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Presentation on theme: "CEE 434 GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN FALL 2008 GRADING AND SITE IMPROVEMENT METHODS PART I."— Presentation transcript:


2 OUTLINE I.Introduction II.Case Studies III.Factors Affecting Compaction IV.Fundamentals of Shallow Compaction V.Examples

3 I. Introduction When considering a site for construction, a Geotechnical Engineer encounters:  Abandon  Adapt  Alter

4 From: Coduto, 1999 “... almost no significant engineered construction occurs without the movement of soil from one place to another!” -Ed Monahan, 1994

5 Research Park Tech Center IV Construction Camera #1

6 UNCONTROLLED AND CONTROLLED FILLS CONT’D… 2V TO 1H Source: Greenfield, 1992 Research Park Tech Center IV Construction Camera #1


8 Compaction at a Highway Off-Ramp The next series of photos are from the construction of a highway off-ramp in Davis, CA, in 1995. This relatively small earthwork job was performed with very few pieces of equipment (a cat, water truck, grader, and the trucks that transported fill soils to the site).

9 This cat is equipped with a blade for shaping the roadway and sheepsfoot rollers for compacting the clayey soils. Fill materials were brought to the site by trucks that spread the materials out in roughly 6 to 8 inch thick layers. The cat spread the material out evenly and compacted it at the same time.

10 The water truck sprays the earth during compaction to condition the soil to near its optimum moisture content for compaction, and to control dust at the site.

11 The operators of the water truck and cat sequence their passes across the site. A grader was later used for final shaping of the roadway surface.

12 Compaction at Los Vaqueros Dam These next series of photos are from Los Vaqueros dam, California, during construction in 1998. This large earthwork project involved numerous pieces of equipment and required a high degree of engineering quality control.

13 View of the embankment from the upstream side, with almost 2/3 of the embankment completed. Notice the haul roads on the left abutment.

14 Backhoes carefully place large rocks (rip-rap) on the upstream face. The rocks are carefully packed together to protect the dam face from erosion.

15 The different colored soils correspond to the upstream shell (left side), core (darkest), filter, and drain zone (lightest), and downstream shell.

16 The core materials are being disked (left side) and compacted by sheepsfoot rollers.

17 A closer view of the disk that breaks the imported soil down into smaller clods for effective moisture conditioning and compaction.

18 The downstream filter and drain zones are the lighter-colored soils in the middle of this photo.

19 The imported soils are raked by this caterpillar blade to remove any oversize boulders or cobbles.

20 III. Factors Affecting Compaction a)Soil Type b)Moisture Content c)Thickness of lift d)Degree of compaction (intensity of pressure & the coverage area) e)Number of passes

21 Among the Questions to be Answered on These Two Projects: Why do we need to compact the soil in the first place? How much would the fill settle? What are the strength and permeability characteristics of the constructed dam? How much leakage through and under the dam? Where do we get the material from (borrow)? How do we compact the fill (lifts, equipment, etc)? How much water do we need to add to compact efficiently? How thick a layer of gravel and rock facing …? How fast could the fill be placed? What are the maximum allowable slopes? How much would the fill settle?

22 IV. Fundamentals of Shallow Compaction

23 Air Water Solids Air Water Solids Air Water Solids Natural ConditionBeing HauledIn Compacted Fill Excavation, Transportation, and Compaction Stages of Construction

24 Stage 1. Laboratory Compaction

25 What is compaction? A simple ground improvement technique, where the soil is densified through external compactive effort. + water = Compactive effort From: N. Sivakugan

26 From: Monahan, 1994

27 Source: Das, 2002



30 PROCTOR TESTS Standard Proctor – historically regarded as non- load-bearing (or light bldg loads, parking lots, lightly secondary roads). Modified Proctor – load-bearing, “comparable to that obtained with the heaviest rollers under favorable working conditions.” (Sowers, 1979)


32 Compaction Curve Water content Dry density (  d ) optimum water content  d, max Soil grains densely packed - good strength and stiffness - low permeability From: N. Sivakugan

33 Source: Das, 2002

34 From: Monahan, 1994

35 Zero Air Void Curve All compaction points should lie to the left of ZAV curve - corresponds to 100% saturation Water content Dry density (  d ) Zero air void curve (S=100%) S<100% S>100% (impossible) From: N. Sivakugan

36 Compaction Curves for Spectrum of Soil Types ED Monahan, 1994

37 Stage 2. Field Compaction

38 SPECIFICATIONS Degree of Compaction R(%) = C R (%)= [(  d ) field /(  d ) max-lab ]x100% Typical Spec’s (  d ) field = C R (%) x (  d ) max-lab

39 -K.L. Lee, 1971 Relative Compaction – Relative Density Relationships

40 From: Caterpillar, 1993

41 Smooth Wheel Rollers 100% coverage (under the wheels) Contact pressure = 45 to 55 psi Sandy & clayey soils

42 Pneumatic Rubber-Tired Rollers 4 to 6 (tires) in a row Contact pressure = 85 to 100 psi 70 to 80% coverage Sandy & clayey soils

43 Sheepsfoot Rollers Projection area = 4 to 13 in 2 Contact pressure = 200 to 1000 psi Clayey Soils

44 Vibratory Rollers Vibration – by rotating off-centers weights Handheld ones for limited access areas Granular soils

45 From: D’Appolonia, et al. 1969 From: Greenfield & Shen

46 From: D’Appolonia, et al. 1969

47 Stage 3. Assessment

48 Sand Cone Method ASTM D-1556 Glass (or plastic) jar with a metal cone Ottawa sand (known wt. & vol.) Dig a hole – weigh the soil and obtain w(%) Fill the hole with sand Determine the new wt. & vol. Eventually,  d = (dry wt. of excavated soil)/vol. of hole

49 Rubber Balloon Method ASTM D-2167 Similar to above Vol. is measured utilizing a rubber balloon filled with water

50 Nuclear Method Emits gamma rays Detects how the gamma rays travel thru soil Amounts of gamma rays detected correlate with the unit weight of soil

51 V. Examples


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