2 Early AmericansPeople migrating to the Americas from Asia entered Alaska over a land bridge, though a body of water called the Bering Strait.Humans first reached Texas about 11,000 years ago.
3 Early AmericansOne who studies evidence of past human activities is an archaeologist.Culture is the way groups of people express and conduct themselves
4 Early AmericansPeople migrated from Asia to America to follow herds of animals.The earliest people in Texas obtained food by hunting big game.
5 Early TexansDuring the Archaic Age, life in Texas changed as people began to gather food and use tools to prepare the foodFarming changed the way people lived because it led to more complex societies
6 Tribes of TexasFour different Native American cultures lived in Texas in 1500:PuebloPlainsSoutheasternGulf
7 Tribes of TexasThe Native Americans of the Southeastern and Gulf cultures included: Coahuiltecan Caddo Karankawa Wichita
8 Tribes of TexasThe land of the Gulf people was unsuitable for farming, so they hunted and foraged.
9 Tribes of TexasFarming was important to the development of Native American culture. It allowed people to have a dependable food source.
10 Tribes of TexasKiowas prized tradition and ceremony above everything elseA shaman is a person who leads religious ceremonies
11 Tribes of TexasComanche life centered on hunting and making war on other tribes.Because they lived on land that was sought by others, the Wichitas were often at war.
12 Tribes of TexasThe Lipan Apaches spent most of their final years at war. They were threatened by the Comanches and Spanish.
13 Tribes of TexasThe Gulf Coast Coahuiltecan tribe disappeared from Texas because they:Died of European diseasesWere killed in battleMigrated to Mexico
14 Tribes of TexasThe destruction of buffalo herds and loss of their horses forced the Comanches to accept life on reservations in Oklahoma.
15 Exchange of IdeasThe Spanish brought horses, cows and other animals to the Americas. The Plains people used horses for attacking enemies.
16 Exchange of IdeasNative Americans taught Europeans how to hunt native animals, how to cultivate new plants, and how to prepare new foods.
17 Key Terms An artifact is an object made or altered by humans One advantage humans had over animals they hunted was that they had weapons.
18 Key TermsA tepee is a dwelling made of tanned hides and poles that can be moved.
19 Key TermsAdobe is building material made of sun-dried bricks. Adobe houses lasted for years because the climate was very dry.