Presentation on theme: "Chinese Culture: Tradition and Change Marina Kravtsova, Maria Andrade, Anthony England, Whitney Haney Honor’s Colloquium, Oklahoma City University, Oklahoma."— Presentation transcript:
Chinese Culture: Tradition and Change Marina Kravtsova, Maria Andrade, Anthony England, Whitney Haney Honor’s Colloquium, Oklahoma City University, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
Which aspects of Chinese culture have remained constant? Which have changed? Four Aspects of Study: FoodIdiomsPoetryMusic
食物 Food ConfucianismTaoism Elevated cooking to an art form. Established standards and appearance of cooking. Established proper table etiquette. Responsible for the development of the hygienic aspects of food and cooking. Concerned with the nutritional attributes of various foods. Focused on the medical value of foods. An Artistic & Scientific View Chinese view on food is deeply rooted in Confucianism and Taoism.
Although there has been an increased in American fast-food chains in Chinese cities, traditional cuisine still remains an important part of Chinese society and primarily family life. Unlike some Western affairs that require people to eat quietly and quickly, Chinese gatherings are lengthy, noisy, and hospitable. Western Influence
Regional Cuisine China has many distinct styles of food based on geography, climate, resources, cooking methods, and lifestyle. Distinct Chinese cuisines are loosely divided into eight regions or “Eight Great Traditions”: Anhui Jiangsu Cantonese Shandong Fujian Sichuan Hunan Zhejiang
成语 Idioms Chengyu: four-character phrases with culture-unique meanings Taught in schools to help students learn to write the characters Not influenced by other cultures Chinese people take pride in preserving own culture
Examples of Chengyu Chinese IdiomEnglish Translation 瓜田李下 (guō tián lǐ xià) “Melon Field Under Plums” 一毛不拔 (yī mào bú bà) “Not Pull One Hair” 对牛弹琴 (duì niú tán qín) “Play an Instrument for a Cow”
诗词 Poetry Chronological Progression of Traditional Styles Shi 750BCE Ci 450BCE Qu 1200CE
Traditional Poetry “Night Thoughts” by Li Bai (730 BCE) I wake and moonbeams play around my bed Glittering like hoarfrost to my wondering eyes Upwards the glorious moon I raise my head Then lay me down and thoughts of home arise
Contemporary Poetry “The Answer” by Bei Dao (1976) Debasement is the password of the base, Nobility the epitaph of the noble. See how the gilded sky is covered With the drifting twisted shadows of the dead.......Let me tell you, world, I-do-not-believe! If a thousand challengers lie beneath your feet, Count me as number one thousand and one. I don't believe the sky is blue; I don't believe in thunder's echoes; I don't believe that dreams are false; I don't believe that death has no revenge.
From examining example of poetry, change is clearly evident Reasons for change: – Entrance of English Romantic poetry in the 1920’s – Demise of Dynastical system towards communist structure – Intellectuals against the government’s actions begin to use poems to speak out against wrongs rather than create a form of art. Contemporary Poetry
Early Chinese music was Confucius based. Music was viewed as a means of calming the passions and of dispelling unrest and lust, rather than a form of amusement. Traditional Chinese believed sound influenced the harmony of the universe. Older instruments were long zithers, flutes, panpipes, sheng (mouth organs), and percussion instruments such as clappers, drums, and gongs. Chinese music is as old as Chinese civilization. Instruments have been excavated from sites in all but not limited to the Shang, Chou, and Qin Dynasties. Shang Dynasty (1027 BCE) artifacts found: stone chimes, bronze bells, panpipes, and the sheng. Chou Dynasty (1027-256 BCE) music was one of the four required subjects of the sons of noblemen and princes. Qin Dynasty (221-206 BCE) Music was seen as a wasteful past time. 音乐 Music
Timeline of Events Dynastic times: Chinese opera, yayue (classical, elegant music of the imperial courts) 1900: English popular and Western classical music grew along with British influence over Chinese music 1920: Shidaiqu is started by Li Jinhui in the Republic of China. (Chinese folk, European jazz fusion) 1930: Shidaiqu converts to C-pop 1940: Communist Party of China labels c-pop as “yellow music” which meant obscene, sexual, pornographic, etc. Government censorship and control begins 1950: C-pop converts to mandopop and cantopop 1970: Mao Zedong and CPC evolve patriotic music into revolutionary music 1990: Prison song becomes Chinese Rock (Cui Jian initiated genre). Karaoke culture beings 2000: Punk Rock and Hip Hop begin to emerge in China.
Three Major Schools of Chinese Music 1. Aimed at reviving the old thousand piece orchestra that once delighted ancient princes and sages and resisted the influence of Western music. 2. Exclusively Western Music 3. Pride in traditional Chinese music culture but acceptance of Western techniques of composition and performance.
Chinese Genres Since 1912 Pop music: C-pop began with Shidaiqu, founded by Li Jinhui, with Western jazz influence. Because of the Communist Party’s censorship the mainland remained on the sideline of Pop music while cantopop arose in Hong Kong, followed by mandopop in Taiwan. Despite China’s population, the country is still not considered a lead producer of modern music. Since the end of the 20 th century, pop music in mainland China has started to gain popularity and even many Chinese, Taiwanese, and Hong Kong performers used their music for the 2008 Olympics in Beijing. Hip hop and Rap: Chinese Rap, Hong Kong hip hop, and Taiwanese hip hop Rock and heavy metal: Rock music’s pioneer in Chinese culture was Cui Jian who first used the electric guitar and became the most famous performer of his music’s generation. His music angered the government causing many of his concerts to be banned or cancelled and in 1989 he participated in the Tiananmen Square protests by playing with a red blindfold around his head as an action against the government. Western influence is also exemplified in the “Black Panther’s” (Hei Bao’s) first cd in which he used the English song “Don’t Break My Heart” as a template for his own. Around 1995 Chinese metal/rock bands were influenced by groups like Korn, Limp Bizkit, and Linkin Park. Punk Rock: The first wave of punk rock in China came about in 1995, the second in 1997, both centered in Beijing. Revolutionary Music: Bordering cult status, this patriotic music has been the most government supported genre especially under pro-Communist leader like Mao Zedong.
Music’s Significance on Chinese Culture Because of mainland China’s Communist censorship over music, piracy has become a huge issue in the music industry. For many years music was pirated into the mainland from areas like Taiwan because of the Communist bans and cancelled concerts and because of this precedent the trend has continued and now music is usually released first in Taiwan or Hong Kong and then pirated into the mainland.
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Images “Chinese Singer in Red.” No date. Online image. All Girl Band. 3 December 2008. . Emperor Gaozong, “Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain.” No date. Online image. Poetry Central. 3 December 2008.. Li-Columeau, Xiaoqian and Jean Columeau. “Red Flowers.” No date. Online image. China-Phoenix.net.. “Lily Pond.” Ursi’s Blog. 9 Nov 2008. Online image. . “Logo.” Oklahoma City University. Oklahoma City University. Online image. 8 Nov 2008.. “Map of China.” Accommodation Olympic Games Beijing 2008. HID Hellenic Info Destination. Online image. 8 Nov 2008.. May's Photo, “Battle Scene with 9 Figures.” 1920-1929. Online image. CaliSphere. 3 December 2008. . “Pumpkin Field.” No date. Online image. Julien’s List. 3 December 2008. . “Red Leaves.” No date. Online image. Random City Photos. 3 December 2008.. “Tasty Food: Blue Teapot, Shrimp, and Prawn.” No date. Online image. Asian Buffet. 11 November 2008.. “Tasty Food: Red Dinnerware.” No date. Online image. Asian Buffet. 11 November 2008.. “Three Chinese Pop Stars.” No date. Online image. Music. 3 December 2008. . “Tree Blossoms and River Boat.” No date. Online image. Shang Gao. 3 December 2008. . “Woman with Birds.” No date. Online image. Chinese Poetry 中文诗歌. 3 December 2008. . Works Cited
Acknowledgements We would like to thank Dr. Regina Bennett, Dr. Virginia McCombs, and the Honor’s Department for giving us the wonderful opportunity to present our research to the public and to gather valuable experience for our future endeavors. Your guidance and encouragement has been greatly appreciated.