2HOMEWORK:What health problems are associated with drinking alcohol? Describe the problems, don’t just list a couple.Keep a log of the number of times an alcohol related commercial comes on TV. Keep track of the time frame. Example, three commercials during 30 minute span. List the alcohol type.
3Firsthand AccountsDO NOW! On a sheet of paper, describe an account of someone you know who has consumed alcohol. What happened? How did they act? ** Do not put your name on the paper!! This is completely anonymous! These will be discussed.
5General Information Alcohol may be the world’s oldest known drug. Also known as ethyl alcohol or ethanolBig business in today’s societyAlcohol abuse has become a major public health problem.
6The path of alcohol in the body Mouth: alcohol enters the body.Stomach: some alcohol gets into the bloodstream in the stomach, but most goes on to the small intestine.Small Intestine: alcohol enters the bloodstream through the walls of the small intestine.Heart: pumps alcohol throughout the body.Brain: alcohol reaches the brain.Liver: alcohol is oxidized by the liver at a rate of about 0.5 oz per hour.Alcohol is converted into water, carbon dioxide and energy.
7How alcohol can effect you Factors that influence how alcohol will affect a person include:agegenderphysical conditionamount of food eatenother drugs or medicines taken
8Effects on the body Alcohol is a central nervous system depressant. In low doses, alcohol can produce:a relaxing effectreduced tensionlower inhibitionsimpaired concentrationslower reflexesimpaired reaction timereduced coordination
9Effects on the body In medium doses, alcohol can produce: slurred speechdrowsinessaltered emotionsIn high doses, alcohol can produce:vomitingbreathing difficultiesunconsciousnesscomaDEATH
10Addicted?Chronic drinking can lead to dependence and addiction to alcoholWithdrawal symptoms include shaking (tremors), sleep problems, and nausea.More severe withdrawal symptoms include hallucinations and even seizures.
11Effects On the Body Central Nervous System Accelerates the loss of brain cells, contributing to cognitive deficits. Chronic use can lead to brain damage.LiverLong-term excessive drinking can cause hepatitis (inflammation and destruction of liver cells) and cirrhosis (scarring and shrinkage of the liver).
12Effects On the Body Kidneys Impairs their ability to regulate the volume and composition of fluid and electrolytes in the body.HeartChronic, heavy alcohol use increases the risk of heart disease.Alcohol use can also worsen high blood pressure and diabetes, two risk factors for heart disease.
14Effects on Kidneys and Brain No exposure to alcoholHeavy prenatal exposure to alcoholPhoto courtesy of Sterling Clarren, MD
15Statistics16,885 alcohol-related fatalities in 2005 – 39 percent of the total traffic fatalities for the year.Nationwide in 2005, alcohol was present in 24 percent of the drivers involved in fatal crashes.The 16,885 fatalities represent one alcohol-related fatality every 31 minutes.≈ 254,000 injured in crashes where alcohol was present — an average of one person injured ≈ every 2 minutes
17Two main Categories of Drugs StimulantsCocaineCrack cocaineAmphetamines (methamphetamine, ecstasy)Nicotine
18How Many Teens Use Them?A 2004 NIDA-funded study reported that the following percentages of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-graders had tried these drugs at least once:Cocaine: 3.4 percent of 8th-graders, 5.4 percent of 10th-graders, and 8.1 percent of 12th-gradersCrack: 2.4 percent of 8th-graders, 2.6 percent of 10th-graders, and 3.9 percent of 12th-gradersAmphetamines: 7.5 percent of 8th-graders, 11.9 percent of 10th-graders, and 15.0 percent of 12th-gradersMethamphetamine: 2.5 percent of 8th-graders, 5.2 percent of 10th-graders, and 6.2 percent of 12th-graders
19Two main Categories of Drugs DepressantsHeroinMarijuanaBarbiturates – Oxycodone, Morphine, Codeine, ValiumGHB
20Inhalant Use Inhalants generally fall into three categories: Solvents- paint thinner, nail polish remover, gasoline, and glueGases- whipped cream dispensers, spray paint, hair spray, deodorant spray, nitrous oxide, etherNitrites- room deodorizers17.3 percent of 8th-graders, 12.4 percent of 10th-graders, and 11.9 percent of 12th-graders have tried inhalants at least once in their life.
22Drug Abuse - Why do people start? Feel olderFeel coolFeel differentPeer pressureFit inFunMedia: advertising, TV, movies, musicFriends / familyRelieve stress / relaxIdea that it’s easy to quit.“just want to try it”Social crutch: feel confident in social situations, something to handle or holdDeal with problems: escape, pressure, depression, boredomDon’t know how to say no.
23Smoking Organs Affected by Smoking: Nose, throat, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs. Also called the respiratory tract.
24SmokingPrevalence: 22.3% of Americans smoke. Equivalent to 67.2 million people in USALifetime risk of Smoking: 1 in 2 chance of dying from a smoking-related disease.Worldwide prevalence: 1.3 billion people smoke worldwide.Average life years lost for Smoking: 12 years
25SmokingConditions:Chronic bronchitisEmphysemaWide variety of cancersLinked to heart diseaseLinked to artery diseaseDeaths: 440,000 annual deaths in US each year are smoking-associated (CDC). Equivalent to 36,666 per month, 8,461 per week, 1,205 per day, 50 per hour, almost 1 per second.
26Why You Should Not Smoke Smoking gives you bad breathSmoking makes your clothes and hair smellSmoking turns your teeth and fingernails yellowSmoking makes your skin look grey and unhealthySmoking can produce a hacking cough with lots of phlegm. Really attractive!Smoking zaps your energy for sports and other activities.