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Performance based navigation: The ICAO PBN programme

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1 Performance based navigation: The ICAO PBN programme
ANNEX 6 requires operators to obtain operational approval for RNP 4 or RNP 10 from the State of Registry or State of Operator, as appropriate. We are now going to give an overview of the RNAV 10 (RNP 10) and RNP 4 Navigation Specifications for oceanic operations. Alessandro Capretti Technical Officer, CNS ICAO

2 Overview Background PBN concept and goals
PBN navigation specifications Status of ICAO PBN reference documents PBN flight inspection and validation ICAO PBN implementation activities Today I will provide you an overview of Performance Based Navigation, the background to the concept and some details about the concept itself.

3 Background ICAO PBN concept = evolution of the ICAO RNP concept
RNP concept: FANS Committee / RGCS panel (late ’80s) Manual on Required Navigation Performance (Doc 9613) RNAV: A method of navigation that permits aircraft operation on any desired flight path RNP: A statement of the navigation performance accuracy necessary for operation within a defined airspace

4 What went wrong? The RNP Manual addressed only the en-route phase of flight for oceanic and remote applications No specific requirements for continental en-route and terminal applications High-level concept only Consequences: proliferation of national standards / functional requirements variety of required navigation sensors for the same RNP type differing air crew requirements emerging industry concepts of RNP not addressed In other words: the same RNP type means different things in different airspaces

5 How do we fix it? GNSS Panel raises the issue in ICAO (May 203)
11th ICAO Air Navigation Conference (September 2003) recognizes the ”urgent need for global harmonization of PBN concepts and requirements” ICAO Study Group created (RNPSORSG) to harmonize existing RNAV and RNP operations and to cater for future operational demands by defining global detailed navigation specifications, addressing all system aspects including: Performance required for accuracy, integrity, continuity and availability Functionalities necessary to achieve required performance Navigation sensors to achieve required performance Flight crew procedures to achieve required performance Clear operational approval requirements and implementation guidance

6 Perf. Monitor and alerting
The PBN concept No perf. monitor and alerting Perf. Monitor and alerting RNAV 10 RNP 4, Basic-RNP 1 RNP APCH, RNP AR APCH To conclude the development of the concept, I would like to provide you an overview of the PBN concept. You can see the distinction between operations that require performance monitoring and alerting and operations that do not. At the left side are the globally harmonized RNAV navigation specifications : RNAV 10, 5, 2 and 1. On the right side are the RNP navigation specifications that are currently finalized: RNP 4, basic RNP-1, RNP APCH and RNP AR APCH. Furthermore, you can see from this diagram that the concept is dynamic and also facilitates future requirements such as VNAV and 4d navigation. PBN: Area navigation based on performance requirements described in navigation specifications

7 On-board performance monitoring and alerting
A monitoring function Performed by the aircraft (or aircraft and pilot in combination) Monitors total system error (TSE) TSE = root square sum of (PDE, FTE, NSE) PDE: Path definition error FTE: Flight technical error NSE: Navigation system error An alerting function Alerts when: TSE requirement is not met; or if probability that TSE exceeds 2x accuracy value is larger than 10-5 Recall error components: PDE FTE NSE Since PDE is assumed to be negligible, reduced to FTE and NSE. FTE is assumed to be a function of a given flight control mode (e.g., Manual, or Flight Director, or Autopilot). However, NSE distribution varies over time due to changing characteristics, most notably from Selected NAV sensors Relative geometry (GNSS, DME)

8 Example of O-B monitoring and alerting
NSE Monitoring and Alerting Alerting Threshold: (1x accuracy) Nm Pb missed alerting: 10-7/Fl Hr FTE Monitoring and Alerting Crew procedure based on display scaling Effective threshold: ½ full scale deflection Pb missed alerting: not quantified. Crew procedure. PDE Monitoring and Alerting Based on Data quality process LOA or equivalent Gross error check: Crew procedure Alerting TSE monitoring and alerting Lateral deviation All error components monitored or controlled

9 PBN Manual (Doc 9613, 3rd edition)
Provides guidance to States on how to implement RNAV and RNP in their airspace Volume I Part A – The PBN concept Part B – Implementation guidance Volume II Part A – General Part B – Implementing RNAV (Navigation Specifications) Part C – Implementing RNP (Navigation Specifications) Final draft available at After developing the concept, the RNPSORSG drafted ICAO guidance material that is designed as a one-stop- shop for Stake holders of how to implement PBN. It is divided into two volumes. Volume I provides the background on the concept, and most importantly the processes of how to implement PBN. It guides states in how to make trade-offs in their operational requirements, so as to apply the ICAO navigation specification, rather than developing national specifications. The importance here is to keep the number of navigation specifications limited and to avoid proliferation. Only in the exceptional case when trade-offs cannot accommodate an airspace requirement, would a new navigation specification be developed. Again, to avoid proliferation, the manual describes a mechanism that should ensure that ICAO will always be in the loop. Volume II of the manual provides the detailed implementation guidance, such as the navigation specifications and guidance for the Air navigation service providers and provides reference to other relevant ICAO provisions. It can be said that this manual is the spider in the web of PBN.

10 Structure of a navigation specification chapter of the PBN Manual
X.1 Introduction X.2 ANSP Considerations X.3 Navigation Specification X.4 References (where “X” is the chapter number in Vol. II, Part B and C) X.1 Introduction Background Purpose X.2 ANSP Considerations Navaid Infrastructure Considerations Communication and ATS Surveillance Considerations Obstacle Clearance and Horizontal Separation Additional Considerations Publication Controller Training Status Monitoring ATS System Monitoring X.3 Navigation Specification Approval Process Aircraft Eligibility Operational Approval Description of aircraft equipment, training documentation, operations manuals and checklists, minimum equipment list considerations Aircraft Requirements Operating Procedures Pilot Knowledge and Training Navigation Database Oversight of Operators X.4 References

11 Section X.2 - ANSP considerations
Navaids infrastructure Communication and ATS surveillance Obstacle clearance and route spacing Publication Controller training Status monitoring ATS system monitoring

12 Section X.3 - Navigation specification
X.3.1 Background X.3.2 Approval process X.3.3 Aircraft requirements X.3.4 Operating procedures X.3.5 Pilot knowledge and training X.3.6 Navigation database X.3.7 Oversight of operators

13 Navigation specification vs Flight Phase
En Route Oceanic / Remote En Route Continental ARR APPROACH DEP Initial Intermed Final Missed RNAV 10 (RNP 10) 10 RNAV 5 5 RNAV 2 2 RNAV 1 1 RNP 4 Basic-RNP 1 RNP APCH 0.3 RNP AR APCH Notes: The numbers given in the table refer to the 95% accuracy requirements (NM) RNP 2 and Advanced-RNP 1 are expected to be included in a future revision of the PBN Manual; 1a means that the navigation application is limited to use on STARs and SIDs only; 1b means that the area of application can only be used after the initial climb of a missed approach phase 1c means that beyond 30 NM from the airport reference point (ARP), the accuracy value for alerting becomes 2 NM * Means Above MSA THIS IS A REVIEW Incorporate existing operations as practical RNAV 10 (designated and authorized as RNP-10) B-RNAV renamed as RNAV 5 RNP APCH includes existing RNAV(GNSS) approaches Additional guidance on barometric VNAV Harmonized European and US RNAV Volume II, Part B, Chapter 3: RNAV-1 and RNAV-2 Considered limited terminal arrival/departure ATS surveillance Volume II, Part C, Chapter 3: Basic RNP-1

14 Relationship with existing specifications
Do not reinvent the wheel Use existing specifications e.g., Orders, ACs, AMC, TGL etc. A more logical structure Common format and content More complete to enable uniform implementation

15 Status of ICAO PBN reference documents
Final draft of PBN manual available March 2007 State Letter with Navigation Specifications sent 27 April 2007 Assembly Resolution endorsed by the 36th ICAO Assembly September 2007 1) Final draft of PBN manual is finalized and posted on ICAO-NET. This manual will stay in draft after finalization of our world tour of seminars, so that we can incorporate all your feed-back 2) State Letter with Navigation Specifications is on ICAO-NET. The appendix of this State letter contains the navigation specifications as contained in Volume II of the PBN manual. As the Stateletter is endorsed by the Secretary General of ICAO, it allows States, ANSPs and aircraft operators to implement PBN while the manual is still in draft. 3) State Letter with flight plan provisions, indicating how flight plans should be filed for PBN operations 4) A basis for high level requirements, State Letter with PBN terminology amendments to Annexes 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, 11 and 15 was circulated on 20 July Comments are currently received and hopefully these will adopted to be applicable by November 2008. 5) Last but not Assembly resolution regarding PBN implementation goals was approved. And what does this mean?

16 Implementation goals in A36-23
States and/or regions develop an implementation plan by 2009 to achieve the following goals: implementation of PBN operations (where required) for en-route and terminal areas according to established timelines/milestones; Implementation of approach procedure with vertical guidance (APV), for all instrument runway ends, either as the primary approach or as a back-up for precision approaches by 2016; States are encouraged to include in the plan provisions for implementation of APV’ to all runway ends serving aircraft in excess of 5700 kg. Shared responsibility of ICAO, Regions, States and stakeholders The assembly resolution stipulates that States and regions need to develop an implementation plan by the end of 2009 and ensure compliance with the dates indicated in the plan to achieve the following goals where RNAV operations are required, enroute (oceanic and continental) and terminal ATS routes should be implemented according to PBN, and all instrument runway ends should have an approach procedure with vertical guidance (APV), either as the primary approach or as a back-up for precision approaches by 2016 States are encouraged to develop APV approaches for runways that are currently non-instrument runways but operated by aircraft in excess of 5700 kg. Strong leadership, with support of all States and all stakeholders, is essential in order to produce a coordinated work programme to achieve these performance objectives for PBN implementation.. For the purpose of coordinating implementation, the last MIDANPIRG had agreed to establish a regional PBN/RVSM combined taskforce which hopefully will convene in early next year. It should be noted that the implementation plan that States develop, should ensure compliance with the global performance objectives. This will be a significant step towards a performance based global ATM concept.

17 Status of ICAO PBN reference documents
ICAO RNP AR Procedure Design Manual (Doc 9905) Final draft: March 2008 ICAO Quality Assurance Manual for Flight Procedure Design (Doc 9906) (three volumes) Also on the PBN Web Site State implementation plan template Implementation checklist PBN approach and terminal implementation status Guidance and information from States and International organizations on a variety of PBN-related issues

18 Status of ICAO PBN reference documents
Flight plan provisions: PANS-ATM (Doc 4444) Nov 2008 Flight procedure design requirements: PANS-OPS (Doc 8168) November 2008 PBN terminology changes to Annexes Annex 2, 6, 10, 11: 2008 Annex 4 and 15: 2009 Annex 3: 2010

19 Web Based Training Available on
Status of ICAO PBN reference documents Web Based Training Available on

20 ICAO guidance documents on PBN procedures inspection/validation
Doc 8168 PANS OPS, Vol II Part 1, Section 2, Chapter 4 “Quality Assurance” Doc 8071 Manual for the Testing of Radio Navigation Aids Volume 2, Chapter 5 Doc 8071 Vol II – Testing of Satellite Based Radio Navigation Systems Chap 5 – Criteria for the Flight Validation of Instrument Flight Procedures (sections – have specific guidance for RNAV procedures) “Navigation infrastructure assessment in support of PBN” (under “Documentation”)

21 PBN procedure flight inspection
PANS OPS, Vol II Part 1, Section 2, Chapter 4 “Quality Assurance” “Flight validation should not be confused with flight inspection. Flight inspection of instrument flight procedures is required to assure that the appropriate radio navigation aids adequately support the procedure. This is carried out as part of a formal flight inspection programme and is performed by a qualified flight inspector using an appropriately equipped aircraft.”

22 PBN flight inspection Example: PBN DME/DME RNAV 1/2 flight inspection
Review existing FI records, note specific issues If sufficient recent records available, all or part of FI can be omitted Prepare list of DME to be inspected Perform FI to confirm signal in space compliance with Annex 10 verify coverage availability and accuracy of individual DME facilities (e.g. check for reflections and shading at lower altitudes) FI equipment recommended: capability to record multiple DME signals simultaneously Assess FI report to confirm assumptions of initial assessment and identify DME facilities that degrade the navigation solution Example: GPS / ABAS flight inspection Verify adequate signal reception for specific procedure Test for unintentional interference

23 PBN procedure validation as an element of quality assurance
Quality assurance is needed in each step of the procedure design process to ensure: Necessary levels of accuracy and integrity in data quality Compliance with design criteria Adequate mitigations in place if portions of criteria are waived Procedure validation: Ground validation Flight validation Database validation

24 PANS OPS, Vol II Part 1, Section 2, Chapter 4 “Quality Assurance”
Ground validation (1) PANS OPS, Vol II Part 1, Section 2, Chapter 4 “Quality Assurance” Ground validation is a review of the entire instrument flight procedure package by a person(s) trained in procedure design and with appropriate knowledge of flight validation issues. It is meant to catch errors in criteria and documentation, and evaluate on the ground, to the extent possible, those elements that will be evaluated in a flight validation. …The ground validation will also determine if flight validation is needed for modifications and amendments to previously published procedures.

25 Ground validation (2) Obstacle verification Data verification Charting
– Independent review by procedure designer Data verification Independent review of source data Charting Independent review Coding Software tool or Expert review Flyability – software tools (from PC-based to full flight simulator) Not necessarily an issue with standard procedures (e.g. ‘T’ approaches), but critical for some aircraft types Range of aircraft and meteo conditions

26 PANS OPS, Vol II Part 1, Section 2, Chapter 4 “Quality Assurance”
Flight validation (1) PANS OPS, Vol II Part 1, Section 2, Chapter 4 “Quality Assurance” … The objectives of the flight validation of instrument flight procedures a) provide assurance that adequate obstacle clearance has been provided; b) verify that the navigation data to be published, as well as that used in the design of the procedure, is correct; c) verify that all required infrastructure, such as runway markings, lighting, and communications and navigation sources, are in place and operative; d) conduct an assessment of flyability to determine that the procedure can be safely flown; and e) evaluate the charting, required infrastructure, visibility and other operational factors Flight validation is the final quality assurance check of the procedure. This is particularly important as RNAV procedures are entirely data driven. The flight validation will ensure that the procedure as designed takes the aircraft to the desired point and confirms that the obstacle data used supports the minimum altitudes to be published for the procedure.

27 Flight validation (2) Obstacle verification
Required where complete survey of all obstacles and terrain in all segments cannot be accomplished Data verification-verify that the navigation data to be published, as well as that used in the design of the procedure, is correct; e.g. does procedure arrive at the intended aiming point? Flyability Detailed workload and charting assessments, but High level qualitative assessment of manoeuvring only (rely mainly on Ground Validation) Infrastructure assessment Runway markings, lighting, communications, navigation, etc

28 Database validation RNAV procedures coded using ARINC 424 path terminators to define specific nominal tracks Coded procedures not available in operational databases until effective date Recommend implementation date 3 to 10 days after effective date, especially for new procedures in high density traffic areas Test databases may be provided for ground (simulator) and flight validation Flight validation does not validate integrity of procedure subsequently coded in operational database Operator responsible for validating the operational database

29 Implementation role: ICAO
Familiarization (PBN seminars) States, Stakeholders, ICAO Implementation Planning assistance Execution assistance Verification Development and maintenance of ICAO provisions and coordination with industry (Regional PBN Task Forces)

30 Familiarization tools: “Introduction to PBN” Seminars
Montreal 12-15 June 2007 Paris 22-25 April 2008 Baku 15-18 April 2008 Cairo 12-15 November 2007 New Delhi 18-20 September 2007 Santo Domingo 24-27 June 2008 Abuja 15-18 January 2008 Bangkok 11-14 September 2007 Nairobi 8-11 September 2008 Lima 17-20 June 2008

31 Implementation role: States
Participate in development of Regional PBN implementation plan Develop National PBN implementation plan by the end of 2009 Provide focal point for PBN implementation Lead and coordinate PBN implementation with other stakeholders, including ANSPs, operators, aerodromes, regulators, interest groups, in Identify issues or showstoppers (e.g. WGS 84) that could delay implementation, mitigate and relay to ICAO We really encourage all stakeholders to attend the seminars. The purpose of this seminar series is to bring all stakeholder sup to the same level of knowledge about PBN. Support development of the regional PBN implementation plan by participating and taking on responsibilities to assist in its completion

32 State PBN Implementation Plan
To describe the RNAV and RNP navigation applications that should be implemented in at least the short and medium term, in the State for specified routes, SID, STAR, approaches To address the planned transition to PBN, as one of the key systems supporting air traffic management to provide proper guidance and direction to the domestic air navigation service provider(s), airspace operators and users, regulating agency, as well as foreign operators who operate or plan to operate in the State Assist the main stakeholders plan a gradual transition to the RNAV and RNP concepts Assist the stakeholders in planning their investment strategies during the future transition

33 Implementation role: other stakeholders
Cooperate with States in their planning and implementation Commit the resources necessary to carry out their part of the strategy for regional and State implementation As you can see, we have a big job ahead of us. And PBN is just one of those important things we need to work on. To move forward with implementation we feel it is important for ICAO to lead the way. But ICAO cannot do the actual implementation- As with any other initiative, States must implement. To that end, included in the Assembly resolution will be a call for State to develop a PBN implementation plan by the end of 2009 States cannot implement alone, they need the active participation and commitment of the stakeholders– operators, ANSPs, etc.

34 Conclusion PBN concept has been established as a step in the evolution of a performance-based global air traffic management (ATM) system ICAO is fully committed to PBN implementation Commitment and active involvement in implementation is required from States and other stakeholders

35 Thank you for your attention!

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