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Reynolds Intellectual Assessment ScalesTM (RIASTM)

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Presentation on theme: "Reynolds Intellectual Assessment ScalesTM (RIASTM)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Reynolds Intellectual Assessment ScalesTM (RIASTM)
Cecil Reynolds, PhD Randy Kamphaus, PhD

2 Acknowledgments Coauthor Cecil Reynolds
PAR president Bob Smith and staff Travis White, Christine Maguire, Paul Jurica, Mario Rodriguez, Jim Gyurke, and Judy Zimmerman Students Nancy Hatcher, Cheryl Hendry, and Ellen Rowe Mentors John Nolan, Alan Kaufman, Pete Prunkl, George Ratajak, and Dennis Campbell Researchers Carl Huberty, Roy Martin, George Hynd, and Paul Frick

3 Summary of Eight Primary Goals for Development of the RIAS

4 Verbal, Nonverbal, and Memory Components

5 Structure and Components of the RIAS Indexes

6 1. Guess What (GWH) Requires verbal reasoning, vocabulary, language development, and verbal knowledge base Directions: “Listen carefully while I read you a question. When I finish, tell me your answer.”

7 1. Guess What (GWH) What is made of wood, filled with lead, and used for writing? Pencil What has drawings of places on it, is color coded, and is used to study geography? Map What makes use of a cathode ray tube, has an antenna, and outputs both audio and video? Television set

8 2. Odd-Item Out (OIO) Measures nonverbal reasoning skills, requiring the examinee to use spatial ability and visualization Directions: “Look at this picture. Point to the one that doesn’t belong, the one that doesn’t go with the others.”

9 Odd-Item Out (OIO)

10 Odd-Item Out (OIO)

11 Odd-Item Out (OIO)

12 3. Verbal Reasoning (VRZ)
Measures verbal-analytical reasoning ability with fewer vocabulary and general knowledge demands than GWH Directions: “Listen carefully while I read something to you. When I finish, tell me your answer.”

13 Verbal Reasoning (VRZ)
Grass is to green, as sky is to ____? Blue Fire hydrant is to short, as skyscraper is to ____? Tall Waiter is to restaurant, as masseuse is to ___ ? Spa

14 4. What’s Missing (WHM) Measures nonverbal reasoning where the individual must conceptualize the picture, analyze its gestalt, and deduce the essential missing element Directions: “Look carefully. What’s missing in this picture?”

15 What’s Missing (WHM)

16 What’s Missing (WHM)

17 5. Verbal Memory (VRM) Assesses the ability to encode, briefly store, and recall verbal material in a meaningful context where associations are clear and evident Directions: “Listen carefully while a read you a sentence/story. When I stop reading, tell it back to me. Do the very best you can. Try to tell it back to me using the same words.”

18 Verbal Memory (VRM) Stories

19 Scoring examples for the RIAS Verbal Memory subtest: Sentences

20 Scoring examples for the RIAS Verbal Memory subtest: Stories

21 Verbal Memory Subtest Items by Age

22 6. Nonverbal Memory (NVM)
Assesses the ability to encode, store, and recognize pictorial stimuli that are both concrete and abstract or without meaningful referents Directions: “See this picture? Look carefully.” (Allow 5 seconds.) “Point to the picture you saw.”

23 Nonverbal Memory (NVM)

24 Nonverbal Memory (NVM)

25 Example of a Completed First Page of the RIAS Record Form

26 Example of Completed Profile Graphs From the RIAS Record Form

27 Sample Case: ADHD Combined Type and Reading Disability
8-year-old boy in special education for three periods per day and daily after-school tutoring Dx of ADHD in 2002; currently taking Concerta (36 mg QD) Poor academic motivation Hx of cardiac arrest and anoxia at birth

28 RIAS Results Verbal Intelligence Index (VIX) 85
Nonverbal Intelligence Index (NIX) Composite Intelligence Index (CIX) 89 Composite Memory Index (CMX) 84

29 Other Results and Disposition
Total reading is 70 on one measure and 69 on another Mother ratings are: Hyperactivity (89), Conduct Problems (79), Atypicality (80), Attention Problems (84), Aggression (73), and Depression (72) Regular education teacher ratings are: Hyperactivity (76), Attention Problems (71), Learning Problems (80) and Atypicality (96) Special education teacher rating is: Hyperactivity (72) Composite intelligence test score in 2002 was 89 Special education participation was increased

30 RIAS Scheme of Verbal Descriptors of Intelligence Test Performance

31 Interpretation Steps Collect collateral information
List all scores that may indicate functional impairment or strength Integrate information and draw conclusions consistent with scientific knowledge Test rival hypotheses

32 Sample Case: Academic Underachievement and Dysphoria
7-year-old second grader referred for suspected LD and severe emotional outbursts that occur daily at home Stanford-Binet composite in 2000 was 84; achievement scores ranged from 61 in math to 76 in reading Hx of depression for maternal grandmother, great grandmother, several aunts and uncles, and older sister; one aunt diagnosed with bipolar disorder Behavior during testing was optimal

33 RIAS Results Verbal Intelligence Index (VIX) 96
Nonverbal Intelligence Index (NIX) 115 Composite Intelligence Index (CIX) 104 Composite Memory Index (CMX) 111

34 Other Results and Disposition
Achievement scores ranged from 89 in mathematics to 94 in spelling Examinee over-controls emotions and has low self-esteem as indicated on Rorschach Mother ratings are: Somatization (73), Withdrawal (73), Atypicality (92), Attention Problems (71), Aggression (69), and Depression (69) Teacher ratings are: Anxiety (69) and Somatization (64) Psychotherapy and monitoring for learning disability and depression recommended

35 Sample Case: Seizure Disorder, Adult Onset
40-year-old male high school graduate has worked in saw blade manufacturing for 22 years; factory uses acetylene to harden saw blades Chronic headaches for past 3 years Progressive symptoms of extreme fatigue, anxiety, agitation, anger outbursts, sweating, confusion Hard neurological signs, four focal lesions, noted on MRI Diagnosed with absence and complex partial seizure disorder, sleep apnea, possible early Parkinson’s disease Unable to work, receiving disability, and in litigation against former employer

36 RIAS Results GWH 30 OIO 20 VRZ 25 WHM 54 VRM 48 NVM 33 VIX/NIX/CMX 66
81 84 CIX 70

37 Evaluation of Reliability and Validity Evidence for the RIAS Indexes and Subtests

38 Demographic Characteristics of the U. S
Demographic Characteristics of the U.S. Population and of the RIAS Standardization Sample: Percentages by Age and Ethnicity

39 Demographic Characteristics of the U. S
Demographic Characteristics of the U.S. Population and of the RIAS Standardization Sample: Percentages by Age and Educational Attainment

40 Reliability Coefficients of the RIAS Subtests by Age Group

41 Reliability Estimates of the RIAS Indexes by Age Group

42 Standard Errors of Measurement of the RIAS Indexes by Age Group

43 Stability Coefficients of Scores for the RIAS Subtests and Indexes for the Total Test-Retest Sample

44 Stability Coefficients of Scores for the RIAS Subtests and Indexes for the 3- to 4-Year-Old Test-Retest Subsample

45 Sample Case: ADHD Combined Type
11-year-old male fifth grader who has been taking Ritalin (now 20 mg SR) for past 6 years Adopted child with history of neglect, exposure to family violence, and multiple foster home placements Classified as “other health impaired” and receiving special education for 7 years Expresses dislike for school but is obtaining satisfactory grades Composite IQs were 84 at age 5 years, 77 at age 7 years, and 83 at age 9 years Nonverbal scores were always lowest (72 at age 5 years, 70 at age 7 years, and 64 at age 9 years)

46 RIAS Results Verbal Intelligence Index (VIX) 92
Nonverbal Intelligence Index (NIX) 104 Composite Intelligence Index (CIX) 98 Composite Memory Index (CMX) 80

47 Other Results and Disposition
Achievement scores ranged from 84 in mathematics to 114 in spelling Adoptive mother ratings are: Hyperactivity (73) and Attention Problems (68) Teacher ratings are: Anxiety (79) and Learning Problems (71) Continue special education with additional strategies to help him stay organized and productive

48 Demographic Characteristics for the RIAS and WISC-III Correlations Sample

49 Correlations Between the RIAS Indexes and the WISC-III IQs

50 Correlations Between the RIAS Subtests and the WISC-III Subtests

51 Demographic Characteristics for the RIAS and WAIS-III Correlations Sample

52 Correlations Between the RIAS Indexes and the WAIS-III IQs

53 Correlations Between the RIAS Subtests and the WAIS-III Subtests

54 Demographic Characteristics for the RIAS and WIAT Correlations Sample

55 Correlations Between the RIAS Indexes and the WIAT Composites

56 Correlations Between the RIAS Subtests and the WIAT Subtests

57 RIAS Scores for Various Clinical Groups

58 RIAS Scores for Children and Adults With Learning Disabilities or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

59 RIAS Scores for Five Groups With Psychiatric Disorders

60 Example of a Completed Score Summary and Profile Graphs From the RIST Record Form

61 Standard Errors of Measurement and Reliability Coefficients of the RIST by Age, Gender, and Ethnicity

62 Stability Coefficients of the RIST

63 Correlations Between the RIST and Other Measures of Intelligence and Achievement

64 RIST Scores for Various Clinical Groups

65 Correlations Between the RIAS Subtest T Scores and Indexes and the RIST Index by Age Group

66 Cumulative Percentages of RIAS Subtest Score Discrepancies for Ages 6 to 11 Years

67 RIAS Measure of g: Four Subtests

68 RIAS Intelligence Subtest Loadings From a Principal Factors Solution by Age Group

69 RIAS Measure of g: Six Subtests

70 RIAS Intelligence and Memory Subtest Loadings From a Principal Factors Solution by Age Group

71 Verbal and Nonverbal Components: Four Subtests

72 Verbal and Nonverbal Components: Six Subtests

73 Verbal, Nonverbal, and Memory Components

74 Goodness of Fit Statistics for Confirmatory Factor Analyses of Competing Models for the RIAS in 3- to 5-Year-Olds

75 Goodness of Fit Statistics for Confirmatory Factor Analyses of Competing Models for the RIAS in 6- to 11-Year-Olds

76 Goodness of Fit Statistics for Confirmatory Factor Analyses of Competing Models for the RIAS in 12- to 18-Year-Olds

77 Goodness of Fit Statistics for Confirmatory Factor Analyses of Competing Models for the RIAS in 19- to 54-Year-Olds

78 Goodness of Fit Statistics for Confirmatory Factor Analyses of Competing Models for the RIAS in 55- to 94-Year-Olds

79 Cumulative Percentages of RIAS Subtest Score Discrepancies for Ages 19 to 94 Years

80 Smoothed Mean Raw Scores for the Guess What Subtest for Males by Age

81 Smoothed Mean Raw Scores for the Guess What Subtest for Females by Age

82 Sample Case: Lacunar Infarct
Age 52, seen for infarct in the posterior limb of the left internal capsule Symptoms include right unilateral deficits in motor strength and speed, impaired attention, impaired visual-motor integration, and diminished short-term memory, although memory improved 1 year post- incident Depression and anxiety have worsened to include suicidal ideation and taking 4 or more hours to fall asleep K-BIT was 92 in 2001 and 88 in 2002

83 MMPI-2 Results Hypochondriasis 80 Depression 96 Hysteria 75
Psychopathic Deviate 63 M/F 65 Paranoia 92 Psychasthenia 88 Schizophrenia 91 Hypomania 49 Social Introversion 86

84 RIAS Results GWH 41 OIO 44 VRZ 42 WHM 39 VRM 51 NVM VIX/NIX/CMX 89 88
94 CIX 87

85 Diagnoses Axis I Cognitive Disorder due to CVA Stress-Related Physiological Response Affecting Medical Condition Major Depressive Disorder, Severe Without Psychotic Features Axis II V71.09 No diagnosis Axis III Status post CVA in Hypertension, migraines Axis IV Occupational problems (unemployment), problems with primary support group (conflicts with live-in boyfriend), economic problems Axis V Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) = 30

86 Resources PAR: www.parinc.com
Kamphaus, R. W. (2005). Clinical assessment of child and adolescent intelligence (2nd ed.). New York: Springer. Available at Frick, P. J., Barry, C., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2009). Clinical assessment of child and adolescent personality and behavior (3rd ed.). New York: Springer. Available at


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