2Organization of the Unit American RevolutionDifferent Forms of GovernmentTaxation Then and NowCauses and Effects of the American RevolutionDeclaration of Independence4th of JulyThe Geography of the Revolution
4Key PerspectivesThe key perspectives of the unit are for students to gain a better understanding of:Diversity and Difference- We will teach about the many differences among people during this time period including patriots, loyalists, African Americans, Native Americans, and Women.Historically excluded people- We will describe the roles of unrepresented groups during this time in history. Including how Women, African Americans and Native Americans contributed to the revolution.
5Key Perspectives Continued: Thinking critically- Students will analyze the causes and effects of the American Revolution in a critical manner. They will compare traditional representations of the causes and effects with nontraditional representations such as other points of view including:Patriotic viewsLoyalist viewsAfrican-American viewsNative American viewsWomen's viewsJustice, rights and responsibilities- Students will examine the role the ideas of justice and rights played in the cause of the American Revolution. They will also explore the responsibilities of people before and after the American Revolution in relation to the responsibilities of citizens today.
6Essential Questions How does the government affect citizens? How do taxes affect the population?What causes a Revolution?How do people express their beliefs or ideas?What role do holidays play in various cultures/countries?How does geography influence Revolution?
7Enduring Understandings Students will understand:That the American Revolution was the birth of the America we know today.That taxation played a large role in the American Revolution and is still a critical issue today.How government does and does not provide for the needs and wants of people, establishes order and security and manages conflict.How citizens can influence government decisions and policies.How important events are commemorated.How historical events are affected by geography.
8Perspectives from School Second Grade CurriculumRural School: The American Revolution is not specifically taught in second grade. The units covered in second grade are:Neighborhoods (and a specific unit on Thomasboro)Working Together-Rules and LawsWorking for Needs and WantsLiving on Earth – Land and Water (Science integration with Oceans also)America, Long AgoCelebrating AmericaGeography – Maps and Globes
9For this unit, teaching the American Revolution could possibly be included in the unit “America, Long Ago”. However, the American Revolution does not have its own unit. The second grade teacher said that she does not teach the American Revolution as a unit but she may discuss it on a particular day.
10Perspectives from School Fourth Grade CurriculumIn the same rural school, the American Revolution is taught in fourth grade.The American Revolution is introduced in the unit of “History of the Northeast”. Although this unit may seem like it is only a Geography Unit, the teacher goes into historic detail about each region of the United States.The fourth grade teacher said she feels very comfortable teaching the American Revolution. She helps her students understand the two sides of the American Revolution by introducing people such as George Washington, Baron Von Steuben, and Paul Revere.Within the unit, the class also discusses the importance the war had for colonists and how it affected the history of the United States.This unit is connected to the lives of the students because the class discusses the relationship between Washington and Steuben (how the armies lined up) and they also talk about how the American Revolution helped shape America into what it is today.
11A Second Grader’s Perspective (An Interview with a Second Grade Boy) What is the American Revolution?I don’t know.Have you ever heard of it?Yes, a little, but I can’t remember anything.If you had to guess, what would you think it is?If you think of the word revolution, what comes to mind?Some sort of honoring.If you put America in front of it, what would it mean?Honoring America.Who ruled America before it was free?I don’t know the name, but I can draw the flag. (drew flag and knew that it was blue and red)How did America become free?Some kind of world war,….from a war.How long ago did America become free?1946..a long time ago.
12Drawing from StudentThe boy could draw the flag and describe the appropriate colors.
13Background Information from Academic Readings We chose to research areas of the American Revolution that we were unfamiliar with.All three of us had learned the basic timeline of the American Revolution and were aware of what happened; however we had not learned about some of the minority groups and the roles they played in the American Revolution.We also decided to review the issues of taxation as a cause of the American Revolution due to its importance and complexity.
14African American Perspectives Many African Americans joined the British army or the Revolutionary Army depending on where they were and who offered freedom to any slaves that joined the army and fought against colonists.Both sides offered freedom to the slaves if they fought for them. Some patriot supporters sent their slaves in their place and allowed the slaves to earn freedom by fighting in their place. Many of them would join the British army as soon as they were close to them because their freedom was more assured within the British army.African American slaves viewed joining either army as their opportunity for life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. The country did not matter to them; the principles of freedom were more important.After the American Revolution those slaves that fought for the British were evacuated and moved to either Nova Scotia to settle there or were brought back to England.
15Native American Perspectives Like the African Americans, the Native Americans saw the American Revolution as their chance to obtain the same principles the revolutionaries fought for.The Native Americans overwhelmingly sided with the British since they had witnessed the expansion made by the colonists and feared that when the colonists gained their independence the Native American people would loose their independence.Despite their efforts in fighting with the British army, the British simply abandoned the Native American tribes that supported them when they signed over the Native American tribes’ land over to the colonists in the peace treaty.
16TaxationThe issue of taxation began very peacefully. The American settlers truly believed that no violence would be necessary to repeal the increased taxation on goods.This conflict over taxation lead to further difficulties. The colonists began to scrutinize all of the laws more carefully and with that tensions over taxation increased.George III as a monarch believed that he was completely within his rights to tax and that all of the colonists were indeed represented by parliament. All members of parliament, regardless of their actual location, were considered to be representatives of the people whether they lived in their area or across the ocean.
17Academic Reading Sources Morgan, E. (ed) (1965). The American Revolution: Two Centuries of Interpretation. Prentice-Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, NJ.Fowler, W. and Coyle, W. (ed). (1979). The American Revolution Changing Perspectives. Northeastern University Press. Boston, MA.Greene, J. (ed) (1987). The American revolution Its Character and Limits. New York University Press. New York and London.
18Rationale Why is it important to teach in 2nd grade? To learn basic concepts of two forms of government and the role of citizens in each form of government.To learn how we came to celebrate the 4th July in the United States.To learn about the meaning of the term “democracy”.
19RationaleHow does this unit contribute to the field of social studies?To learn more about the two different forms of government.It is the study of people and how a country was started.It addresses the movement of people from place to place.
20RationaleHow is this unit shaped and informed by current debate and discussion about “best practices” in social studies education?Making Connections between the unit and student’s lives“One of the surest ways to help children make new information meaningful is to connect the new information to their lives” (Hood & Steffey, 1994, p.4).Using a KWL Chart throughout the unit:KWL (Know, Want to know, and Learned) charts can be very useful to start students thinking about a given topic (Steffey & Hood, 1994, p 75).
21“best practices” continued… Creating an active environment for learning social studies:“Teachers learn what students can do historically by engaging them in authentic historical activities: students’ talk, question setting, research, and interpretations all offer insights into what they know and what they still need to learn.” (Barton & Levstik, p. 27)
22Instructional Strategies Various levels of Inquiry will be embedded in the Unit (both guided inquiry and full inquiry)In 1981 Morrisett wrote about “six needs and directions for change” to be implemented into the classroom. These six changes had to do with the change in the teachers roles, students responsibility for learning, active learning, change the way teachers grade, and using tools besides a textbook. The things Morrisett mentioned were all a component of inquiry. (Steffey & Hood, 1994, p. xxvii-xxviii)“Among the procedures at our disposal, …, is the development of a community of historical inquiry… Students’ historical understandings of development are shaped by this community. And their understandings will be different than those arising from more lecture-or textbook-based history instruction precisely because they developed in a context where students are responsible for putting their understanding to work…” (Levstik & Barton, 2001, p.191-2)Inquiry will be used to reach many goals such as:“…helping students learn how to gather and analyze information about the past.” (Levstik & Barton, 2001, p.191)
23Instructional Strategies Integration of Children's Literature will also be used throughout the unit.Students find that use of literature in social studies is more memorable than the use of a text book, “My biggest memory was reading books instead of textbooks. It put a big impression on you. You could really tell how things were in a fiction book rather than out of a textbook” (Steffey & Hood, 1994, p 81).Responding to books can help students better understand both the text and the concept represented in the book. “The purpose of the projects would be to deepen their understanding of the novel and encourage them to continue to discuss the book while they worked” (Steffey & Hood, 1994, p 79).
24Instructional Strategies Continued… Simulations within the unit with be used to further student understanding and do allow students to “do” history.For example, we plan to incorporate concepts of the American revolution by asking students to lining up “Washington” and “Von Steuben” style, engage students in taxation simulations with coins or other small objects, and create a culminating simulation representing the two sides of the war.These simulations will help student to understand the history. “Students might, for instance, participate in simulations and role plays, or creative bibliographies or historical stories that require imaginative entry into a historical era or event. In doing so, they use historical information to help them either assume the role of historical actors or vividly describe historical events or people (Barton & Levstik, 2001, p. 26).
25Literacy Link How will literature be incorporated? Literary sources will be used throughout the unit to shape not only the main aspects of the unit, but also to give students a more in depth look at the human side of history by following characters or actual historic people through their experiences in the American Revolution.Both fiction and nonfiction sources will be used in order to a balanced look at various perspectives during the American Revolution. Some books will be used to give students insight as to life during this time and others will be used to include perspectives frequently left out of the study of the American Revolution.Students will also be keeping a journal throughout the unit. Students will have the opportunity to draw a picture and then write several sentences about the picture to serve as a journal entry.
26Literacy LinkIn additional to fiction and nonfiction texts, students will also be introduced to primary sources that the teacher has adapted to students’ reading level.Using multiple sources is extremely important, “I wanted the students to come to know the country from multiple perspectives, so we chose fiction and nonfiction adult books as well as picture books” (Steffey & Hood, 1994, p 47).“Students of history need experience with multiple historical genres. Fiction is certainly one of those genres, but so is informational literature” (Levstik & Barton, 2001, p 112).
27Literacy SourcesIn 1776 by Jean Marzollo- This book would serve nice as a read aloud introduction to the Revolutionary War in that it gives a brief overview of what happened. It uses a consistent rhyming pattern, which helps to move the story along. It makes the main concepts of the American Revolution understandable to younger children.Katie’s Trunk by Ann Turner- This is an interesting look at the American Revolution in picture book form in that shows the side of the loyalists whereas many books geared to younger children focus on the side of the rebels. It would be good to use as a read aloud to spark discussion.Mr. Revere and I by Lawson, Robert - It offers both sides of the story showing the loyalist views as well as the patriotic ones. Reading this novel would be a good introduction to the start of the Revolutionary War and a more in depth way to explore Paul Revere’s famous ride.Will You Sign Here, John Hancock? by Jean Fritz- This book would make a good read aloud to look at taxation of the time as well as the signing of the Declaration of Independence. It also gives a clear picture of John Hancock’s role in the American Revolution.
28Literacy Sources Continued Revolutionary War on Wednesday by Mary Pope Osborne- This book would make a good read aloud when discussing the causes and effects of the American Revolution. It is told from a child’s perspective so it is relatable.Women of the American Revolution by Louise Slavicek- This book would be used throughout the unit as a way to look at the contributions of women throughout the American Revolution. The chapters on Native American women and African American women are particularly interesting and include information that is not traditionally taught when teaching about the American Revolution.African Americans and the Revolutionary War by Judith Harper- This book would be useful in the classroom to show that African Americans made a great contribution to the American Revolution and were not passive. It is very informational so it would be best used in small sections or chapters at a time throughout the unit.
29Critical Perspectives: Why use literature? Teachers: Many teachers say that they find literature to be extremely effective when teaching all subjects. It can be a great way to truly engage students in learning about a subject.Literature Professors: These professors stress the importance of incorporating literacy throughout the curriculum. Literacy skills are extremely important especially in the early grades and should a play a role in all subjects.Social Studies Readings: Many readings throughout the Social Studies course describe how literature can add to student learning and understanding of social studies. By reading about a person, event or time period students can gain historical perspective and develop stronger understanding of history.Students find that use of literature in social studies is more memorable than the use of a text book, “My biggest memory was reading books instead of textbooks. It put a big impression on you. You could really tell how things were in a fiction book rather than out of a textbook” (Steffey & Hood, 1994, p 81).
30Unit Sketch Essential Questions How does the government affect citizens?How do taxes affect the population?What causes a Revolution?How do people express their beliefs or ideas?What role do holidays play in various cultures/countries?How does geography influence Revolution?Enduring UnderstandingsThe American Revolution was the birth of the America we know today.Taxation played a large role in the American Revolution and is still a critical issue today.How government does and does not provide for the needs and wants of people, establishes order and security and manages conflict.How citizens can influence government decisions and policies.How important events are commemorated.How historical events are affected by geography.
31Standards AddressedI. Culture Social studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study of culture and cultural diversity, so that the learner can:C. describe ways in which language, stories, folktales, music, and artistic creations serve as expressions of culture and influence behavior of people living in a particular culture.III. People, Places, & Environment Social studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study of people, places, and environments, so that the learner can:I. explore ways that the earth’s physical features have changed over time in the local region and behy9on and how these changes may be connect to one another.
32Standards AddressedVI. Power, Authority, & Government Social studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study of how people create and change structures of power, authority and governance, so that the learner can:C. give examples of how government does or does not provide for needs and wants of people, establish order and security, manage conflictX. Civic Ideals & Practices Social studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study of the ideals, principles, and practices of citizenship in a democratic republic, so that the learner can:E. explain actions citizens can take to influence public policy decisions
33Brief Description of Lessons Seven Steps of the Inquiry ProcessTuning InPreparing to Find OutFinding OutSorting OutGoing FurtherMaking ConnectionsTaking Action
34“Tuning In” ActivityRead In 1776 by Jean Marzollo aloud to the class. Next, read Katie’s Trunk by Ann Turner. After reading both texts, discuss the different perspectives represented in each story. Then facilitate the students in a class discussion about the different sides of the American Revolution.This lesson would use the instructional strategy of incorporating children’s literature in lessons in order to grasp the students’ interest in the Revolution.This lesson would address the following essential questions:What causes a Revolution?How does the government affect citizens?How do taxes affect the population?The lesson would briefly introduce all of the enduring understandings for the unit.
35“Preparing To Find Out” Activity Students will brainstorm what they already know about the American Revolution by creating a KWL Chart. At this point in the unit, students will complete the “K” portion of the chart as a class. This lesson uses the strategy of making connections with students’ prior knowledge.Students will also create the “W’ portion of the chart and make individual lists of questions that they would like to research throughout the unit.Students can complete a journal entry of what they already know about the American Revolution. This can be used as a benchmark at the end of the unit to measure how much each student has learned.This activity addresses the Essential Question:How do people express their beliefs and ideas?The activity has the potential to address all of the the Enduring Understandings depending on students’ previous knowledge.
36“Finding Out” Activity Begin Mr. Revere and I by Robert Lawson as a read aloud in class. Discuss different perspectives represented in the book such as loyalist and patriotic views. The instructional strategy used will be the incorporation of literacy.Students would begin researching nonfiction texts to find the answers to questions they wrote at the beginning of the unit. Students will work in cooperative groups to research a specific question that they will later present to the class. This uses the instructional strategy of full inquiry because students pose questions to research.All Essential Questions addressed in this activity because the teacher will be sure to guide each group towards an Essential Question.Students will learn the Enduring Understanding that applies to their group question and through the class presentation they will learn about the other Enduring Understandings.
37“Finding Out” Activity #2 In this activity we will perform a series of simulations. They will also present their group work from the previous activity before beginning the simulation. The instructional strategy used will be creating a simulation.The first simulation will be done after discussing Barron Von Steuben and George Washington. The students will be asked to line up “Von Steuben” and “Washington” style. This simulation could be carried on throughout the rest of the unit as students lined up in class.The second simulation will be a taxation simulation where students will be given play money. Student will earn money for good behavior and turning in homework. The teacher would act as the government and impose unfair taxes to the entire class. This would lead the students to not have much money and they will be unable to “cash” in their money for the prizes they would like.This activity addresses the following Essential Questions:How do taxes affect the population?How does the government affect citizens?WWhat causes a Revolution?
38“Sorting Out” Activity For this lesson, students will present the information they found in their group research. Students will present their information in any creative form that they would like as long as the presentation includes their main research question and factual information related to the question. Examples of these presentations are skits, poster boards, short stories, etc.The teaching strategy used for this activity is guided inquiry.This activity has the potential to addresses all the essential questions.All of the enduring understandings (other than the one regarding holidays) will be addressed in this lesson.
39The activity addresses the following Enduring Understandings will be addressed: Taxation played a large role in the American Revolution and is still a critical issue todayHow government does and does not provide the needs and wants of people, establishes order and security and manages conflictHow citizens can influence government decisions and policies.”
40“Going Further” Activity For this activity we will conduct another (longer) simulation. We will start by reading portions of Women of the American Revolution by Louise Slavicek and African Americans and the Revolutionary War by Judith Harper. Then we will split the class into two groups: loyalists and patriots. Within each group, students will assume the role of women, African-Americans, Native-Americans, and white men.Each student would be given a card with his or her role and would assume that role for the chosen portion of the day.This incorporates the instructional strategies of using literature and creating class simulations.The Essential Questions in this lesson are all but the question regarding holidays.All of Enduring Understandings are addressed in this lesson.
41“Making Connections” Activity During this lesson, students will begin making connections with the simulation and the world around them. We will come back as a class and discuss the simulation. Students will also complete the “L” portion of the KWL chart.As part of the grand conversation, we will discuss how the American Revolution is remembered today and how it impacted America today. We will touch on the roles of each student during the simulation and how each student felt in his or her role.This uses the instructional strategy of guided inquiry and making connections.All of the Essential Questions will be addressed.All of the Enduring Understandings will be addressed as well.
42“Taking Action” Activity Students will write a letter to the government. They will write a draft of a letter in their journal and then the drafts will be discussed in a class discussion. The letters will be about either something they think should be changed in the current government after completing the simulation or a holiday that should be celebrated. As a class, we will compose a final letter and send it to our local representative.The instructional strategy used is literacy because the students are writing.The strategies of guided inquiry and making connections are also prevalent.Due to the high level of inquiry, the Essential Questions and Enduring Understandings addressed will be based upon student interest.
43Assessment PlanFormative assessment will be conducted through observations of journal writing and class discussions.Summative assessment will be based upon final group presentations and the drafts of the letters to our local representative. The final group presentations and drafts will be graded using a rubric. The students will receive a checklist prior to completion of the activities so that they know what is expected. The checklist will be a “student friendly” version of the teacher’s rubric.
44Unit Bibliography Teacher’s Literature Beyer, B., Craven, J., McFarland, M., and Parker, W. (1991). Regions Near and Far:The World Around Us. MacMillan/McGraw-Hill School Publishing Company.New York, NY.Levstick, L. and Barton, C. (2001). Doing History Investigating with Children in Elementary and Middle Schools. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. Mahwah, NJ.Steffey, S. and Hood, W. (ed.). (1994). If This Is Social Studies, Why Isn’t It Boring?. Stenhouse Publishers. York, ME.
45Unit Bibliography Children’s Literature Fritz, Jean. (1979). Will You Sign Here, John Hancock?. Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, inc. New York, NY.Harper, Judith. (2001). African Americans and the Revolutionary War. The Child’s World.Lawson, Robert. (1953). Mr. Revere and I. Little, Brown and Company. Boston, MA.Marzollo, Jean. (1994). In Scholastic. Broadway, New York.Osborne, M. (2000). Revolutionary War on Wednesday. Scholastic INC. New York, NY.Slavicek, Louise. (2003). Women of the American Revolution. Lucent Books. Farmington Hills, MI.Turner, Ann. (1992). Katie’s Trunk. Macillan Publishing Company. New York: New York.
46Unit Bibliography Background Reading for the Teacher Fowler, W. and Coyle, W. (ed). (1979). The American Revolution Changing Perspectives. Northeastern University Press. Boston, MA.Greene, J. (ed) (1987). The American revolution Its Character and Limits. New York University Press. New York and London.Morgan, E. (ed) (1965). The American Revolution: Two Centuries of Interpretation. Prentice-Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
47Living During the American Revolution Full Lesson PlanLiving During the American RevolutionPurpose:Enduring Understanding:- Taxation played a large role in the American Revolution and is still a critical issue today.- How government does and does not provide for the needs and wants of people,establishes order and security and manages conflict.- How citizens can influence government decisions and policies.Essential Questions:- How do taxes affect the population?- How does the government affect citizens?- What causes a Revolution?Key Concepts:- Taxation: Then and Now- Students will understand how colonists viewed taxation as unfair through theirown experience of taxation.- Causes and Effects of the American Revolution- Students will be able to describe the reasons for the start of the AmericanRevolution.
48Standards Alignment:VI. Power, Authority, & Government Social studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study of how people create and change structures of power, authority, and governance so that the learner can:C. give examples of how government does or does not provide for the needs and wants ofpeople, establish order and security, manage conflictX. Civic Ideals & Practices Social studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study of the ideals, principles, and practices of citizenship in a democratic republic so that the learner can:E. explain actions citizens can take to influence public policy decisionsAdaptations for individual or group differences:Students that need additional assistance could be paired with a stronger student for the simulation. More or less structure could be provided depending on the group’s level of comfort with inquiry. The teacher could guide students that need extra help with suggestion or cue cards on how to act during the simulation.Materials:Taxation booksRegions Near and Far by Beyer, Craven, McFarland, and ParkerPlay moneyCards for each roleCue cards with suggestions (for adaptation)
49Procedure:1. Read a section of Regions Near and Far aloud to the class. Read potions of pages and discuss George Washington and Baron Von Steuben as leaders of the army.a. Pay special attention to their tactics in lining up the troops.2. Discuss which way would be better to line up in the halls. Ask students to present the pros and cons of each method.a. Which way is faster? Which way is easiest?3. Line up and practice marching in both “Washington” and “Von Steuben” style.4. As students march back into the classroom, they will march into 1776 and collect their wages. Each student’s wage is based on classroom behavior and assignments collected for the day.a. Money handed out will be based upon supplies available and the students’ ability to work with different numbers and coins.5. Show students objects that they can buy with their money and ask them to think about what they might buy.6. Ask students to link up at the purchasing table “Washington” style.7. As students are standing in line, the teacher will announce a tax for being a second grader.8. Explain that this will be an ongoing process and that there may be additional taxes later in the week as students earn their wages.9. For a culminating discussion, ask students whether or not they believe it is fair that the teacher could impose a tax for no reason at all.
5010. Ask students to write an entry in their journals 10. Ask students to write an entry in their journals. Write the requirements and prompts on the board.a. Draw a picture of how to line up “Washington” and “Von Steuben” style. Give one reason why an army might line up in each style.b. Answer the following questions: Do you think the tax was fair? Do you think the patriots had cause to rebel?Assessment:Formative assessment would be based upon student participation and behavior as well as the class discussion at the end of the activity. Summative assessment would be conducted through a journal entry. Students must have both components for their journals. Final journal entry will be graded using a rubric. See the rubric on the next slide.
51Component 5 10 Washington and Von Steuben Contains a picture but not explanation or illogical explanation.Contains a picture and a logical explanation.TaxationAnswer is incomplete, illogical, or not historically accurate.Answer is complete, logical, and historically accurate.
52Reflection Reflect on Process Reflect on Content We enjoyed interviewing students and teachers in order to find out their thoughts on the American Revolution. The background knowledge gained through the additional readings helped us create a historically accurate unit. Also, working with the “big picture” made planning the unit more interesting because we could focus on the overall goals of the unit. However working with the Seven Steps of the Inquiry Process made the project a little more difficult to try to find a valid activity that fit with the goals of the unit.Reflect on ContentWe learned how to look at different perspectives that may not have been addressed when we were in elementary school. We also learned how to make the American Revolution easily understood to children at the second grade level.
53Reflection Continued How will this influence our future with students? This will influence our future teaching because we will put an emphasis on the idea of looking at an event through multiple perspectives.We also learned how to effectively write essential questions and enduring understandings which will help later in our teaching as we create units.