2Do NowWhy do people move?List at least 5 reasons in your binder.
3Push and Pull Why do people move? There are both push factors and pull factors:Push factors = conditions that force people to leave a certain areaPull factors = conditions that draw people to a certain area
4African American Migration After the Civil War, many African Americans moved:to towns and citiesto the Northto the WestWhat factors may have “pushed” African Americans to leave the South?What might factors may have “pulled” African Americans to the city? To the North? To the West?
5“Expansion” can have many meanings: Expansion of territory (purchase of land, treaties, conquest).Expansion of settler population (through migration).
6“Manifest Destiny”A phrase coined in the 1840s by an American journalistFirst used to justify American expansion into western territories.Later used to justify American economic and cultural domination around the worldJohn L. O'Sullivan
7Manifest Destiny Refers to the widely held belief that The anglo-American way of life is better than any other (best type of government, economy, culture, etc.)Therefore, the U.S. had both a right and a duty to spread out across the entire continent.American expansion was inevitable, necessary, and had been ordained by God!
8Manifest Destiny Although the phrase was new, the idea was not: even as British colonists, settlers pushed farther and farther west.thousands of colonists, for example, ignored the Proclamation of 1763, which forbid settlement of the Ohio River Valley.Famous frontiersman Daniel Boone Escorts settlers through the Cumberland Gap
9The ArgumentFulfilling this “destiny,” many argued, would benefit everyone involved:American settlers would gain access to much needed land (U.S. population was growing very quickly at this time)others would have the opportunity to learn the (superior) American way of life.
10Underlying Assumptions Through farming and construction, it was believed that American settlers actually improved the land (made it more productive).Anyone who did not build permanent homes and who did not farm on a large scale were simply wasting the land.Ethnocentrism?
11Ethnocentrismthe belief that your own group or culture is better or more important than others.
12Spirit of the Frontier (American Progress), 1872 by John Gast How does this painting explain the attitude of Americans in the mid-1800s?This painting (circa 1872) by John Gast called American Progress, is an allegorical representation of the modernization of the new west. Here Columbia, a personification of the United States, leads civilization westward with American settlers, stringing telegraph wire as she sweeps west; she holds a school book. The different stages of economic activity of the pioneers are highlighted and, especially, the changing forms of transportation.In 1872 artist John Gast painted a popular scene of people moving west that captured the view of Americans at the time. Called "Spirit of the Frontier" and widely distributed as an engraving portrayed settlers moving west, guided and protected by a goddess-like figure of Columbia and aided by technology (railways, telegraphs), driving Native Americans and bison into obscurity. It is also important to note that angel is bringing the "light" as witnessed on the eastern side of the painting as she travels towards the "darkened" west.Spirit of the Frontier (American Progress), 1872 by John Gast
13Events and Inventions that helped America fulfill its “Manifest Destiny” Northwest Ordinance – establishes a procedure for dividing land into territories and encourages settlement of the Ohio River Valley.Louisiana Purchase - doubles the size of the U.S.
14Events and Inventions that helped America fulfill its “Manifest Destiny” Lewis and Clark Expedition – to gather information about plants, animals, and Native American tribes of the West (pg. 200)The Whitman family reaches the Oregon Territory – proves that wooden-wheeled wagons can travel the Oregon Trail; thousands of American pioneers would follow their lead (pgs. 283 and )Lewis and Clark, pages 200 – 201; the Whitmans, page 284; Oregon Trail 283,
15Events and Inventions that helped America fulfill its “Manifest Destiny” John Deere Invents the Steel Plow – slices through heavy soil much more easily than existing plows.Texas Joins the Union – Mexican government is furiousU.S. War with Mexico Begins
16Events and Inventions that helped America fulfill its “Manifest Destiny” Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – ends war with MexicoGold is Discovered at Sutter’s Mill – migration to California skyrocketsRailroads Open the West – the federal government begins making huge land grants to railroad companies.Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, page 297; Land Grants to railroad companies, 420
17Events and Inventions that helped America fulfill its “Manifest Destiny” President Lincoln signs the Homestead Act, the Pacific Railways Act, and the Morrill Act into law.Transcontinental Railroad Completed – Central Pacific and Union Pacific Railroads meet at Promontory Point, Utah.Homestead Act, page 421
18Why might the information gathered by Lewis and Clarke be valuable to future settlers?
19What were some of the obstacles settlers faced on western trails?
24Do Now, 4/28/14Use the Excerpt provided to answer Homestead Act Do Now question #1
25Do Now, 4/28/14According to section 2 of the Homestead Act, what did settlers have to DO before they could receive a patent (deed of ownership) for the land they were claiming?Submit an application;Pay a $10 application fee;Live on the land for 5 years;Cultivate (farm) a portion of the land (1/4 or less of the 160 acres);Document A
26Do Now, 4/28/14According to section 2 of the Homestead Act, what did settlers have to DO before they could receive a patent (deed of ownership) for the land they were claiming?Swear in writing that they met all of the qualifications (head of household, citizenship, etc.) and that they were not claiming the property for someone else;Make other “improvements” such as building a home, barn, etc.;Document BProvide proof: Two “credible” witnesses had to swear in writing that the applicant had met all of the requirements.
27Homestead Document Analysis Document A: The ApplicationDocument B: The ProofSubmitted 1863Submitted 1868
29Settling the Great Plains: Part A Directions: Read pages 420 – 423 and note how each of the factors listed below (Causes) helped to settle the West and turned the eastern Great Plains into the nation’s “breadbasket” (Effects).Land grants given to railroads.The Homestead Act and related laws passed in the 1870s.Inventions and improvements in farm technology.Morrill Act and Hatch Act.
30Settling the Great Plains: Model CauseEffectThe Homestead Act and related laws passed in the 1870sHomestead Act offered 160 acres of free land to anyone who would farm it for 5 years; similar acts offering cheap (or free) land in states such as Kansas and Oklahoma were later passed .
31Settling the Great Plains: Part A CauseEffectRailroad companies sold frontier land to farmers at low prices; recruited Europeans to buy and farm frontier land.Homestead Act offered 160 acres of free land to anyone who would farm it for 5 years; similar acts offering cheap (or free) land in states such as Kansas and Oklahoma were later passed.Land Grants given to the railroads.The Homestead Act and related laws passed in the 1870s
32Settling the Great Plains: Part A CauseEffectInventions and improvements in farm technologyIncreased farm productivity by decreasing the amount of effort and time required to produce farm goods;led to profitable industry – manufacturers of farm equipment multiply
33Settling the Great Plains: Part A CauseEffectMorrill Act and Hatch ActSupported farmers by financing agricultural education and research in farm technology and methodology
34Exit SlipExplain at least two ways in which the government encouraged the settlement of the Great Plains.Homework: Answer questions 5 – 10 in complete sentences on a sheet of lined paper.
35Themes in History Human-Environment Interaction: Throughout history, humans have changed and have been changed by their environment. As you learn about our continuous interaction with the environment, keep these questions in mind:How do humans adjust to the climate and terrain where they live?What positive and negative changes have people made to their environment?
36Human-Environment Interaction on the Plains Use information from your completed “Settling the Great Plains” chart and guided reading questions to respond to the following:How did settlers adjust to the climate and terrain of the Great Plains?What positive and negative changes did settlers make to the environment of the Great Plains?