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Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 Chapter 1: What Is the Nature of Science? Teaching Science for All Children An Inquiry Approach any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law:
Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 Central concepts : Children’s perceptions of science vary, are influenced by society, and often are inaccurate Considerable improvements in science achievement have been made over the past decade, yet present conditions and majority of teaching practices limit achievement gains for females and minority groups The nature of science is a dynamic human enterprise, not a static construct The nature of science considers a world view, incorporates inquiry processes, and effective lessons include these components. “Whole science” represents the interrelationship of all three components: Attitudes, Processes and Knowledge National Science Education Standards advocate scientific literacy for all learners through a whole science philosophy and teaching approach T 1.0
Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 Children’s Perceptions Science is... “Real hard. Harder than reading. We aren’t allowed to have it in kindergarten.” (Antonio - K) “After lunch sometimes when there is nothing else to do.” (Shawna, 1st) “Children can’t be scientists until they are older.” (first grader) “When you smoke cigarettes and get cancer it is because of science.” (Nancy, 1st) “We just read a book. I think you get it in junior high....” (William, 3rd) “Children can be scientists and really good ones, too!” (third grader) “It depends on what grade you’re in and who your teacher is.” (Greg, 5th) “Supposed to be about learning how we learn about the world and how to use the scientific method in thinking. I know because my dad is a scientist and he keeps asking me when we’re going to learn that in science. I just tell him that we haven’t gotten to it yet.” (Doreen, 6th) T 1.1
Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 Children’s Perceptions, cont. Draw a scientist, compare to Figure 1.1 and answer: Who are scientists? Is the following True of your drawings? “Scientists are middle aged white males who wear lab coats and glasses. Their peculiar facial features are indicative of their generally deranged behavior. They work indoors, alone, perhaps underground, surrounded by smoking test tubes and other pieces of technology. An air of secrecy and danger surrounds their work.” T 1.2
Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 Achievement (according to NAEP data) Most states show no improvement for grades 4 & 8 since 1996 (NAEP data) 4th grade achievement gaps for racial groups have decreased; no change for 8th grade No Child Left Behind accused of reducing time spent teaching science (Center on Education Policy) T 1.3
Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 Gender (according to NAEP data) 4th Grade average scores have increased for Males and Females Achievement gap expands over time and favors Males T 1.4
Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 Race/Ethnicity/Income (according to NAEP data) Average scores for Proficient level of White learners at all grade levels continues to be higher than Asian, Black, Hispanic, or American Indian peers. Score gap between White learners and Black and Hispanic learners has shrunk since Students from lower income families show gains T 1.5
Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 Effective Teaching and Learning Key factors, according to teachers, to help all learners: Content that is significant and worthwhile (standards-based). Engaged learning through purposeful interaction. Learning environment - respectful and rigorous. Access for all learners via adjusted instruction. Skillful uses of questioning to enhance conceptualization. Making sense by making intellectual connections. T 1.6
Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 The Nature of Science … The Scientific World View: The world is understandable. Scientific ideas are subject to change. Scientific knowledge is durable & rejects the notion of absolute truth. Science cannot provide the answers to all questions. T 1.7
Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 The Nature of Science … Scientific Inquiry: Science demands evidence achieved through processes. Science is a blend of logic and imagination. Science explains and predicts. Scientists try to identify and avoid bias. Science is not authoritarian. T 1.8
Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 The Nature of Science … The Scientific Enterprise: Science is a complex social activity. Science is organized into content disciplines for specialization. Uses accepted principles of ethics and conduct. Scientists have a social responsibility and participate in public affairs as experts and as citizens. T 1.9
Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 T 1.10 Science is a concept constructed from human thoughts and actions. Humans are driven to inquiry by our curiosity and our need to know. The ways we seek help us to make the discoveries through the processes of science. Table 1.1 illustrates New Dimensions of Science Content Standards and Outcomes that reveal the practical nature of science for young learners What is Science?
Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 Key Components of Science Lessons Attitudes Processes Knowledge Arranged in a meaningful relationship T 1.11
Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 Attitudes Emotional attitudes arise from natural curiosity. Intellectual attitudes arise from positive learning experiences and require advances in mental development. See Table 1.2 T 1.12
Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 T 1.13 Scientific Attitudes
Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 T 1.14 Observing Classifying Measuring 22 Scientific Processes include Basic Skills such as: Reference: Table 1.3
Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 T 1.15 Hypothesizing Experimenting Investigating Scientific Processes include Integrated Skills such as: If... Then... Reference: Table 1.3
Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 T Facts 2.Concepts 3.Principles 4.Theories Science Knowledge includes:
Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 Formula from the National Science Education Standards: Whole Science = Attitudes + Processes + Knowledge The Nature of Whole Science Whole Science Scientific Literacy T 1.17
Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 Aims of Standards & Research-Based Reform Engage and guide learners; meaningful content Share responsibility for learning with children Adapt the curriculum for authentic learning Assess progress in multiple ways Maintain a science safe environment Use questions to excite, motivate and sustain Support learning for all children T 1.18
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