Presentation on theme: "Forms of Hypotheses Research Working Directional Null."— Presentation transcript:
Forms of Hypotheses Research Working Directional Null
Research hypotheses, ex. 1-2 There is a relationship between critical thinking ability and performance on the Science Concepts Test. There is a relationship between the amount of study time and the number of items correct on a geometry test.
Research hypotheses, ex. 3-4 There is a relationship between parenting style and adolescents' academic achievement. There is a relationship between social skills training and peer acceptance.
Basic form of the research hypothesis: There is a relationship between variable X and variable Y. (The research hypothesis is often implied in the research report.)
Working hypothesis Serves as a starting point for the researcher. It is not a “formal” hypothesis.
Working hypotheses, ex. 1-2: There is a significant difference between low- ability students in ability-grouped classes and comparable students in randomly-grouped classes on intrinsic motivation. There is a significant difference in the math achievement of 8th graders who spend more time- on-task for worked examples and those who spend less time-on-task.
Working hypotheses, ex. 3-4 There will be a significant difference in science achievement between students who are taught science through “interactive collaboration” and comparable students taught through “creative exploration.” The mean Science Concepts Test scores of 9th grade boys and girls will significantly differ following science instruction.
Working hypotheses, ex. 5: Self-esteem scores will significantly differ for peer-rejected 5th grade boys who receive social skills training and comparable boys who do not receive training.
Directional hypothesis Posits not only that a difference exists between or among 2 or more groups, but also the direction of the difference.
Directional hypotheses, ex. 1-2 The mean score of male 12th graders will be significantly greater than the mean score of female 12th graders, after one semester of instruction, on the Science Concepts Test. Special education teachers will report significantly higher rates of "burn-out" than will regular education teachers.
Directional hypotheses, ex. 3-4 There is a positive relationship between the number of older siblings and the social maturity scores of six year old children. Children who attended preschool will show significantly greater gains in first grade reading achievement than will comparable children who did not attend preschool.
Directional hypotheses, ex. 5-6 10th grade biology students who are instructed using multimedia will have significantly higher test scores than will comparable students receiving only lecture-based instruction. High school students with behavior disorders who are taught conflict resolution techniques will exhibit significantly fewer instances of aggressive behaviors than will comparable students who are not taught these techniques.
Null hypothesis Posit no difference between or among groups, or no relationship between or among variables.
Null hypotheses, ex. 1-2 There will be no significant difference in the average scores of male and female 9th graders on the Science Concepts Test following one semester of science instruction. There is no relationship between the amount of study time and the number of items correct on a geometry test.
Null hypotheses, ex. 3-4 There is no relationship between adults' reading practices and their literacy proficiencies, as determined by their performance on NALS assessment. There is no relationship between the ability level of students with whom teachers work and teachers' susceptibility to "burn-out".
Null hypotheses, ex. 5-6 There will be no significant differences in 5 th grade academic performance between students who were enrolled in Project Follow-Through during grades 1-3 and those who were not enrolled. There will be no significant differences in the academic achievement of 10th grade biology students who are instructed using multimedia technology and comparable students who receive lecture-based instruction.
Working and directional are alternative hypotheses to the null hypothesis.
Which type of hypothesis is best to use? -Your research question will determine the type of hypothesis you select -The research literature will determine the type of hypothesis you select