Presentation on theme: "Performance based navigation: The ICAO PBN programme"— Presentation transcript:
1Performance based navigation: The ICAO PBN programme ANNEX 6 requires operators to obtain operational approval for RNP 4 orRNP 10 from the State of Registry or State of Operator, as appropriate.We are now going to give an overview of the RNAV 10 (RNP 10) and RNP 4 Navigation Specifications for oceanic operations.Alessandro CaprettiTechnical Officer, CNSICAO
2Overview Background PBN concept and goals PBN navigation specificationsStatus of ICAO PBN reference documentsPBN flight inspection and validationICAO PBN implementation activitiesToday I will provide you an overview of Performance Based Navigation, the background to the concept and some details about the concept itself.
3Background ICAO PBN concept = evolution of the ICAO RNP concept RNP concept: FANS Committee / RGCS panel (late ’80s)Manual on Required Navigation Performance (Doc 9613)RNAV: A method of navigation that permits aircraft operation on any desired flight pathRNP: A statement of the navigation performance accuracy necessary for operation within a defined airspace
4What went wrong?The RNP Manual addressed only the en-route phase of flight for oceanic and remote applicationsNo specific requirements for continental en-route and terminal applicationsHigh-level concept onlyConsequences:proliferation of national standards / functional requirementsvariety of required navigation sensors for the same RNP typediffering air crew requirementsemerging industry concepts of RNP not addressedIn other words:the same RNP type means different things in different airspaces
5How do we fix it? GNSS Panel raises the issue in ICAO (May 203) 11th ICAO Air Navigation Conference (September 2003) recognizes the ”urgent need for global harmonization of PBN concepts and requirements”ICAO Study Group created (RNPSORSG)to harmonize existing RNAV and RNP operations and to cater for future operational demandsby defining global detailed navigation specifications, addressing all system aspects including:Performance required for accuracy, integrity, continuity and availabilityFunctionalities necessary to achieve required performanceNavigation sensors to achieve required performanceFlight crew procedures to achieve required performanceClear operational approval requirements and implementation guidance
6Perf. Monitor and alerting The PBN conceptNo perf. monitor and alertingPerf. Monitor and alertingRNAV 10RNP 4, Basic-RNP 1RNP APCH,RNP AR APCHTo conclude the development of the concept, I would like to provide you an overview of the PBN concept. You can see the distinction between operations that require performance monitoring and alerting and operations that do not.At the left side are the globally harmonized RNAV navigation specifications : RNAV 10, 5, 2 and 1.On the right side are the RNP navigation specifications that are currently finalized:RNP 4, basic RNP-1, RNP APCH and RNP AR APCH.Furthermore, you can see from this diagram that the concept is dynamic and also facilitates future requirements such as VNAV and 4d navigation.PBN: Area navigation based on performance requirements described in navigation specifications
7On-board performance monitoring and alerting A monitoring functionPerformed by the aircraft (or aircraft and pilot in combination)Monitors total system error (TSE)TSE = root square sum of (PDE, FTE, NSE)PDE: Path definition errorFTE: Flight technical errorNSE: Navigation system errorAn alerting functionAlerts when:TSE requirement is not met; or ifprobability that TSE exceeds 2x accuracy value is larger than 10-5Recall error components:PDEFTENSESince PDE is assumed to be negligible, reduced to FTE and NSE.FTE is assumed to be a function of a given flight control mode (e.g., Manual, or Flight Director, or Autopilot).However, NSE distribution varies over time due to changing characteristics, most notably fromSelected NAV sensorsRelative geometry (GNSS, DME)
8Example of O-B monitoring and alerting NSE Monitoring and AlertingAlerting Threshold: (1x accuracy) NmPb missed alerting: 10-7/Fl HrFTE Monitoring and AlertingCrew procedure based on display scalingEffective threshold: ½ full scale deflectionPb missed alerting: not quantified. Crew procedure.PDE Monitoring and AlertingBased on Data quality processLOA or equivalentGross error check: Crew procedureAlertingTSE monitoring and alertingLateral deviationAll error components monitored or controlled
9PBN Manual (Doc 9613, 3rd edition) Provides guidance to States on how to implement RNAV and RNP in their airspaceVolume IPart A – The PBN conceptPart B – Implementation guidanceVolume IIPart A – GeneralPart B – Implementing RNAV (Navigation Specifications)Part C – Implementing RNP (Navigation Specifications)Final draft available atAfter developing the concept, the RNPSORSG drafted ICAO guidance material that is designed as a one-stop- shop for Stake holders of how to implement PBN. It is divided into two volumes.Volume I provides the background on the concept, and most importantly the processes of how to implement PBN. It guides states in how to make trade-offs in their operational requirements, so as to apply the ICAO navigation specification, rather than developing national specifications. The importance here is to keep the number of navigation specifications limited and to avoid proliferation.Only in the exceptional case when trade-offs cannot accommodate an airspace requirement, would a new navigation specification be developed. Again, to avoid proliferation, the manual describes a mechanism that should ensure that ICAO will always be in the loop.Volume II of the manual provides the detailed implementation guidance, such as the navigation specifications and guidance for the Air navigation service providers and provides reference to other relevant ICAO provisions.It can be said that this manual is the spider in the web of PBN.
10Structure of a navigation specification chapter of the PBN Manual X.1 IntroductionX.2 ANSP ConsiderationsX.3 Navigation SpecificationX.4 References(where “X” is the chapter number in Vol. II, Part B and C)X.1 IntroductionBackgroundPurposeX.2 ANSP ConsiderationsNavaid Infrastructure ConsiderationsCommunication and ATS Surveillance ConsiderationsObstacle Clearance and Horizontal SeparationAdditional ConsiderationsPublicationController TrainingStatus MonitoringATS System MonitoringX.3 Navigation SpecificationApproval ProcessAircraft EligibilityOperational ApprovalDescription of aircraft equipment, training documentation, operations manuals and checklists, minimum equipment list considerationsAircraft RequirementsOperating ProceduresPilot Knowledge and TrainingNavigation DatabaseOversight of OperatorsX.4 References
11Section X.2 - ANSP considerations Navaids infrastructureCommunication and ATS surveillanceObstacle clearance and route spacingPublicationController trainingStatus monitoringATS system monitoring
12Section X.3 - Navigation specification X.3.1 BackgroundX.3.2 Approval processX.3.3 Aircraft requirementsX.3.4 Operating proceduresX.3.5 Pilot knowledge and trainingX.3.6 Navigation databaseX.3.7 Oversight of operators
13Navigation specification vs Flight Phase En Route Oceanic / RemoteEn Route ContinentalARRAPPROACHDEPInitialIntermedFinalMissedRNAV 10 (RNP 10)10RNAV 55RNAV 22RNAV 11RNP 44 Basic-RNP 1RNP APCH0.3RNP AR APCHNotes: The numbers given in the table refer to the 95% accuracy requirements (NM)RNP 2 and Advanced-RNP 1 are expected to be included in a future revision of the PBN Manual;1a means that the navigation application is limited to use on STARs and SIDs only;1b means that the area of application can only be used after the initial climb of a missed approach phase1c means that beyond 30 NM from the airport reference point (ARP), the accuracy value for alerting becomes 2 NM* Means Above MSATHIS IS A REVIEWIncorporate existing operations as practicalRNAV 10 (designated and authorized as RNP-10)B-RNAV renamed as RNAV 5RNP APCH includes existing RNAV(GNSS) approachesAdditional guidance on barometric VNAVHarmonized European and US RNAVVolume II, Part B, Chapter 3: RNAV-1 and RNAV-2Considered limited terminal arrival/departure ATS surveillanceVolume II, Part C, Chapter 3: Basic RNP-1
14Relationship with existing specifications Do not reinvent the wheelUse existing specifications e.g., Orders, ACs, AMC, TGL etc.A more logical structureCommon format and contentMore complete to enable uniform implementation
15Status of ICAO PBN reference documents Final draft of PBN manual availableMarch 2007State Letter with Navigation Specifications sent27 April 2007Assembly Resolution endorsed by the 36th ICAO AssemblySeptember 20071) Final draft of PBN manual is finalized and posted on ICAO-NET. This manual will stay in draft after finalization of our world tour of seminars, so that we can incorporate all your feed-back2) State Letter with Navigation Specifications is on ICAO-NET. The appendix of this State letter contains the navigation specifications as contained in Volume II of the PBN manual. As the Stateletter is endorsed by the Secretary General of ICAO, it allows States, ANSPs and aircraft operators to implement PBN while the manual is still in draft.3) State Letter with flight plan provisions, indicating how flight plans should be filed for PBN operations4) A basis for high level requirements, State Letter with PBN terminology amendments to Annexes 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, 11 and 15 was circulated on 20 July Comments are currently received and hopefully these will adopted to be applicable by November 2008.5) Last but not Assembly resolution regarding PBN implementation goals was approved. And what does this mean?
16Implementation goals in A36-23 States and/or regions develop an implementation plan by 2009 to achieve the following goals:implementation of PBN operations (where required) for en-route and terminal areas according to established timelines/milestones;Implementation of approach procedure with vertical guidance (APV), for all instrument runway ends, either as the primary approach or as a back-up for precision approaches by 2016;States are encouraged to include in the plan provisions for implementation of APV’ to all runway ends serving aircraft in excess of 5700 kg.Shared responsibility of ICAO, Regions, States and stakeholdersThe assembly resolution stipulates that States and regions need to develop an implementation plan by the end of 2009 and ensure compliance with the dates indicated in the plan to achieve the following goalswhere RNAV operations are required, enroute (oceanic and continental) and terminal ATS routes should be implemented according to PBN, andall instrument runway ends should have an approach procedure with vertical guidance (APV), either as the primary approach or as a back-up for precision approaches by 2016States are encouraged to develop APV approaches for runways that are currently non-instrument runways but operated by aircraft in excess of 5700 kg.Strong leadership, with support of all States and all stakeholders, is essential in order to produce a coordinated work programme to achieve these performance objectives for PBN implementation.. For the purpose of coordinating implementation, the last MIDANPIRG had agreed to establish a regional PBN/RVSM combined taskforce which hopefully will convene in early next year.It should be noted that the implementation plan that States develop, should ensure compliance with the global performance objectives. This will be a significant step towards a performance based global ATM concept.
17Status of ICAO PBN reference documents ICAO RNP AR Procedure Design Manual (Doc 9905)Final draft: March 2008ICAO Quality Assurance Manual for Flight Procedure Design (Doc 9906) (three volumes)Also on the PBN Web SiteState implementation plan templateImplementation checklistPBN approach and terminal implementation statusGuidance and information from States and International organizations on a variety of PBN-related issues
18Status of ICAO PBN reference documents Flight plan provisions: PANS-ATM (Doc 4444)Nov 2008Flight procedure design requirements: PANS-OPS (Doc 8168)November 2008PBN terminology changes to AnnexesAnnex 2, 6, 10, 11: 2008Annex 4 and 15: 2009Annex 3: 2010
19Web Based Training Available on www.icao.int/pbn Status of ICAO PBN reference documentsWeb Based Training Available on
20ICAO guidance documents on PBN procedures inspection/validation Doc 8168 PANS OPS, Vol IIPart 1, Section 2, Chapter 4 “Quality Assurance”Doc 8071 Manual for the Testing of Radio Navigation AidsVolume 2, Chapter 5Doc 8071Vol II – Testing of Satellite Based Radio Navigation SystemsChap 5 – Criteria for the Flight Validation of Instrument Flight Procedures(sections – have specific guidance for RNAV procedures)“Navigation infrastructure assessment in support of PBN”(under “Documentation”)
21PBN procedure flight inspection PANS OPS, Vol II Part 1, Section 2, Chapter 4 “Quality Assurance”“Flight validation should not be confused with flight inspection. Flight inspection of instrument flight procedures is required to assure that the appropriate radio navigation aids adequately support the procedure. This is carried out as part of a formal flight inspection programme and is performed by a qualified flight inspector using an appropriately equipped aircraft.”
22PBN flight inspection Example: PBN DME/DME RNAV 1/2 flight inspection Review existing FI records, note specific issuesIf sufficient recent records available, all or part of FI can be omittedPrepare list of DME to be inspectedPerform FI to confirm signal in space compliance with Annex 10verify coverage availability and accuracy of individual DME facilities (e.g. check for reflections and shading at lower altitudes)FI equipment recommended: capability to record multiple DME signals simultaneouslyAssess FI report to confirm assumptions of initial assessment and identify DME facilities that degrade the navigation solutionExample: GPS / ABAS flight inspectionVerify adequate signal reception for specific procedureTest for unintentional interference
23PBN procedure validation as an element of quality assurance Quality assurance is needed in each step of the procedure design process to ensure:Necessary levels of accuracy and integrity in data qualityCompliance with design criteriaAdequate mitigations in place if portions of criteria are waivedProcedure validation:Ground validationFlight validationDatabase validation
24PANS OPS, Vol II Part 1, Section 2, Chapter 4 “Quality Assurance” Ground validation (1)PANS OPS, Vol II Part 1, Section 2, Chapter 4 “Quality Assurance”Ground validation is a review of the entire instrument flight procedure package by a person(s) trained in procedure design and with appropriate knowledge of flight validation issues.It is meant to catch errors in criteria and documentation, and evaluate on the ground, to the extent possible, those elements that will be evaluated in a flight validation.…The ground validation will also determine if flight validation is needed for modifications and amendments to previously published procedures.
25Ground validation (2) Obstacle verification Data verification Charting – Independent review by procedure designerData verificationIndependent review of source dataChartingIndependent reviewCodingSoftware tool orExpert reviewFlyability – software tools (from PC-based to full flight simulator)Not necessarily an issue with standard procedures (e.g. ‘T’ approaches), but critical for some aircraft typesRange of aircraft and meteo conditions
26PANS OPS, Vol II Part 1, Section 2, Chapter 4 “Quality Assurance” Flight validation (1)PANS OPS, Vol II Part 1, Section 2, Chapter 4 “Quality Assurance”… The objectives of the flight validation of instrument flight proceduresa) provide assurance that adequate obstacle clearance has been provided;b) verify that the navigation data to be published, as well as that used in the design of the procedure, is correct;c) verify that all required infrastructure, such as runway markings, lighting, and communications and navigation sources, are in place and operative;d) conduct an assessment of flyability to determine that the procedure can be safely flown; ande) evaluate the charting, required infrastructure, visibility and other operational factorsFlight validation is the final quality assurance check of the procedure.This is particularly important as RNAV procedures are entirely data driven.The flight validation will ensure that the procedure as designed takes the aircraft to the desired point and confirms that the obstacle data used supports the minimum altitudes to be published for the procedure.
27Flight validation (2) Obstacle verification Required where complete survey of all obstacles and terrain in all segments cannot be accomplishedData verification-verify that the navigation data to be published, as well as that used in the design of the procedure, is correct;e.g. does procedure arrive at the intended aiming point?FlyabilityDetailed workload and charting assessments, butHigh level qualitative assessment of manoeuvring only (rely mainly on Ground Validation)Infrastructure assessmentRunway markings, lighting, communications, navigation, etc
28Database validationRNAV procedures coded using ARINC 424 path terminators to define specific nominal tracksCoded procedures not available in operational databases until effective dateRecommend implementation date 3 to 10 days after effective date, especially for new procedures in high density traffic areasTest databases may be provided for ground (simulator) and flight validationFlight validation does not validate integrity of procedure subsequently coded in operational databaseOperator responsible for validating the operational database
29Implementation role: ICAO Familiarization (PBN seminars)States, Stakeholders, ICAOImplementationPlanning assistanceExecution assistanceVerificationDevelopment and maintenance of ICAO provisions and coordination with industry(RegionalPBN Task Forces)
30Familiarization tools: “Introduction to PBN” Seminars Montreal12-15 June 2007Paris22-25 April 2008Baku15-18 April 2008Cairo12-15 November2007New Delhi18-20 September 2007Santo Domingo24-27 June 2008Abuja15-18 January 2008Bangkok11-14 September 2007Nairobi8-11 September 2008Lima17-20 June 2008
31Implementation role: States Participate in development of Regional PBN implementation planDevelop National PBN implementation plan by the end of 2009Provide focal point for PBN implementationLead and coordinate PBN implementation with other stakeholders, including ANSPs, operators, aerodromes, regulators, interest groups, inIdentify issues or showstoppers (e.g. WGS 84) that could delay implementation, mitigate and relay to ICAOWe really encourage all stakeholders to attend the seminars. The purpose of this seminar series is to bring all stakeholder sup to the same level of knowledge about PBN.Support development of the regional PBN implementation plan by participating and taking on responsibilities to assist in its completion
32State PBN Implementation Plan To describe the RNAV and RNP navigation applications that should be implemented in at least the short and medium term, in the State for specified routes, SID, STAR, approachesTo address the planned transition to PBN, as one of the key systems supporting air traffic management to provide proper guidance and direction to the domestic air navigation service provider(s), airspace operators and users, regulating agency, as well as foreign operators who operate or plan to operate in the StateAssist the main stakeholders plan a gradual transition to the RNAV and RNP conceptsAssist the stakeholders in planning their investment strategies during the future transition
33Implementation role: other stakeholders Cooperate with States in their planning and implementationCommit the resources necessary to carry out their part of the strategy for regional and State implementationAs you can see, we have a big job ahead of us. And PBN is just one of those important things we need to work on. To move forward with implementation we feel it is important for ICAO to lead the way.But ICAO cannot do the actual implementation- As with any other initiative, States must implement. To that end, included in the Assembly resolution will be a call for State to develop a PBN implementation plan by the end of 2009States cannot implement alone, they need the active participation and commitment of the stakeholders– operators, ANSPs, etc.
34ConclusionPBN concept has been established as a step in the evolution of a performance-based global air traffic management (ATM) systemICAO is fully committed to PBN implementationCommitment and active involvement in implementation is required from States and other stakeholders