Presentation on theme: "Writing and Reading Poetry"— Presentation transcript:
1Writing and Reading Poetry Tonja L. Root, Ed. D.& Margie Tullos, M. Ed.Early Childhood & Reading EducationValdosta State UniversityValdosta, GA
2What is Poetry?“…writing that formulates a concentrated imaginative awareness of experience in language chosen and arranged to create a specific emotional response through meaning, sound, and rhythm”-Webster’s Dictionary
3The Poet Says A poem is a part of me A part of me you do not see. You see my head.You see my hind.But you can’t see what’s in my mind.
4So I must write that part of me The part of me you cannot see.I take some paper,A pencil or pen,To write what’s in my mind, and then . . .
5You have a poem To read and . . . See! I’ve given you A part of me. Hadusiewicz, B.B. Poetry works. Cleveland: Modern Curriculum Press.
6Inside a Poem It doesn’t always have to rhyme, but there’s the repeat of a beat, somewherean inner chime that makes you want totap your feet or swerve in a curve;a lilt, a leap, a lightening-split--thunderstruck the consonants jut,while the vowels open wide as waves in the noon-blue sea.
7You hear with your heals, your eyes feel what they never touched before:fins on a bird, feathers on a deer;taste all colors, inhalememory and tomorrow and always the tang is today.Merriam, E. (1967). An invitation to poetry. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley.
8Vital Question If a poem doesn’t rhyme— How do you know It’s a poem? If it’s about sunsets and flowers, well okay.But some of them might be about termites, and rats,Cockroaches, earwigs, bedbugs and silverfish,Battalions of cooties,And are more like the exterminator’s reportThan a poem.So how do you know it’s a poemIf it doesn’t rhyme?--Jeremy Bloom (Korman)
9Definition A poem. Rhyme salad, Chopped by the word processor, Garnished with pictures,Sprinkled with adjectives,Tossed by a poet-chef.Lettuce, onions, tomatoes, images—A poem Jeremy Bloom (Korman)
10Rhymed Verse FormsChildren need to understand that not all poems rhyme. (But these do!)The message of the poem is always more important than adhering to any of these poetic forms.
11Poetry Anthologies on Poetry & Writing Goldstein, B.S. (1992). Inner chimes. Honesdale, PA.Hopkins, L.B. (1990). Good books, good times! New York: HarperCollins.Hopkins, L.B. (1999). Book poems: Poems from National Children’s Book Week New York: Children’s Book Council.
12Guidelines for Sharing Poetry Read or recite only poems that are personal favorites.Rehearse poem: feel of words, rhythm, pauses, accent of words, phrases.Collect favorite poems.Keep poetry books in classroom.Set up a listening center.
13Guidelines for Sharing Poetry Share poetry orally, not just silently.Have students read & share poetry.Encourage learning & sharing poetry with others--not memorization.Have students voluntarily share personal meaning of poetry--not analysis of meaning or rhyme scheme.
14Poetry may involve: *using language in unique ways *word images as powerful as images on a canvas*using language in unique ways*using space creatively*music and rhythm*ear-tickling sounds*an invitation
15Poetic DevicesComparison: Use of images, feelings & actions to other things using metaphors & similies.Alliteration
16Comparisons People are like birds who are constantly getting their feathers ruffled.People are like alligatorswho find pleasure in evil cleverness.People are like beeswho are always busy.People are like penguins.Who want to have fun.People are like platypuses --unexplainable! Sixth graderTompkins, G.E., & Hoskisson, K. (1995). Language Arts. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill.
17Poetic Devices (cont.)Alliteration: Repetition of the same initial consonant sound in consecutive words.Alliteration Tradebooks
18Alliteration My Alliteration Alphabet About Foods A Acting apples B Bouncing bananasC Campaigning cantaloupesD Dribbling doughnutsE Exercising eggplantsF Flying fishG Galloping grapesH Hopping hamburgersI Interviewing ice cream
19AlliterationSteig, J., & Steig, W. (1992). Alpha beta chowder. New York: HarperCollins.Gackenbach, D. (1986). Timid Timothy’s tongue twisters. New York: Holiday House.
20Onomatopoeia: Use of sound words to make writing more sensory & vivid. Poetic Devices (cont.)Onomatopoeia: Use of sound words to make writing more sensory & vivid.
21Onomatopoeia Merriam, E. (1972). Bam, zam, boom! New York: Walker. Spier, P. (1971). Gobble, growl, grunt. New York: Scholastic.
22Poetic Devices (cont.)Repetition: Use of repetition of words & phrases.Rhyme: Natural use of rhyme so it does not interfere with word play & creation of vivid images. Avoid equating rhyme with poetry.
23Couplets *Last words in each line rhyme. *Written in two lines. Dogs bark In the park.Nothing comes out of this bottle. Shake it and then a lot’ll.Triplets
24Couplet Poems The sky is blue. Flowers are pink. I love you. But sometimes they stink.The light is bright The ocean is blue.but not at night. A Martian is, too.Stars glow at night. Don’t you dareThey are small but bright. Scare a bear.First graders
25I Like Poems *Pairs of couplets I like jelly on my bread. I like apples that are red.I like rocks and balls and bats.I like wearing funny hats.
26Triplets Triplet *Written in three lines. *Last words in each line rhyme.This is a pig. This is a wig. This is a pig with a wig.There was a skunk. On top of my bunk. PHEW—EE! It stunk.
27Triangle Triplet Make it a triangle triplet! Write each line of your triplet on one side of a triangle.(You could use the same idea for a quatrain and a square.)
28Limericks *Believed to have originated in Limerick, Ireland *Popularized by Edward Lear ( )*5 lines: aabba rhyming pattern*Various syllable patterns:99669, 99559, 88558,…*Third and fourth lines are shorter
29Limerick Poem Write a limerick now. Say there was Advice on writing a limerick:Write a limerick now. Say there wasAn old man of some place, what he does,Or perhaps what he doesn’t,Or isn’t or wasn’t.Want help with it? Give me a buzz.--David McCord
30Limerick Poem There was an old man with a beard, Who said, “It is just as I feared!Two owls and a hen,Four larks and a wren,Have all built their nests in my beard!”
31Clerihew Poetry*named for Edmund Clerihew Bentley who invented the form*4 lines that describe a person*1st line: the person’s name2nd line: the last word rhymes with the last word in the first line3rd and 4th lines: last words in these lines rhyme
32Rhyming Poetry Degen, B. (1983). Jamberry. New York: Harper and Row. dePaola, T. (1884). Mice squeak, we speak. New York: Scholastic.
33Formula Poetry These provide a scaffold for beginning poets. Although some seem more like prose, they help students begin to learn about poetic expression.
34Formula Poetry Hink-pinks: Short rhymes that either take the form of an answer to a riddle or describe something.Composed with two 1-syllable rhyming words.
35Hink-pinks What do you call an astronaut? A sky guy. Ghost White frightHeller, L.G. (1981). Riddling: A playful way to explore language. Language Arts, 58,
36Formula Poetry “I wish…” Poetry: Each line begins with, “I wish”. Each line is completed with a wish.
37“I Wish” Poem I wish I had all the money in the world. I wish I had a cat.I wish it wouldn’t rain today.
38Expanded “I Wish” Poetry Students can choose one wish and expand on it.I wish I had a cat,Orange and white,Who liked to sit on my lapand purr,Whenever I felt lonely.
39“I wish…” Poems Our Wishes I wish I had a cat. I wish I was a star fallen down from Mars.I wish I were a teddy bear. Second gradersI WishI wish I were a teddy bearWho sat on a beautiful bedWho got a hug every nightBy a little girl or boy.Maybe tonight I’ll get my wishAnd wake up on a little girl’s bedAnd then I’ll be as happy as can be.Tompkins, G.E., & Hoskisson, K. (1995). Language Arts. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill.
40Formula Poetry Color Poetry: Begin each line with a color. Repeat same color in each line or choose a different color.Tell what it is.
41Color Poem Yellow is shiny galoshes splashing through mud puddles. Yellow is a street lampbeaming through a dark, black night.Yellow is the egg yolkbubbling in a frying pan...Yellow is the sunsetand the warm summer breeze…Seventh graderTompkins, G.E., & Hoskisson, K. (1995). Language Arts. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill.
42Color Poem Purple is my moustache when I drink grape Kool-aid. Purple is a king’s robe madeof velvetAnd covered with fur.Purple is …
43Color PoetryHubband, P. (1996). My crayons talk. New York: Henry Holt and Company.O’Neill, M. (1961). Hailstones and halibut bones: Adventures in color. Garden City, NJ: Doubleday.Zolotow, C. (1962). Mr. Rabbit and the lovely present. New York: Harper and Row.
44Formula Poetry An ending comment is often added. Five-Senses Poetry: Write about a topic using each of the five senses.Poem is usually 5 lines long with 1 line for each sense.An ending comment is often added.OR Poem can explore one sense.
45Five-Senses Poem Looks like an expensive doll from Toys ‘R Us Smells like baby powder or something elseTastes like a sweet kissFeels like a cuddly pillowSounds like a broken police sirenOur new baby!
48Five-Senses Poem Being Heartbroken Sounds like thunder Looks like a carrot going through a blenderTastes like sour milkFeels like a splinter in your fingerSmells like a dead fishIt must be horrible! Sixth graderTompkins, G.E., & Hoskisson, K. (1995). Language Arts. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill.
49Formula Poetry “If I were…” Poetry: Write about what they would do & how they would feel.Begin with “If I were” & tell what it would be like to be that thing.Use personification in composing, explore ideas & feelings.Consider world from different perspective.
50“If I Were” Poem If I were a duck I’d like this rainy day I would quack and splash and swimand look for juicy wiggling wormsThen waddle over to see my friends.
53“If I were…” Poem If I were a Tyrannosaurus Rex I would terrorize other dinosaursAnd eat them up for supper.Second graderTompkins, G.E., & Hoskisson, K. (1995). Language Arts. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill.
54“If I were…” PoetryProimos, J. (2002). If I were in charge the rules would be different! New York: Scholastic.
55Formula Poetry “I used to be…, but now I am…” Poem: Begin 1st (& odd-numbered) line with, “I used to be”.Begin 2nd (& even-numbered) line with, “But now I am”Explore ways they & other things change.
56“I used to be…, but now I am…” Poem I used to be a tadpoleBut now I am a frog. First graderI used to be an appleBut now I am a core. Fourth graderI used to be a cookieBut now I am a crumb. First graderI used to be a seedlingBut now I am a tree. Fourth graderTompkins, G.E., & Hoskisson, K. (1995). Language Arts. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill.
57Formula Poetry Definition Poem: Choose a topic (peace, freedom, wind,…).Brainstorm descriptions and examples, including metaphors and similes.Describe or define that topic.Describe what meaning it has for the poet.Begin each line with the topic and the word is.
58Definition Poem Beauty is a smile on the face of someone you love. Beauty is the sunset at the beach.Beauty is a flower growing up between the cracks of a sidewalk.Beauty is under all of the makeup and hairdos.Beauty is a heart that gives everything it has.
60Definition Poems Books are… Fun to read. You can learn From them easily.Monday is …A day you wake up with the birdsAnd a day that you go to school.The world is…Round and roughWith land, water, trees,Grass, fields, animals,And most of all people. Third graders
61Definition PoetryKrauss, R. (1952). A hole is to dig: A first book of first definitions. New York: Harper and Row.
62Formula PoetryPreposition Poem: Each line begins with a preposition.
63Preposition Poem Superman Within the city In a phone booth Into his clothesLike a birdIn the skyThrough the wallsUntil the crimeAmong us is defeated! Seventh graderTompkins, G.E., & Hoskisson, K. (1995). Language Arts. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill.
64Formula Poetry Acrostic Poem: Write a key word vertically. Write a poem about that key word.Sentences and/or phrases are written using the letters.(Each line may begin with the letter of the word that is on that line, but this is not required).
65Acrostic Poem Night No one else is awake. I sit at my computer Glancing at the cat on the windowsill,Hearing the clock tick --Tired.
66Acrostic Poem Columbus Day Columbus Day is October 12st. COlumbus discovered America.We’re Lucky he did.YoU wouldn’t be here if he didn’t.The Main food was fish.Be happy Columbus lived.The U.S.A. was discovered in 1492.The Sails were white.The Date he founded the U.S. is Oct. 12, 1492.NinA, Pinta, and Santa Maria are ships.StudYing maps and geography was what he did.Kristi Soutar, fourth grade
67Acrostic PoetrySchnur, S. (1999). Spring: An alphabet acrostic. New York: Clarion Books.
68Free Form Poetry This is a difficult form to “teach”. No rules about rhyme or syllables. Number of lines and punctuation vary.Students can write sentences about a topic then “unwrite” them by deleting unnecessary words.Arrange the words to fit the ideas.
69Free Form PoemIn the morning it is hard to get up when I hear that little voice upstairs call cheerfully, “Mommy, come play!” My alarm clock says it’s 5 a.m. --and I need sleep. But these days pass quickly. I can sleep later.MorningCheerful little call“Mommy, come play!”Alarm clock says 5 a.m.These days passQuicklySleep later
70Concrete PoetryPoems written so that their printed shape communicates a meaning related to the subject. The words and visual images interact.Words, phrases & sentences written in the shape of an object.
71Concrete PoetryIntroduce concrete poetry through word pictures. Write an individual word in a way that reflects its meaning: up, around, shiver, smile, tent…Word pictures are inserted within poems written from left to right & top to bottom.
72Concrete PoetryTo make a concrete poem, have students draw a simple outline of an object.Next brainstorm words that might describe that object.Place a second sheet over the drawing and replace the lines with words related to the shape outlined.Words are often repeated.
73Concrete Poem c c c c c frosting frosting frosting CAKE CAKE CAKE CAKE a a a a an n n n nd d d d dl l l l le e e e efrosting frosting frostingCAKE CAKE CAKE CAKE
74Riddles Riddle strategies (Opie, 1959): Use multiple referents for a noun: What has an eye but cannot see? A needle.Combine literal & figurative interpretations for a single phrase: Why did the kid throw the clock out the window? He wanted to see time fly.
75Riddle StrategiesShift word boundaries to suggest another meaning: Why did the cookie cry? Its mother was a wafer (away for) so long.Separate a word into syllables to suggest another meaning: When is a door not a door? When it’s ajar (a jar).Create a metaphor: What are polka dots on your face? Pimples.
78Syllable and Word-Count Poetry Many of these forms of unrhymed verse developed in Japan because the Japanese language is filled with similar vowel sounds and does not lend itself to rhyming.
79Syllable- & Word-Count Poetry Haiku:Japanese poetic form of 17 syllables arranged in 3 lines,Is written about nature or seasons & presents a single clear image.Does not rhyme.Uses few articles and pronouns.
80Haiku Poem Stargazer lily Perfumes my room with sweetness Not to be ignored
81Haiku Poem Beauty in Nature As the light rain fell, My flowers filled with cool drops.Soon they will bloom.SpringThe first flower blooms,And the sun shines upon it.Spring is here at last.Amy Reed, sixth grade
82HaikuBehn, H. (1964). Cricket songs. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World.
83Syllable- & Word-Count Poetry Senryu:Is similar to haiku form but has looser syllable pattern.Is written about human events.Is often humorous.
84Senryu Poem Skiing down the mountain, I need to split in half To avoid a tree.
85Syllable- & Word-Count Poetry Tanka:Is more popular than haiku in Japan. (They call it “waka”.)Is older than haiku; dates back to 4th century.Is written about nature.Is 5 lines: 31 syllables (5,7,7,7,5)
86Tanka Poem Crystal ice daggers Glisten in the winter trees Bending branches to the ground.Cold swirling wind gusts and blows.Tree drops its weapons.
87Tanka Poem The summer dancers Dancing in the midnight sky, Waltzing and dreaming,Stars glistening in the night sky.Wish upon a shooting star. Seventh graderTompkins, G.E., & Hoskisson, K. (1995). Language Arts. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill.
88Syllable- & Word-Count Poetry Lanterne:Is 5 linesIs composed of 11 syllables (1,2,3,4,1)Is written in the shape of a Japanese lantern
91Syllable- & Word-Count Poetry Cinquain: 5 line poem of 22 syllables in a pattern. Describes something or tells a story.2 syllables naming the subject4 syllables describing subject (adjectives)6 syllables showing action (verbs)8 syllables expressing feeling or observation about the subject2 syllables describing or renaming subject (synonym or adjective)
92Cinquain *Simplified to require a specific number of WORDS per line *Thought pattern version of the cinquain*Simplified to require a specific number of WORDS per line1: 1 word, title, or subject of poem (noun)2: 2 words to describe title or subject (adjectives)3: 3 words showing action (verbs)4: 4 words expressing feeling or observation about subject or title5: 1 word describing or renaming subject or title (synonym or adjective)
93Cinquain Poem The gull Effortlessly Glides on the downward breeze To land on the soft, sandy beach:Quiet.
94Cinquain Poem Baby Soft, smooth Crying, crawling, burping happy, laughing, sad, gladPersonECE 735 students
95Shaking, running, glancing Frightened of my footsteps Cinquain PoemSpookyEerie darknessShaking, running, glancingFrightened of my footstepsCreepy
96Syllable- & Word-Count Poetry Diamante:7-line poem contrasting 2 antonyms.Written in a shape of a diamond.Requires application of knowledge of opposites & parts of speech.
97Diamante :1 noun as the subject :2 adjectives describing noun #1 :3 participles describing noun #1 (-ing, –ed, –en):4 transition nouns (2 about noun #1 and next two about noun #2):3 participles describing noun #2:2 adjectives describing noun #2:1 contrasting noun—antonym of noun #1
103Truncated Diamante adjective, adjective, adjective Centers on one object.Introduces younger students to the simile and the metaphorExpresses a thought pattern:nounadjective, adjective, adjectiveparticiple, participle, participlecreative comparison
105Additional terms and types Narrative poems:Tell a story in verse.Ballads:Narrative poems adapted for singing or sound like a song.Lyric poetry:Poetry that has a “melody,” a rhythm.
106Using a pattern for writing Jelly on the PlateJelly on the plate, Paper on the floor,Wibble, wobble, wibble, wobble, Pick it up, pick it up,Jelly on the plate Paper on the floor.Piggy in the house,Kick him out, kick him out,Piggy in the house.
107Put-togethers Here is a foot. Here is a ball. Put them together. You have a football.Have you seen a bubble?Have you seen some hair?You have bubblehair.
108Alphabet pyramids *4 lines *Each word begins with the same letter *Start with a noun*Add an adjective*Add a verb*Add an adverb
110Jump Rope Rhyme*Each blank is filled in with a word that begins with the first letter of your name._____, my name is ______________.I have a friend named ____________.I live in ______________.And I like ________________.
111Jump Rope Rhyme D, my name is Dorrie. I have a friend named David. I live in Denmark.And I like dictionaries.
112Teaching Students to Write Poetry Introduce/share a variety of poetry.Explain the poetic form.Share examples written by children:Read examples aloud.Have students respond to examples.Examine how poem compares with form.
113Teaching Students to Write Poetry Write class collaboration poems.Individuals contribute lines or develop collaboratively.Teacher records poem on chart paper as dictated.Teacher discusses arrangement of poem on page, capitalization, punctuation, & revisions.
114Teaching Students to Write Poetry Students write individual poems using process writing.Write rough drafts.Receive feedback in writing groups.Make revisions.Edit poems with classmate &/or teacher.Share poems orally & in writing.
115Assessing Students’ Poems Has the student experimented with formulas presented?Has the student used the process approach in writing, revising, & editing?Has the student used poetic devices in the poem: images, word play, comparisons, onomatopoeia, alliterations, repetition?
116What are the teacher’s roles when instructing students to write poetry?
117Teacher’s Roles: Poetry Instruction Share a wide variety of poetry.Teach about poetic devices.Teach various poetic forms: modeling & providing time for practice.Provide time for feedback from peers in writing groups & from you in conferences.Assess written poetry.Provide time for students to share their poems with others.
118Poetry: Professional Resources Cecil, N.L. (1994). For the love of language: Poetry for every learner. Winnipeg, Canada: Peguis.Chatton, B. (1993). Using poetry across the curriculum. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx.Janeczko, P.B. (1998). Favorite poetry lessons. New York: Scholastic.Perry, A.Y. (1997). Poetry across the curriculum. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Orndoff, E. (1990). Poetry patterns. Monterey, CA: Evan-Moor.
119Poetry: Professional Resources Rich, M.P. (Ed.) (1998). Book poems: Poems from National Children’s Book Week New York: Children’s Book Council.Sweeney, J. (1994). Quick poetry activities you can really do! New York: Scholastic.Terban, M. (1996). Scholastic dictionary of idioms. New York: Scholastic.Young, S. (1994). Scholastic rhyming dictionary. New York: Scholastic.
120Poetry Anthologies with Themes Hopkins, L.B. (1980). Moments: Poems about the seasons. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Livingston, M.C. (1985). Celebrations. New York: Scholastic.Livingston, M.C. (1986). Earth Songs. New York: Holiday House.Livingston, M.C. (Ed.) (1986). Poems for Jewish holidays. New York: Holiday House.Livingston, M.C. (1986). Sea Songs. New York: Holiday House.
121Poetry Anthologies with Themes Livingston, M.C. (1984). Sky Songs. New York: Holiday House.Livingston, M.C. (Ed.) (1985). Thanksgiving poems. New York: Holiday House.Perlutsky, J. (1982). It’s Thanksgiving. New York: Scholastic.Strickland, D.S., & Strickland, M.R. (1994). Families: Poems celebrating the African American experience. Honedale, PA: Boyds Mill Press.