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How to Write for and Get Published in Scientific Journals Tehran University of Medical Sciences Warren Raye, PhD Senior Life Sciences Editor Edanz Group.

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Presentation on theme: "How to Write for and Get Published in Scientific Journals Tehran University of Medical Sciences Warren Raye, PhD Senior Life Sciences Editor Edanz Group."— Presentation transcript:

1 How to Write for and Get Published in Scientific Journals Tehran University of Medical Sciences Warren Raye, PhD Senior Life Sciences Editor Edanz Group November 28, 2011 راهنمایی برای انتشار مقالات شما

2 A little about me… Edanz Group | 2 Lecturer, researcher, teacher Senior Life Sciences Editor Author

3 Presentation  Section One: Scientific publishing  Section Two: Before you start…  Section Three: Structuring your manuscript  Section Four: Hints and tips Edanz Group | 3

4  Why publish?  Publishing in English  The publishing timeline  Peer review Edanz Group | 4 Section One Scientific publishing

5 Why publish? Edanz Group | 5 Nature is complex

6 Edanz Group | 6 We use complex technologies and methods to understand it… Why publish?

7 Edanz Group | 7 …and the science is often necessarily complex Why publish?

8 Edanz Group | 8 Why publish? To exchange ideas globally! برای اینکه نظراتتان را به صورت جهانی مبادله کنید، داشتن زبان واضح و شفاف مهم است

9 Edanz Group | 9 You have an obligation … تا زمانی که نتایج تحقیقات را چاپ نکرده اید، پژوهش شما پایان نیافته است

10  The international language of science  Other scientists WANT to hear from Iranian researchers  Allows you to become an effective science communicator  Number of publications is linked to funding success and reputation Edanz Group | 10 Why publish in English? زبان انگلیسی، زبان بین المللی دانش است.

11 Funding Bodies Researchers Grant Writing Journal Publication Publish or perish Edanz Group | 11 چاپ کن یا نابود کن

12 Increased competition Edanz Group | 12  Relative growth from 100% baseline in 1990

13  Submission to publication, 3–12 months Publishing timeline Edanz Group | 13 Manuscript submitted Editor assigned rapid rejection OR peer review Reviewers evaluate accept, reject OR revise Editor sources reviewers Publication! Revise manuscript

14  So that announcement of your findings comply with standards in quality and validity  So that your manuscript reflects research standards and is judged suitable  So that the research community can examine your work  So discoveries get correct accrediting Why peer review? Edanz Group | 14

15  Few papers are accepted without revision  Rejection and revision are integral to the peer review process Peer review improves your manuscript Edanz Group | 15 داوری توسط همتایان و هم ردیفان، موجب ارتقاء سطح مقاله شما می گردد

16  Read  Hot topics  What do journal editors want?  Select an appropriate journal  Ethical issues Edanz Group | 16 Section Two Before you start …

17 Read  Know the background material  Read broadly  Determine the key papers in your field  What is the current state of understanding?  Identify gaps in the knowledge Edanz Group | 17

18 Reading helps your writing Reading  Both sides of the brain are essential and work in harmony Reading Writing Logic Creativity  Similarly, reading and writing are connected Edanz Group | 18

19 Reading improves your writing  Read as often as possible  Discuss with your colleagues  Assists you with journal selection  Provides ideas for your next manuscript یک خواننده خوب بودن به شما کمک خواهد کرد تا یک نویسندۀ خوب شوید Edanz Group | 19

20  CRITICAL What is your hypothesis or research question? THE AIM(S) OF YOUR STUDY  What methods are appropriate?  Do you have the relevant resources?  Identify your controls Experimental design Get it right Edanz Group | 20

21  Sample sizes (n) large enough?  Which statistical test(s)? When in doubt – talk to a statistician!  Does your study comply with ALL ethics requirements? Experimental design Get it right Edanz Group | 21

22 Good quality science!  Will stand up to peer review  Original research that advances the field in some way  Interesting to the journal’s readership  Active research areas  Clear and concise English Edanz Group | 22 What do journal editors want? سردبیران مجلات به دنبال دانش با کیفیت خوب هستند

23 Edanz Group | 23 Journal Selection

24  What is the message?  Who will be interested?  How significant are your results?  Where have similar articles been published? Match your manuscript with the journal Edanz Group | 24

25  Aims and scope  Publishing frequency  Impact factor  Target audience  Open access or subscriber  Prestige  Cost  Publication type Edanz Group | 25 Factors to consider in journal selection Which factor is most important to you?

26 DO NOT…  Multiple submissions  Plagiarism  Improper author contribution  Data fabrication and falsification  Improper use of human subjects and animals Publication ethics Edanz Group | 26 اگر غیر اخلاقی رفتار کنید گرفتار خواهید شد

27 Any questions? Edanz Group | 27  Publication procedure?  Designing your study?  Selecting a journal?  Communicating with journals?

28 Section Three Structuring your manuscript Edanz Group | 28

29 For maximum clarity and consistency, write your manuscript in this order:  Methods  Results  Introduction  Discussion  Title  Abstract Write after selecting your target journal Write during the research The ‘write’ order Edanz Group | 29 Write last مقاله خود را از ابتدا به همان ترتیبی که در مقاله نهایی ظاهر می شود ننویسید

30 Edanz Group | 30 The importance of your title Physics Manuscript World Class Grabs the reader’s attention Introduces your manuscript to an editor A label for indexing  Convey the main topics of manuscript  Be specific and concise  AVOID jargon, abbreviations and acronyms

31 Poor Late Quaternary evolution of a loess landscape over glacial and interglacial cycles in a region of high tectonic vertical uplift and lateral strike-slip movement in the Charwell Basin located in the South Island of New Zealand Better Late Quaternary loess landscape evolution on an active tectonic margin, Charwell Basin, South Island, New Zealand Edanz Group | 31 A good title Shorter and easy to understand Too long خیلی طولانی کوتاهتر و به راحتی قابل فهم

32  The majority of people will only read this section  It must be able to ‘stand alone’  An accurate summary of your research and conclusions reached  Structured or unstructured? ALWAYS consult the Guide for Authors for specific requirements Edanz Group | 32 Abstract خلاصه مقاله باید به گونه ای باشد که به تنهایی هم قابلیت یک مقاله را داشته باشد خلاصه مقاله مهمترین بخش یک مقاله می باشد

33  Be brief  State the objectives and scope of the study/investigation  Describe the methods employed  Summarize the results  State the principal conclusions  AVOID abbreviations unless necessary  AVOID references Edanz Group | 33 A good Abstract should …

34 Edanz Group | 34 Introduction Why? چه مشکلی مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته است؟

35  Provide background information to put your work into context  DO NOT write a comprehensive literature review of the field  DO cite reviews that readers can refer to if they want more information Edanz Group | 35 Introduction Beginning

36  What is the rationale/reason for your study?  Explain how you addressed the problem (1–2 sentences)  DO NOT state results from your study Edanz Group | 36 Introduction Middle

37  Clearly state the aims of your study  State the methods you will use to carry out your aims  Ask yourself: are the citations balanced, current and relevant? Edanz Group | 37 Introduction End

38  Clear subheadings  Describe methods in the past tense  New methods must be described in sufficient detail for another researcher to reproduce the experiment  Established methods can be referenced  Describe statistical tests used Edanz Group | 38 Materials and methods How? شما چگونه این مشکل را مورد مطالعه قرار داده اید؟

39 Materials and methods Materials. Culture media were obtained from Life Technologies (Gaithersburg, MD). Okadaic acid was purchased from Alexis Company (Läufelfingen, Switzerland). Antibodies to MEK1/2 and phosphorylated MAPK were purchased from New England Biolabs (Beverley, MA). Induction of cell death. Cell death was induced as described previously [15]. Briefly, cell death was induced by adding okadaic acid (0-300 nM, Alexis Co.) after washing slice cultures in serum-free medium. Light and electron microscopy. Cultures were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde and 1% formaldehyde, treated with 1% OsO 4 in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, dehydrated in a graded series of ethanol and propylene oxide, and flat- embedded in an epoxy resin (Durcupan ACM, Fluka, Neu-Ulm, Germany). Semi-thin sections were stained with toluidine blue, and ultra-thin sections were stained with 1% uranyl acetate for 20 min and 1% lead citrate for 2 min. Statistics. For statistical analysis, 2-tailed Student’s t-test was used to assess the significance of mean differences. Differences were considered significant at a P-value of 0.05 or less. Edanz Group | 39 Materials described first Suppliers/locations given Clear subheadings References used to save space Enough information to reproduce the experiment Statistical test parameters provided Materials and methods Example

40 Edanz Group | 40 Results What? یافته های شما چه بوده است؟

41 Results Okadaic induces death of dentate gyrus neurons selectively. Hippocampal slice cultures treated with OA (1–300 nM) showed selective cell death of neurons in the dentate gyrus, but neurons in the CA1 – 3 regions were largely unaffected. Cell death occurred in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Propidium iodide staining of treated slides indicated…. Electron microscopy revealed a number of ultrastructural changes in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, particularly those in the CA3 region, in slices treated with 300 nM OA for 24 h (Fig 3). These changes included slight nuclear aggregations (arrow in Fig 3A), accumulation of mitochondria around nuclei (arrowheads in Fig 3B) and an increased amount of endoplasmic reticulum (Fig 3C). As shown in Figure 4, the nuclei of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 and CA3 regions… Involvement of MAPK signaling in the effect of OA. Compared with slices treated with medium only and treated slices at 0 h, slices treated with 300 nM OA showed increasing levels of phosphorylated MAPK at 4 h, 8 h, 16 h and 24 h, with no corresponding change in the levels of total MAPK. This increase was prevented in slices that were co-incubated with a protein kinase inhibitor. In addition, the levels of phosphorylated Tau were higher in OA-treated slices than in control slices… Edanz Group | 41 Clear subheadings Graphics used to save space Clear comparisons made Results What did you find?

42  Figures and tables are VERY EFFECTIVE  Keep it simple — use separate panels if necessary  AVOID duplication with the text  Label all parts of your figures  Include trend lines, scale bars and statistical significance  Legends must be able to ‘stand alone’ Edanz Group | 42 Display items Tables and figures جداول و تصاویر در برقراری ارتباط، بسیار موثر هستند

43 Edanz Group | 43 Display items Tables Clear concise legend/caption Data divided into categories for clarity Abbreviations defined )

44 Edanz Group | 44 Display items Figures Multiple panels: sets of related data are shown in a single figure Complicated data separated into smaller and simpler components Axes clearly labeled Clear, ‘stand alone’ legend

45 Edanz Group | 45 Discussion So what? معنی و مفهوم یافته های شما چیست؟

46  The most difficult section for most authors to write  Present principles, relationships and generalizations shown by the results.  Summarize and discuss your results – DO NOT just repeat them  Past tense to describe results  Present tense to describe their implications Edanz Group | 46 Discussion

47  Answer the research question  ALWAYS provide the major/main result first  Give your conclusions, based on the results  DO NOT overstate the importance of your results Edanz Group | 47 Discussion Beginning فروتن باشید

48  Interpret the results  One paragraph per idea  What do your observations/results imply?  Are there results from any previous studies relevant to your work?  Compare your results with previously published work  Same or different?  Possible reasons why? Edanz Group | 48 Discussion Middle

49  Present ambiguous results and discrepancies with other studies objectively  Explain unexpected findings to the best of your ability  Briefly describe limitations  If you don’t, the reviewers will! Edanz Group | 49 Discussion Middle

50  Reiterate your conclusions  Begin with a signal  In summary …  In conclusion …  Mention possible applications, implications and speculation, if appropriate  Suggest future work, if necessary Edanz Group | 50 Discussion End

51  ALWAYS format your references  Formatting is required in text for citations and for your references section  Use reference management software Edanz Group | 51 References

52 Any questions? Edanz Group | 52  IMRaD?  Order of writing?  Figures and tables?  References?

53  Clear communication  Language  Cover letters  Responding to reviewer comments Section Four Hints and tips Edanz Group | 53

54  Information is easier to interpret and more uniform when placed where most readers expect to find it  Good writers are aware of these expectations  Readability Expectations Edanz Group | 54

55  Readers expect verbs to closely follow subjects Verb placement Edanz Group | 55 Subject Verb Sentence.  Without the arrival of the verb, we do not know what the subject is doing or what the sentence is about

56  Readers expect verbs to closely follow subjects Syntactic resolution Edanz Group | 56 Subject Verb Sentence. syntactic resolution

57  Readers can be confused if subject and verb are separated by too much content Avoid reader confusion Edanz Group | 57 The smallest of the URF's (URFA6L), a 207- nucleotide (nt) reading frame overlapping out of phase the [NH 2 ]-terminal portion of the adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) subunit 6 gene, has been identified as the animal equivalent of the recently discovered yeast H-ATPase subunit 8 gene.

58 Avoid reader confusion Edanz Group | 58 The smallest of the URF's is URFA6L, a 207-nucleotide (nt) reading frame overlapping out of phase the [NH 2 ]-terminal portion of the adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) subunit 6 gene; it has been identified as the animal equivalent of the recently discovered yeast H-ATPase subunit 8 gene. The smallest of the URF's (URFA6L) has been identified as the animal equivalent of the recently discovered yeast H-ATPase subunit 8 gene; URFA6L is a 207-nucleotide (nt) reading frame overlapping out of phase the [NH 2 ]- terminal portion of the adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) subunit 6 gene. We identified the smallest of the URF's (URFA6L) as the animal equivalent of the recently discovered yeast H- ATPase subunit 8 gene. URFA6L is a ….

59 Active verbs Edanz Group | 59  Active verbs are clearer and add more interest than passive verbs Subject Verb Active verbs: arrange evaluate generate invent motivate predict show Passive verbs: are be could do has is would Subject Verb

60 Which voice? Active vs. passive Edanz Group | 60  Use the active voice unless your target journal states otherwise  Construct sentences where the subject “acts” or does something We collected blood samples from 256 patients. We aspirated the supernatant from the centrifuge tubes.  Sentences written in the active voice are: SIMPLE, DIRECT, CLEAR, EASY TO READ

61 For better writing use active voice & verbs Edanz Group | 61  Honey is made by bees. Bees make honey.  The students were taught by the professor. The professor taught the students.  My first visit to Iran will always be remembered by me. I shall always remember my first visit to Iran.  Confirmation of these reports cannot be obtained. These reports cannot be confirmed. Passive verbs confuse readers

62 Stress position Edanz Group | 62  Readers put more stress on information at the end of a sentence Stress position. Subject “Save the best until last” Verb

63 Stress position Edanz Group | 63 The dog sat when her mistress offered a treat. The dog sat when a treat was offered by her mistress. When the mistress offered her a treat, the dog sat.  Information is easier to understand when it is placed where most readers expect to find it

64 Topic position Edanz Group | 64 Topic position. Stress position Subject Verb  Readers expect a unit of discourse to be a story about whoever shows up first

65 Topic position Edanz Group | 65  The beginning of the sentence acts to link what came before with what will came later providing both linkage and context The family went into the courtyard to see the new puppy. The dog sat when her owner offered a treat. Everyone was so excited they broke into applause. However, as the courtyard was situated right next to my bedroom, the sound woke me from my sleep.

66  Indicates to the reader the main idea of a paragraph  Provides the writer with a focus  Should be the first sentence of a paragraph  Then discuss/explain the topic  Summarize with a concluding sentence Topic sentences Easier to read Edanz Group | 66

67 Topic sentences Example Edanz Group | 67 IN HIS STUDIES OF THE CONDITIONED REFLEX, PAVLOV WORKED ALMOST ENTIRELY WITH DOGS AND WITH THE SALIVARY REFLEX. Implicit in all of his work is the notion that everything the dog learns from puppyhood on is a result of the association of certain events (which happen to occur at the same time) with the biologically adequate stimulus to some native response such as withdrawing, struggling, eating, sex behavior, or the like. What the dog can learn… Henry Garrett, “Great Experiments in Psychology”

68  Simple language works best  Makes YOUR science more relevant  Minimizes confusion – maximizes understanding  Science is often complex, using simple language will help more people understand your work! Language Simple is best Edanz Group | 68

69 Sentence length Keep it short & simple Edanz Group | 69  We examined numerous peer-reviewed journals  Easy to read articles had an average sentence length of around 17 words  Sentences that are 15  20 words long are ideal  AVOID longer sentences, redundancies and repetition One sentence: one idea

70  Competition for publication space and for editors’ attention is very high  It may not be enough to send a cover letter to a journal editor like this: Cover letters Edanz Group | 70 Dear Editor-in-Chief, I am sending you our manuscript entitled “Techniques to detect circoviruses in Iranian bird species” by Raye et al. We would like to have the manuscript considered for publication in Virology Methods Online. Please let me know of your decision at your earliest convenience. Sincerely yours, Warren Raye, PhD

71  Address to the editor personally  State your manuscript title and publication type  Give a brief background, rationale and description of your results  Explain the importance of your findings and why they would be of interest to the journal’s target audience  Provide corresponding author details Your cover letter General rules Edanz Group | 71

72 Dear Dr Lisberger, Please find enclosed our manuscript entitled “Amyloid-like inclusions in the brains of Huntington’s disease patients”, by McGowan et al., which we would like to submit for publication as a Research Paper in Neuroscience. Recent immunohistochemical studies have revealed the presence of neuronal inclusions containing an N-terminal portion of the mutant huntingtin protein and ubiquitin in the brain tissues of Huntington’s disease (HD) patients; however, the role of these inclusions in the disease process has remained unclear. One suspected disease-causing mechanism in Huntington’s disease and other polyglutamine disorders is the potential for the mutant protein to undergo a conformational change to a more stable anti-parallel β -sheet structure… To confirm if the immunohistochemically observed huntingtin- and ubiquitin-containing inclusions display amyloid features, we performed Congo red staining and both polarizing and confocal microscopy on post-mortem human brain tissues obtained from five HD patients, two AD patients, and two normal controls. Congo red staining revealed a small number of amyloid-like inclusions showing green birefringence by polarized microscopy, in a variety of cortical regions.... ….detected inclusions observed in parallel sections, suggesting that only a relatively small proportion of inclusions in HD adopt an amyloid-like structure. We believe our findings would appeal to a broad audience, such as the readership of Neuroscience. As a wide-reaching journal publishing original research on all aspects of neuroscience… We confirm that this manuscript has not been published elsewhere and is not under consideration by another journal. All authors have approved the manuscript and agree with submission to Neuroscience. We have read and have abided by the statement of ethical standards for manuscripts submitted to Neuroscience. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. Please address all correspondence to…. Give the background to the research What was done and what was found Interest to journal’s readers Conforms to journal requirements Cover letters Example Edanz Group | 72

73  Very few papers are immediately accepted without need for any revisions Journal editor decision Complete rejection Acceptance Major revisions Minor revisions Peer review Edanz Group | 73

74 Reasons for rejection  Failure to state a hypothesis  Not answering the hypothesis  Contradictions within the manuscript  Superficial or rambling discussion  Inconsistent use of terms  Conclusion that is not supported by the data Edanz Group | 74

75  Is the manuscript sufficiently novel?  Is the manuscript of broad enough interest? What do peer reviewers look for? Edanz Group | 75 Novelty Significance Aims and Scope Impact Factor

76 Reviewers About the manuscript … Edanz Group | 76  Are the rationale and objectives defined?  Is enough background given to understand the rationale?  Could a capable researcher reproduce the experiments?  Are the results clearly explained and in the best format?  Are the findings described in context?  Are the limitations discussed?  Are the conclusions supported?  Is the literature cited appropriate?  Are there contradictions within the manuscript?

77  Politely respond to ALL the reviewers’ comments in a response letter  Make it easy to see the changes  Refer to line and page numbers  Different color font  Highlight the text Revision How to respond Edanz Group | 77

78  Consider additional experiments if suggested  You can disagree with reviewers BUT provide evidence in your rebuttal (cite references)  Comply with deadlines Revision How to respond Edanz Group | 78 به یاد داشته باشید که داوران مقالات به صورت داوطلبانه وقت خود را صرف داوری می کنند بنابراین مودب باشید

79 Edanz Group | 79 Post-referee revisions The response Dear Dr. _____________: [address the editor by name] Thank you for your consideration of our manuscript entitled _____________ [insert manuscript title here]. We have reviewed the comments of the reviewers and have thoroughly revised the manuscript. We found the comments helpful, and believe our revised manuscript represents a significant improvement over our initial submission. In response to the reviewers’ suggestions we have [summarize the key changes here]

80 Edanz Group | 80 Post-referee revisions Point-by-point [After the introduction to the response, address all reviewer points individually] Reviewer Comment: In your analysis of the data you have chosen to use a somewhat obscure fitting function (regression). In my opinion, a simple Gaussian function would have sufficed. Moreover, the results would be more instructive and easier to compare to previous results. Response: We agree with the reviewer’s assessment of the analysis. Our tailored function makes it impossible to fully interpret the data in terms of the prevailing theories. In addition, in its current form it would be difficult to tell that this measurement constitutes a significant improvement over previously reported values. We have redone the analysis using a Gaussian fitting function.

81 Edanz Group | 81 Post-referee revisions Disagreement [Sometimes you will disagree with the reviewer. Keep your response polite and professional] Reviewer Comment: In your analysis of the data you have chosen to use a somewhat obscure fitting function (regression). In my opinion, a simple Gaussian function would have sufficed. Moreover, the results would be more instructive and easier to compare to previous results. Response: We agree with the reviewer that a simple Gaussian fit would facilitate comparison with the results of other studies. However, our tailored function allows for the analysis of the data in terms of the Smith model [Smith et al, 1998]. We have added two sentences to the paper (page 3 paragraph 2) to explain the use of this function and Smith’s model.

82 Minimizing errors Edanz Group | 82  Google Scholar and Springer Exemplar to check for word usage  Purdue University Online Writing Lab  Target journal’s Guide for Authors  Track Changes and Comment functions  Find (and replace)  Word Count function  Spell Check (be careful)  Custom Dictionaries and Online Glossaries به منظور اینکه حرفه ای جلوه کنید غلطها را به حداقل برسانید

83 Free resource Edanz Group | 83

84  Appropriately designed study?  Complied with ethics guidelines?  Novel and interesting results?  Correct statistical tests?  Clear, concise, accurate writing?  Importance of findings explained?  Appropriate choice of journal?  Followed the journal’s instructions? Summary Checklist for acceptance Edanz Group | 84 قبل از ارسال مقاله تان تمام این سوالات را از خود بپرسید

85 Take home message … Read! Read! Read! Reading Writing Good readers make good writers! Edanz Group | 85

86 Thank you Good luck! Edanz Group | 86 با تشکر و آرزوی موفقیت

87 Any questions? Edanz Group | 87

88 English editing for experts, by experts  Expert editors in all fields  Services to raise your chances of acceptance  Ensuring clear communication of your research  Rapid completion Edanz Group | 88

89  Language Editing  Journal Selection  Expert Scientific Review  Abstract Writing  Cover Letter Writing  Point-by-Point Response Check Services 89 Services for acceptance Edanz Group | 89

90 Dr Andrew Gorman 2001 – PhD Geophysics, University of British Columbia, CA Lecturer at the Geology Department, University of Otago Dr Conan Fee 1989 – PhD Chemical & Process Engineering, University of Canterbury, NZ Director of Biomolecular Interactions Centre at the University of Canterbury; has published over 160 journal articles, book chapters, conference papers, and patents Dr Natasha Lundin 2007 – PhD Chemistry, University of Otago, NZ Cover article author in Angewandte Chemie Dr Brett Kraabel 1995 – PhD Physics, University of California Santa Barbara, USA Specialist in condensed matter physics, optics and materials science Dr Stephen Cooke 2006 – PhD Immunology, King’s College, UK Worked as a post-doctoral fellow for both the Arthritis and Rheumatism Council (ARC) and Cancer Research UK (CRUK) Dr Kristen Demarest 2000 – PhD Neurobiology and Behavior, SUNY, USA Currently staff scientist at Scripps Research Institute Dr Alison Sherwin 1992 – PhD Biochemistry, University of Kent at Canterbury, UK Has edited over 3,000 manuscripts in the Health and Life Sciences for Japanese and Chinese authors Expert editors in all scientific fields Dr Jennifer Smith 1999 – PhD Botany, University of Otago, NZ Experienced peer reviewer for functional plant biology, and enzyme and microbial technology Edanz Group | 90

91 English editing for experts, by experts Edanz Group | 91

92 Edanz Group | 92

93  Look for clues…  How?  Controversies  Unexplained findings  Editorials, commentaries, letters to the editor Hot topics Edanz Group | 93

94 Hot topics Edanz Group | 94  Literature searches  PubMed  Google Scholar  SpringerLink  Expand your reading  Similar and related fields

95 Hot topics Edanz Group | 95  Talk to other scientists!  Local society meetings  National conferences  International congresses These are the places where the very latest results are presented درگیر شدن در جامعه پژوهشی موجب یافتن ایده های جدید می گردد

96 Edanz Group | 96 Display items Figures Clear, ‘stand alone’ legends/captions Maps with major features. Longitude and latitude are indicated. Scale bar and legend to symbols included Axes clearly labeled

97 Sentence length Keep it short & simple Edanz Group | 97  We examined numerous peer-reviewed journals  Easy to read articles had an average sentence length of around 17 words  Sentences that are 15  20 words long are ideal  AVOID longer sentences, redundancies and repetition One sentence: one idea

98 UK or US spelling? Edanz Group | 98  Check the journal’s Guide for Authors  Generally, American journals require US spelling and British journals require British spelling, but many accept either form as long as the spelling used is consistent fibreorfiber centreorcenter labellingorlabeling colourorcolor British US

99 Comparisons Edanz Group | 99  Frequently made in the results sections of papers  Use compared with, NOT compared to The material from the river bank was compared with the landfill. The material from the river bank was compared with that from the landfill.

100 Comparisons Example Edanz Group | 100 Expression levels of p53 in smokers were compared with non-smokers. Expression levels of p53 in smokers were compared with p53 levels in non-smokers. Expression levels of p53 in smokers were compared with those in non-smokers.

101 Comparisons Edanz Group | 101  Relative terms, such as more, higher and greater, require a reference for comparison  Use than OR compared with Reactions with the new machine were faster than those with the old machine. Reactions with the new machine were faster. Faster than what?

102 Between or among? Edanz Group | 102  Use between for comparisons of two groups  Use among for comparisons of more than two groups..significant differences were observed in the H values among bio-, fully- and semi-synthetic… …the only difference between the original molecule and the new molecule is...

103 Colons and semi-colons Edanz Group | 103  The colon “:” is used to introduce a list or a clause that explains what precedes it  Semi-colons “;” are used to separate items in a list too long for commas or where commas could be ambiguous. Use ‘and’ before the last item in the list. There are a number of journals that Springer publishes that will accept manuscripts associated with organic chemistry: Organic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters; Chemistry of Natural Compounds; the Journal of Molecular Modeling; and The Protein Journal.

104 Semi-colons Edanz Group | 104  Use a semi-colon to join two clauses with the aid of a transition In previous sediments of all salinities, MeHg production was highest at previous sediment depths just below the oxic/anoxic transition; that is, depths where microbial sulfate reduction was present, but where sulfide, which inhibits methylation, was relatively low.  Other transitions you can use: therefore, because, and however

105 Edanz Group | 105 Post-referee revisions Further explanation [Often, a review comment that is incorrect will still identify a part of the paper that needs more explanation] Original: We then fit the data to a super-Gaussian. From this, we extracted the reaction time [Smith et al. 1998]. Revised: We then fit the data to a super-Gaussian. We elected to use this function to facilitate analysis using the Smith model [Smith et al. 1998]. According to the Smith model, the reaction time is dependent on the intensity and width of the fitted peak. Using this model, we extracted the reaction time.

106 Appendix: useful set phrases Cover letters Edanz Group | 106 Please find enclosed our manuscript entitled (title) by (First Author) et al., which we would like to submit for publication as a (Publication Type) in (Journal name). To our knowledge, this is the first report showing… We believe our findings would appeal to the readership of (Journal name). Please address all correspondence to: We shall look forward to hearing from you at your earliest convenience.

107 Appendix: statements Cover letters Edanz Group | 107  We confirm that this manuscript has not been published elsewhere and is not under consideration by another journal.  All authors have approved the manuscript and agree with submission to (Journal Name). ALL cover letters should contain these sentences:

108 Appendix: statements Cover letters Edanz Group | 108  We have read and have abided by the statement of ethical standards for manuscripts submitted to (Journal Name).  The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. MOST medical research cover letters should contain these or similar sentences: Or… briefly give information describing any conflicts …

109 Edanz Group | 109 Appendix: useful set phrases Response letters Please find enclosed our revised manuscript entitled (title) by (First Author) et al., which we would like to resubmit for publication as a (Publication Type) in (Journal name). Your comments and those of the reviewers were very helpful. In the following pages are our point-by-point responses to each of the comments of the reviewers.

110  Consult an expert!  State the statistical tests used to analyze data  Provide the name, version and maker of the statistical package used e.g. SPSS 11.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA  Only use the word “significant” when describing statistically significant differences  Alternatives: notable, substantial, marked Edanz Group | 110 Appendix: statistics

111 Edanz Group | 111 Appendix: statistics A few rules  Precision Life expectancy of years  22 years  Always give numerator and denominator 25% (740/2958)  Avoid using percentages to summarize small sample sizes  Be very clear with percentages within subgroups Of the 1000 patients, 800 (80%) were women; (31%) had a BMI of … Of the 1000 patients, 800 (80%) were women; of these, 250 (31%) had a BMI of…

112 Appendix: simple words Edanz Group | 112 PreferAvoid moreadditional enoughadequate clearapparent tryattempt showdemonstrate tryendeavor veryexceedingly

113 Appendix: simple words Edanz Group | 113 Prefer Avoid sizemagnitude aimobjective take partparticipate doneperformed askedrequested livesresides keepretain

114 Edanz Group | 114 Prefer Avoid latersubsequently enoughsufficient endterminate useutilization Appendix: simple words

115 Appendix: structured abstracts Edanz Group | 115  Follow the IMRaD format: Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion  CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) recommends structured abstracts for RCT papers (randomized controlled trials).  Why? Easy for authors to write Easy for readers to understand Good for computerized indexing

116 Edanz Group | 116 Appendix: structured abstracts Example

117 Edanz Group | 117  Here, we present…  Here, we show…  Here, we report…  In this work, we introduce… Appendix: useful set phrases Abstract

118 Edanz Group | 118  These results show…  To test whether (past tense), we performed …  To examine if XX (past tense), we YY (past tense)  We used XX to YY. Using this approach, we identified ZZ. Appendix: useful set phrases Abstract

119 Edanz Group | 119  We demonstrated previously…  Previous studies have shown that…  We have previously shown that…  The topic of XX has recently been reviewed 1. (insert reference)  To determine whether …  The purpose of this study was … Appendix: useful set phrases Introduction

120  Therefore, we tested the hypothesis …  This report describes experiments designed to determine whether …  Therefore, our first objective in these studies was to determine whether …  In this study, we sought to extend our observations and specifically test … Edanz Group | 120 Appendix: useful set phrases Introduction

121 Edanz Group | 121  To test whether XX (past tense), we performed…  To examine if XX (paste tense) we performed … Appendix: useful set phrases Methods

122 Edanz Group | 122  Among the cases we analyzed…  XX was/were observed….  The results are summarized in Table 1.  Figure 2a shows the effect of X on Y.  Group X showed higher/lower levels of Y than the control group. Appendix: useful set phrases Results

123 Edanz Group | 123  In the current study, we have shown…  In summary…  To conclude…  In conclusion…  In demonstrating XX, our findings show that/illustrate that…  Taken together these results suggest… Appendix: useful set phrases Discussion

124 Edanz Group | 124  The above data collectively show…  Our data supports the idea that XX  Our study supports the hypothesis that ZZ  Our study is limited by…  There were some limitations to the current study. Appendix: useful set phrases Discussion


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