To be used by all OCFD personnel during fire operations at High-Rise incidents Not intended to limit the decision making abilities of the Incident Commander Let the situation dictate the tactics used.
Modern high rises are as much as 75% lighter in mass than earlier constructed buildings 2 ½ times the B.T.U’s from which the codes were developed Capable of reaching flashover in less than 10 minutes Typical response time of 20 minutes Vertical Exposures as well as lateral Ventilation will be difficult at best
History has shown 200-300 personnel have been needed to mitigate high-rise fires. A high-rise is defined as: Any incident that occurs or has the potential to progress to a level at or above the fifth (5) floors above ground level. Houston MAYDAY video
1 st Arriving officer will operate in the Fast-Attack Mode If a working fire is confirmed Call for a “High-Rise Assignment.” Equivalent to 5-Alarm 66-85 OCFD personnel Initial Radio Transmission: Arrival on scene Address and what side of the structure the company is located Approximate number of floors and what type of structure Residential or Commercial If smoke or fire is showing
2- Engine Companies 1- Rescue Ladder 1- District Officer 1 st arriving officer is “Command” 1 st Ladder officer is in charge of the Investigation Group
Rescue ladder officer: Attempt to get a copy of the building’s pre-plan Determine if any notifications or evacuation announcements have been made. If no announcements have been made, inform command. Determine whether the stairwell doors are auto- unlocking If they do not unlock, obtain keys to unlock doors if possible Get the main desk phone number The location of the fire/communications command panel and confirm the location of the emergency
Ensure all Ladder personnel are outfitted with proper PPE Ensure Ladder personnel have the right equipment: Sledge hammer Halligan Hydra-Ram Thermal Imager (If available) If the fire is reported to be above the 7 th floor, call one bank of elevators and take control to ascend, if it is deemed safe to use.
Report which stairwell or elevator is being used for ascent Where are they located in the building What is the building’s designation for the stairs/elevator Report when you have made it to the floor desired. Report what crews are ascending and how many of personnel are in the group Wait for entire Investigation Group to arrive before ascent.
Report the findings (Conditions) Extent and nature of the fire Heat and smoke encountered Extent of the evacuation (Actions) If a fire is confirmed: The Investigation Group will then evolve into their respective assignments (Needs) Fire Attack Search Ventilation ETC.
Assign Fire-Attack Stairwell and Evacuation Stairwell Consider ventilation path and proximity of standpipe connections when determining which stairwell is going to be used for a particular purpose. Advise command when primary search has commenced And what degree of challenge forcible entry is presenting.
All Engine personnel properly outfitted Appropriate equipment is carried to location 200 ft. of 2 ½” hose 1 ¼” smoothbore nozzle High-Rise kit 18” pipe wrench Couplings In-Line Pressure Gauge Door Wedges
Have crew stand-by one (1) floor below the reported fire floor until the I.G leader designates the Fire- Attack Stairwell. Recon. Floor layout of the floor below the fire floor Make appropriate connections to the standpipe and prepare hose for deployment Clear Fire-Attack Stairwell of occupants for a minimum of five (5) floors and direct them to the Evacuation Stairwell or other suitable safe haven.
Report to Command in the main floor lobby with appropriate tools If fire is reported: Coordinate with the 1 st and 2 nd Engine and act as relief for them when needed.
Driver will connect to FDC and prepare to pump into the system Remainder of the crew will assume control of the Lobby Place all tools in convenient location
Ensure repeated and/or modified announcements are provided to building occupants, as needed, with the status of the event and appropriate directives. Ensure manual activation of the stairwell door unlocking devise is tripped (if equipped) Locate the Building Engineer to take control of the HVAC or shut down the HVAC system. Verify the operation of the fire pumps Obtain master keys
Obtain a list of persons who are identified as needing special assistance, including their ordinary location in the building, or designated area of refuge. Obtain building floor plans Locate stairwells that have been designated Secure additional elevators if possible Direct incoming companies to correct stairwells Shut down the escalators
Driver will assist driver of 4 th Engine by preparing for Series pump operation at FDC Crew will carry extra SCBA cylinders to Staging, three- floors below the fire floor. Will take appropriate equipment to establish a backup line or relief of 3 rd Engine on backup lines as they move forward to fire attack.
Ascend with the 5 th Engine and assist in establishment of backup line. Carry extra SCBA cylinders to Staging, three-floors below the fire floor
Ascend to Staging Carry extra SCBA cylinders Acquire and carry any other tools requested
If the building is equipped with secondary FDC Driver will hook up to this FDC and prepare for pumping operations Crew will carry additional High-Rise hose and extra SCBA cylinders to the lobby and standby.
Will report to 8 th Engine and prepare to perform Series Pumping operation. Remainder of crew sill report to the lobby and wait for further orders.
Coordinate primary search of the fire floor with 1 st Ladder Bring salvage covers to prevent water from entering elevator hoist way to prevent loss of power to elevators. Initiate forcible entry and ventilation if not needed for search.
Stairwell Search of the Fire-Attack Stairwell Ascend to the top floor Advise Command/Ops upon arrival to the top floor and inform them of possible ventilation needs Initiate top-down stairwell search of stairwell. Notify Command/Ops of additional resource needs Direct occupants out of Fire-Attack Stairwell to safer location. Advise Command/Ops if persons are encountered in Fire-Attack Stairwell.
Ascend to the top floor Initiate top-down stairwell search of the Evacuation Stairwell Request additional resources as needed Do not open the door on the fire floor unless it necessitates rescue
Initiate primary search of the floor above the fire floor Unless arrival is delayed by travel distance Take necessary equipment: RIT Bag Rope Assisted Search Bag Forcible Entry Tools Thermal Imager
RIT Wearing 1-hour SCBA’s ascend to the floor below the fire Take necessary equipment RIT Bag Rope Assisted Search Bag Forcible Entry Tools Thermal Imager
All arriving chiefs will notify command of their arrival. (Preferably face-to-face). Incident Commander can designate but is not limited to the following positions as needed:
Designated “Ops.” Answers to IC The second arriving chief officer The Ops. Chief will ascend to two (2) floors below the fire floor and establish the Operations Post. Ops. Chief is responsible for all tactical operations.
Proceed to the fire floor and take control of all operations on the fire floor under the direction of Operations, including, but not limited to, the following: Conduct size-up Supervise extinguishment and check for fire extension and monitor smoke spread Establish back-up lines Supervise all searches and ventilation on the fire floor and floor above Provide progress reports to Operations, in person if possible Monitor the safety of all personnel operating on the fire floor and one (1) floor above the fire and assess ongoing conditions Initiate salvage and overhaul operations.
Confer with Fire-Attack Officer on the status of the ongoing search and rescue operations and establish an initial Search and Rescue post two (2) floors below the fire floor, separate from the Operations Post. responsible to coordinate search operations 3-floors above the fire floor and up. Relocate to a floor above the fire as conditions improve. Determine the resources necessary to complete search and rescue operations and advise Operations of those needs.
Assign specific companies to respond to reports of occupants in need of assistance. Document assignments and verify the completion of each assignment. Assign specific companies to conduct a thorough and systematic search of each floor, hallway, stairwell, elevator car, and elevator shaft.
Assemble RIT team(s) and deploy them with all essential equipment including elevator rescue tools to designated areas as needed. RIT teams will conduct size-up Report to RIT Officer Gather a copy of the floor plan for the fire floor and floor above. Also gather information that provides elevator and stairwell locations.
Establish area of operations in appropriate areas, if multiple RITs are assigned. Monitor radio communications at all times.
Proceed three (3) floors below the fire and establish the Staging Area and designate the following areas: Designate an area for air cylinders and equipment. Empty air cylinders should be segregated from full cylinders A rehab area separate from supply area.
Give consideration to creating a secondary staging area that would place companies and equipment closer to the actual incident, if required. This area can be on a separate floor from the primary Staging Area (3-floors below the fire floor). This secondary staging area will minimize the time delay between taking companies out of the primary staging area, and actually putting them to work on the upper floors.
Requesting additional personnel as needed to complete lobby objectives from Command or Logistics (if assigned.) Establish a method of tracking all companies entering or exiting the building. Establishing a marshalling area for evacuating building occupants in a safe area away from the command post. (i.e. covered parking, sub-floors, etc.) Recall all remaining elevators for fire department use and to prevent further use by occupants. Determine elevator travel paths.
Report to Logistics and coordinate the transport of equipment via the stairwells from the lobby to Staging One member per two floors. (e.g.) ground floor to floor #3, floor #3 to floor #5. One Officer per four or five members
Level II Staging Primary location where logistical support begins Equipment Personnel
SitStat/ReStat Victim Communication Specialist Other Technical Specialists Building Engineers Structural Engineers Elevator Technicians Water Supply Specialist
Will confer with Lobby Control and will assume the responsibility of tracking the resources committed to the operation inside the building.
Operate on a separate TAC channel Receive notifications about victims from Dispatch Monitor the Lobby Telephone Will speak directly to victims in the building
If the Technical Specialist is not an OCFD member, they will remain in the Command/Planning area unless accompanied by an OCFD member equipped with a radio
Hook to the floor below Check for PRV’s If field adjustable, adjust to where connection can be opened all the way Check gauge on Water-Thief 75 psi For 150 ft. of 2 ½ with smoothbore= 250 gpm or more 85 For 200 ft. of 2 ½ with smoothbore= 250 gpm or more 85 Additional section of 1 ¾ with 15/16” nozzle= 150 gpm Using Metro-Folds lay out hose as follows:
1 st section at the standpipe connection Connect 1 st section to 2 nd section which is located on the ½ landing above the standpipe connection Connect male end of 2 nd section to 3 rd section on the fire floor 3 rd section connects to the 4 th section which is located on the ½ landing above the fire floor. Nozzle is attached to the male end of the 4 th section. Maneuver nozzle below door opening before opening it.
Stairwells in OKC high-rises tend to be narrow Allows passage by hose Ease of hose deployment
Standpipes are designed for smoothbore Pre 1993 standard called for 65 psi Post 1993 calls for 100 psi Either, smoothbore will be more reliable Fog nozzles can clog Flows can be restricted
Due to limited ventilation Steam isn’t what we want
1. User-Friendly Apparatus and Equipment 1. Keep your High-Rise Packs accessible 2. User-Friendly Standpipe Hose Packs The hose pack should be as lightweight and as compact as possible The hose pack should be designed for easy, fast, and efficient stretching on the fireground. 3. Properly Stretching the Attack Line Get the Metro in place
4. Proper Operating Pressure 75-85 psi is all that is needed 5. Low-pressure nozzles Use the smoothbore (Low pressure/High GPM) 6. Unglamorous Operating Positions 6- people for the operation 1 -person per friction point 7. Training, Training, and More Training
Ensure the civilians are cleared out for at least 5-floors. Direct them to the Evacuation Stairwell or Find Area of Refuge for them Prepare hose If hallway is charged with smoke, charge the line before entering floor If hallway is clear, consider stretching dry to get closer to the fire without having to pull the weight of the water.
Typically open cubical floor plan Watch out for fire wrapping around behind you Plenum may be entire trussloft area Avoid breaking the glass Could create wind driven fire
Keep control of the doors! Consider tying a strap to the door knob so that the door can be pulled shut without entering the space. Locate area of refuge before making attack Apartment on the same side of the fire apartment Force entry into refuge apartment before attack Watch out for Wind Drive!
FDC: one way check valve that is on the discharge side of the building fire pump; which means: The Fire department pumper and the building fire pump do not work in unison. It is either one or the other. Highest outlet of the standpipe system must be able to supply adequate water. Minimum 600 gpm for 1-riser/ Maximum 2,500 (Pre-93) Minimum 750 gpm for 2-risers/Max 2,500 (Pre-93) Maximum for post 93 standard is 1,250 for both sprinkler and standpipe
Because these pressures are required at the top floor: A method to restrict flow must be in place for lower outlets The building’s pump only knows to turn on or turn off It doesn’t know what floor is using the water So the building’s pump flows as if the fire is on the top floor every time.
SO… Because of the one-way check valve at the FDC and PRV’s If the Fire Department expects to supply adequate amount of water into this type of system… We must supply the system just like the building’s pump We must at least match the building’s pump pressure or the PRV’s will prevent an adequate amount of water to hoselines.
The Pumper shall be spotted with the pump panel away from the fire building to protect the engineer from falling debris (If applicable) The discharge lines supplying the FDC shall be connected to the discharges opposite from the pump panel allowing the engineer to stay clear of the lines in the event of hose failure.
After all lines are connected, the system pressure should be determined and the engine pressure of the Pumper supplying the system should be set at 50 psi below the system pressure NOTE: If the system pressure is not known, an estimated figure can be established by using the following guidelines. 5 psi per floor + 100 psi Remember figure to the roof
One method for determining whether or not water is flowing from the fire department Pumper into the FDC is to partially gate down one of the discharges being used. If the lines are static (water not flowing) the pressure on the discharge gauge will not change
On the other hand, if there is water flowing from the Pumper into the FDC, the pressure on the discharge gauge will change when the discharge is gated down
Centrifugal pumps are designed to pump their maximum gpm flow at 150 psi. 70% at 200 psi 50% at 250 psi Since Volume is required to put the fire out it is imperative to maximize flow. Therefore, Pressures over 150 psi will require a Series Pumping Operation
Series pumping is actually a short relay pump operation. The pumper taking water from the hydrant pumps into the intake of the second pumper. The second pumper boosts the pressure even higher.
When two or more pumpers are pumping in series they divide the overall required pressure to supply the system between them For example- if the required system pressure is 300 psi and two pumpers are involved in the series pump operation, each pumper will only have to pump 150 psi. 150 plus 150 equals 300 psi
Smoke Spread: Smoke spread is unquestionably the most significant life hazard problem existing in a High-Rise Fire. This smoke has caused 80% of all fire death in a High-Rise Fire
The contributing factors to this are: The used of new products in construction and furniture such as the use of plastics. PVC’s, laminates and synthetic products. These products can produce 500% more smoke and heat than hard woods. Gases that are produced will be twice as deadly and the temperatures will be significantly higher.
Stack Effect Caused by the vertical spread of heat, smoke and gases. Open Stairs Elevator Shafts Dumbwaiters Laundry/trash/mall chutes Poke throughs
Outside Temperature: 35 Inside Temperature: 70 Normal Stack Effect Cooler air drawn in at the bottom of the building causes warmer air to rise. Below the neutral plane, the horizontal air flow is towards the central core, while above the neutral lane, the horizontal air flow is away from the core- creating a mushroom effect on upper floors. Such currents exist naturally but are enhanced if a fire adds heat. Vertical shafts need to be vented at the top.
Outside Temp:85 Inside Temp:70 Reverse Stack Effect May occur on hot days. When the warm air is drawn into the building, the denser cool air tends to sink to the bottom of shafts and may draw smoke with it. Below the neutral plane the horizontal air flow is away from the core.
If the windows will open Check wind direction at the fire floor level If temperature and wind conditions allow Evacuate the apartment across from the fire room Cross ventilate If temperature and wind do not allow it Protect stairwells with electric PPV Direct ventilation may not be possible until the fire is controlled.
Windows are often times sealed Avoid breaking out windows until wind direction is known If high in the building and hot outside Expect reverse stack If low in the building and cold outside Expect reverse stack
Typically only one stairwell will exit through the roof If possible, it is better to use this stairwell for the Fire- Attack Stairwell to draw smoke away from fleeing occupants. Direct electric PPV must be applied to Evacuation Stairwell. Air-1 Resue-8 Haz-Mat 5
Remember the MGM!! The majority of fatalities occurred 15-20 floors above the fire. If conditions allow Open the top hatch If air rushes in, close the hatch If air moves out, leave it open
Because Evacuation Stairwell requires ventilation: The door to the fire floor cannot be opened Fire-Attack Stairwell will require PPV as well. Try to use Electric PPV If gasoline powered is used, Monitor for Carbon Monoxide
1. Immediate area around the fire (1 st Ladder) 2. Remainder of the fire floor (1 st & 2 nd Ladder) 3. Floor above ( 2 nd Ladder and/or Rescue-8) 4. Floor below (2 nd Ladder and/or Rescue-8) 5. The Top Floor (S.S.T) 6. Then remaining floors above (U.S.E) & (S.S.T)
What is a S.S.T? Stairwell Search Team What do they do? Continuous search of the Stairwells and immediate area around the stairs on the floors
Why are S.S.T’s needed? Remember the Cook County Administration Building!! 6 civilian deaths 13 originally attempted to evacuate down the southeast stairway Encountered heavy smoke and were told by FD to return to 12 Doors were locked and they became trapped Found 90 minutes later
How do S.S.T’s work? Ascend to the top floor Determine if their stairwell has roof hatch If it does, inform command/ops and wait for further orders When done with the roof hatch begin top/down search of the stairwells Inform command/ops. When smoke is encountered If occupants are encountered in Fire-Attack Stairwell Perform Rescue Direct them to Evacuation Stairwell or safe haven If smoke is encountered in Evacuation Stairwell Inform command/ops
These stairwell searches are on going through out the incident.
If the floor is to be evacuated… the entire floor must be searched Searched floors should be marked as such Single slash while floor is being searched “X” when search is completed “X” should be placed in front of elevator, stairwell door.
Is there at least one stairwell clear of smoke? If all evacuation routes are contaminated consider shelter in place If opted, advise those sheltered to place damp towels under the doors How far will occupants have to travel? The farther they have to travel to get below the fire floor the greater the chance they will encounter a changing hostile environment
Have Fire-Attack Operations Begun? Conditions will change dramatically when they do Evacuation Stairwell must be monitored closely through out the entire incident Are the stairwell doors unlocked?
Location of the Fire 7 th floor rule Are there occupants with special needs that must be evacuated? Is the elevator segregated from the fire area?
Only ANSI Phase II elevators can be used by FD One crew only With tools and SCBA mask’s donned Ride on one knee Know where the stairs are prior to ascent
Determine floor activation from (FAID), move to elevator lobby. Use service key and activate Phase I if the elevators have not recalled automatically. Count all the elevators to make sure they have answered the Phase I recall. If any are unaccounted for, notify IC. Check hoistway for smoke Check Phase II on the car operating panel and make sure the fire hat symbol is not flashing.
Flashing fire hat symbol means the FAID in the elevator machine room has been activated by heat or smoke. Could cause shunt trip if elevator control room is equipped with sprinklers. Could cause erratic car operations Do not use this bank of elevators Assign an operator or “Taxi” Properly equipped with SCBA, forcible entry tools, step- ladder, flashlight, radio, full PPE
Test elevator stops Stop every 5 floors Check elevator function Check smoke in elevator shaft Check for water entering shaft Buttons are continuous pressure in Phase II Doors will not automatically open at floors Taxi must push button, if button is released, doors will close