Ayub Medical College Abbottabad A Beautiful Medical Institution of Pakistan Keeping High Standards of Medical Education!
Writing a Journal Article Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ayub Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad
A Scientific Paper is written on a specific template Unlike an ordinary essay, it has a definite structure The authors have to follow a specific pattern and sequence of text divisions
Useful Tips Select a journal which suits your publication requirements the best A journal taking all topics may accept your article but it will take longer to publish from the long queue A subject specific journal may go for a very strict review but may publish earlier Have a look at the general lay out of an article in the selected journal You will get idea what to include in your article You may keep within the requirements of that journal The more you write ‘like’ the published article, the more you get ‘favour’ of the editorial staff
Divisions of a Scientific Paper 1. 1. TITLE 2. 2. STRUCTURED ABSTRACT 3. 3. INTRODUCTION 4. 4. MATERIAL AND METHODS 5. 5. RESULTS 6. 6. DISCUSSION 7. 7. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS 8. 8. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 9. 9. REFERENCES
Title Title Should be SHORT DESCRIPTIVE COMPREHENSIVE EASY FOR CATALOGUING Should NOT be VAGUE Toooooo ________ L E N G T H Y Containing ABBREVIVATIONS
Examples: Evaluation of restoration of sensitivities of resistant staphylococcus aureus isolates by using cefuroxime and clavulanic acid in combination Vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor expression positively correlates with angiogenesis and peritumoural brain oedema in astrocytoma Mushroom poisoning in children: clinical presentation and outcome
Names and Addresses of Authors Junaid Sarfraz Khan, John SG Biggs*, Saima Tabasum Department of Examinations, *Adjunct Professor of Medical Education, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan Muhammad Usman, Zia Salman Faruqui, Najam ud Din, Khawaja Farhan Zahid* Department of Radiology, *Oncology, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, Pakistan
Abstract should include Purpose of the study Basic procedures (selection of subjects, observational and analytical methods) Main findings (Data and its significance) The principal conclusions 3-10 Key words Assist indexing and cross indexing Should be taken from MeSH
Introduction It Includes Existing state of knowledge Gaps in knowledge which research will fill State what you Intend to do Give pertinent references It does not Review the history of the subject Identify all other gaps in knowledge Include Methods, Results and Discussion
State purpose of the article Summarize the rationale for study or observation Give Strictly pertinent reference Do not include data or conclusion
Methods What Subjects, Patients, Animals, Specimens or Techniques were used? Reason for selecting the experimental design of the study Statistical methods used for data analysis The section should be called ‘Material and Methods’ only if inanimate specimens have been used
Describe selection of the observational, Experimental Subjects including controls Experimental Method (Reference for standard methods) Statistical Methods Ethics
Patient / Animals / Specimens Number How are they grouped (cases/controls) Criteria of Inclusion/Exclusion Informed consent obtained
Techniques Give enough details for readers to assess the validity of the results, If standard techniques is used, give appropriate reference, any modifications should be clearly explained If drug trial, clear description of trial
Statistics Clearly mention the statistical methods used for appropriate verification of reported results. Consult a statistician before starting the study
Results Communication of facts, measurements, and observations gathered by the author Start with the results that are easier to interpret Results should be set out in Tables and Figures Do not duplicate illustrations
Logical sequence Text Tables Illustrations Do not repeat in the text all the data in tables/ figures. Emphasize summarizing important observations Tables: Give Number to Tables Figures: Legends 5 x 7 inch or 8 x 10 in glossy prints (Black & White / Coloured) Top of the picture marked on the back with Fig. No. and Title
Discussion Discussion What gaps in knowledge remain to be filled? Main results should be summarized at the beginning of discussion Only mention previous results or comments which illuminate or which are illuminated by the present results.
Final paragraph in which the message of the article is firmly stated Point out where further gaps in knowledge could usefully be filled instead of ‘further research is needed’ Intention of author to explore the ‘Gaps’ further
Emphasize new and important aspects of the study and conclusions that follow Do not repeat the data Include implications of the funding, their limitations and implications for future Research Relate observations with other relevant studies Recommendations when appropriate may be included
Acknowledgements “We wish to thank” - all those who deserve recognition for their contribution but who have not made a significant intellectual contribution and are therefore not included as authors (Colleagues, Institutions, Organizations providing financial help, laboratory and secretarial staff)
Morrow DA, Rifai N, Antman EM, Weiner DL, McCabe CH, Cannon CP, et al. C-reactive protein is a potent predictor of mortality independently and in combination with troponin T in acute coronary syndromes. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1998;31:1460–5. 1. Standard Journal Article
Books and other Monographs Phillips SJ, Whisnant JP. Hypertension and stroke. In: Laragh JH, Bremier BM, editors. Hypertension: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. 2nd ed. New York: Raven Press; 1995. p.465-78.
Dissertation Kaplan SJ. Post-hospital home health care: the orderly's access and utilization (dissertation). St. Louis (MO): Washington Univ: 1995.
Unpublished Material Leshner AL. Molecular mechanisms of cocaine. N Engl J Med. In press.
Electronic Material Morse SS. Factors in the emergence of infectious disease. Emerg Inftect Dis [serial online] 1995 Jan-Mar (cited 1996 Jun 5];1(1):[24 screens]. Available from URL: http:/www.cdc.gov/ncdod/EID/eid.htm Retrieved on March 22, 2009.
Use of ‘et al.’ Write names of first 6 authors If more than 6 authors, the rest be replaced by ‘et al.’ ‘et al.’ is NOT used if authors are up to 6 or less than 6.