1 word describing or renaming subject or title (synonym or adjective)

93 Cinquain Poem The gull Effortlessly Glides on the downward breeze
To land on the soft, sandy beach: Quiet.

94 Cinquain Poem Baby Soft, smooth Crying, crawling, burping
happy, laughing, sad, glad Person ECE 735 students

95 Shaking, running, glancing Frightened of my footsteps
Cinquain Poem Spooky Eerie darkness Shaking, running, glancing Frightened of my footsteps Creepy

96 Syllable- & Word-Count Poetry
Diamante: 7-line poem contrasting 2 antonyms. Written in a shape of a diamond. Requires application of knowledge of opposites & parts of speech.

97 Diamante :1 noun as the subject :2 adjectives describing noun #1
:3 participles describing noun #1 (-ing, –ed, –en) :4 transition nouns (2 about noun #1 and next two about noun #2) :3 participles describing noun #2 :2 adjectives describing noun #2 :1 contrasting noun—antonym of noun #1

98 participle participle participle
Diamante noun adjective adjective participle participle participle noun noun / noun noun

99 Diamante Poem Different Places Rain forest Cool, rainy
Running, leaping, climbing Monkeys, army ants, cactus, snakes Scorching, burning, nipping Hot, dry Desert Suzanne Caster, third grade, S.L. Mason Elem. Truncated Diamante

100 Diamante Poem Day and Night Day Hot, bright
Playing, exercising, reading Suntan, beach; bed, covers Sleeping, frightening, chilling Damp, cool Night Lindsey Neilly, third grade, S.L. Mason Elem.

101 Diamante Poem fantasy magical, mysterious dreaming, fooling, inventing
An Unidentified Flying Object proving, trying, testing genuine, true reality

102 Diamante Poem Poor, frightened Packing, traveling, wishing
Immigrants Poor, frightened Packing, traveling, wishing Newcomers, dreamers, citizens, voters Happy, safe Americans

103 Truncated Diamante adjective, adjective, adjective
Centers on one object. Introduces younger students to the simile and the metaphor Expresses a thought pattern: noun adjective, adjective, adjective participle, participle, participle creative comparison

104 Truncated Diamante Poem
Snow Icy, cold, soft Blowing, twinkling, melting Nature’s ice cream.

105 Additional terms and types
Narrative poems: Tell a story in verse. Ballads: Narrative poems adapted for singing or sound like a song. Lyric poetry: Poetry that has a “melody,” a rhythm.

106 Using a pattern for writing
Jelly on the Plate Jelly on the plate, Paper on the floor, Wibble, wobble, wibble, wobble, Pick it up, pick it up, Jelly on the plate Paper on the floor. Piggy in the house, Kick him out, kick him out, Piggy in the house.

107 Put-togethers Here is a foot. Here is a ball. Put them together.
You have a football. Have you seen a bubble? Have you seen some hair? You have bubblehair.

108 Alphabet pyramids *4 lines *Each word begins with the same letter
*Start with a noun *Add an adjective *Add a verb *Add an adverb

109 toilet tissue tearing terribly
Alphabet pyramids tissue toilet tissue toilet tissue tearing toilet tissue tearing terribly

110 Jump Rope Rhyme *Each blank is filled in with a word that begins with the first letter of your name. _____, my name is ______________. I have a friend named ____________. I live in ______________. And I like ________________.

111 Jump Rope Rhyme D, my name is Dorrie. I have a friend named David.
I live in Denmark. And I like dictionaries.

112 Teaching Students to Write Poetry
Introduce/share a variety of poetry. Explain the poetic form. Share examples written by children: Read examples aloud. Have students respond to examples. Examine how poem compares with form.

113 Teaching Students to Write Poetry
Write class collaboration poems. Individuals contribute lines or develop collaboratively. Teacher records poem on chart paper as dictated. Teacher discusses arrangement of poem on page, capitalization, punctuation, & revisions.

114 Teaching Students to Write Poetry
Students write individual poems using process writing. Write rough drafts. Receive feedback in writing groups. Make revisions. Edit poems with classmate &/or teacher. Share poems orally & in writing.

115 Assessing Students’ Poems
Has the student experimented with formulas presented? Has the student used the process approach in writing, revising, & editing? Has the student used poetic devices in the poem: images, word play, comparisons, onomatopoeia, alliterations, repetition?

116 What are the teacher’s roles when instructing students to write poetry?

117 Teacher’s Roles: Poetry Instruction
Share a wide variety of poetry. Teach about poetic devices. Teach various poetic forms: modeling & providing time for practice. Provide time for feedback from peers in writing groups & from you in conferences. Assess written poetry. Provide time for students to share their poems with others.

118 Poetry: Professional Resources
Cecil, N.L. (1994). For the love of language: Poetry for every learner. Winnipeg, Canada: Peguis. Chatton, B. (1993). Using poetry across the curriculum. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx. Janeczko, P.B. (1998). Favorite poetry lessons. New York: Scholastic. Perry, A.Y. (1997). Poetry across the curriculum. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Orndoff, E. (1990). Poetry patterns. Monterey, CA: Evan-Moor.

119 Poetry: Professional Resources
Rich, M.P. (Ed.) (1998). Book poems: Poems from National Children’s Book Week New York: Children’s Book Council. Sweeney, J. (1994). Quick poetry activities you can really do! New York: Scholastic. Terban, M. (1996). Scholastic dictionary of idioms. New York: Scholastic. Young, S. (1994). Scholastic rhyming dictionary. New York: Scholastic.

120 Poetry Anthologies with Themes
Hopkins, L.B. (1980). Moments: Poems about the seasons. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Livingston, M.C. (1985). Celebrations. New York: Scholastic. Livingston, M.C. (1986). Earth Songs. New York: Holiday House. Livingston, M.C. (Ed.) (1986). Poems for Jewish holidays. New York: Holiday House. Livingston, M.C. (1986). Sea Songs. New York: Holiday House.

121 Poetry Anthologies with Themes
Livingston, M.C. (1984). Sky Songs. New York: Holiday House. Livingston, M.C. (Ed.) (1985). Thanksgiving poems. New York: Holiday House. Perlutsky, J. (1982). It’s Thanksgiving. New York: Scholastic. Strickland, D.S., & Strickland, M.R. (1994). Families: Poems celebrating the African American experience. Honedale, PA: Boyds Mill Press.


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