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MAY 2012 FEATURING KEN O’ CONNOR’S A REPAIR KIT FOR GRADING: 15 FIXES FOR BROKEN GRADES & HOW TO GRADE FOR LEARNING K-12 A Repair Kit for Grading: 15 Fixes.

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Presentation on theme: "MAY 2012 FEATURING KEN O’ CONNOR’S A REPAIR KIT FOR GRADING: 15 FIXES FOR BROKEN GRADES & HOW TO GRADE FOR LEARNING K-12 A Repair Kit for Grading: 15 Fixes."— Presentation transcript:

1 MAY 2012 FEATURING KEN O’ CONNOR’S A REPAIR KIT FOR GRADING: 15 FIXES FOR BROKEN GRADES & HOW TO GRADE FOR LEARNING K-12 A Repair Kit for Grading: 15 Fixes for Broken Grades

2 SURVEY ON MARKING AND GRADING PRACTICES 15 Fixes User Guide Appendix C

3 1. Explore cutting edge research on grading 2. Reflect upon assumptions about grading 3. Consider alignment between grades and learning 4. Reflect on personal and systemic grading practices OUTCOMES

4 1. 15 FIXES Setting the Stage Fixes Book Exploration  Introduction  Fixes Lunch (Around 11:30AM) Fixes Book  Fixes 7-10  Fixes  Fixes Change Process 6. Action Planning AGENDA

5 1. Listen. Don’t talk over each other. 2. Be open to each other’s ideas 3. Ask questions 4. Begin and end on time 5. Silence cell phones 6. Take calls outside 7. Take related conversations outside 8. “Please bring your conversations to a stopping point. Thank you for bringing your conversations to a close.” WORKING AGREEMENTS

6 1. Student 2. Educator/Teacher/Administrator 3. Employee 4. Parent FOUR PERSPECTIVES

7 FIXES TO SUPPORT LEARNING Application Activity #1 : Case Study 6, All or Some, Page 31 in How to Grade for Learning. Parachute-Packing Test Scores 1. Read Case Study Reflect on these questions: Which student will you choose to pack your parachute? Why? If these were scores in a typical teacher’s grade book, which students would pass? Fail? Is there any discrepancy between your answers to the above two questions? If so, why?

8 Books: 1. A Repair Kit for Grading: 15 Fixes for Broken Grades (AKA “15 Fixes”)  Study Guide for A Repair Kit for Grading : 15 Fixes for Broken Grades 2. How to Grade for Learning K-12 School Improvement Webpage: MATERIALS & RESOURCES

9 WHAT FINAL GRADE SHOULD THIS STUDENT RECEIVE? 1. What’s in an A, B, C, D, E or F? 2. Averaging grades (60) 3. Median (75) 4. Zeros (2 zeros) 5. Formative vs. Summative (last three grades at 80, 95 and 95) 6. Most recent learning (95 is final) 7. Grading policy 8. Feedback/communication with students?

10 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS  For whom do we grade?  What is the purpose of grades? What should a grade tell us? Is grading primarily about growth or about amount of knowledge?  What is a “fair” grade? What does fairness in grading mean?  What should be included in a grade? What are the implications of including factors besides achievement in grades?  Should grades reflect credit for doing, credit for learning, or both?  How can grading distort student achievement?  How can the quality and organization of evidence impact students’ grades?  What is the relationship between learning and grading?

11 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS

12 How confident are you that the grades students get in your school are: Consistent, Accurate, Meaningful and Supportive of Learning? What is your evidence? If grades do not meet these four conditions of quality, they are “broken,” i.e., ineffective. --Ken O’Connor

13 Purposes for Grading (Spend a Buck) Communicate the achievement status of students to parents, (students), and others. Provide information that students can use for self- evaluation. Select, identify, or group students for certain educational paths or programs. Provide incentives to learn. Evaluate the effectiveness of instructional programs Guskey, Thomas R. (Editor), Communicating Student Learning: The1996 ASCD Yearbook, ASCD, Alexandria, VA, 1996, 17

14 GRADING INVENTORY Using the grading inventory, individually identify the percentage of your grades allocated to each category. Compare your list with two colleagues. Conversation: What similarities or differences exist between your inventories? Why might the differences exist? Should differences exist? What grading issues arise from this conversation?

15 Reflection 1.What is the result of having one kind of culture vs. the other kind of culture? 2.What kind of culture should a school promote? How does a school’s perspective on these cultures impact students? 3.How do these cultures impact how we teach, how we assess, how we grade? 4.What culture is prevalent in your building? How do you know? What is the impact? Culture of Learning Culture of Performance Success is defined by improving the level of competence Focused on Process Goals – job is to learn how to do something Growth Mindset – intelligence and ability can be increased Success means doing better than others or achieving at a superior level Focused on Product Goals – job is to finish a task Fixed Mindset – Intelligence and ability are fixed School Culture

16 UNDERPINNING ISSUES “There are three underpinning issues we must consider before addressing the specifics of how to determine grades. They are fairness, motivation, and objectivity and professional judgment.” O’Connor, p. 9. Divide into groups of 3 to read pp. 7 – 12. Each person reads one section: Fairness, Motivation, Objectivity and Professional Judgment. When everyone in your group has completed the reading, each person shares one quote from the section and explains its relevance.

17 SURVEY ON MARKING AND GRADING PRACTICES 15 Fixes User Guide Appendix C

18 FIXES FOR PRACTICES THAT DISTORT ACHIEVEMENT Fixes 1-6 Read your assigned Fix. On a piece of chart paper, list the following:  The gist of the Fix (according to the text)  Arguments for using the Fix through the lens of a:  Teacher  Student Choose who will report out to the larger group. Recall that your listeners have not read your content.

19 Fix 1: Don’t include student behaviors (effort, participation, adherence to class rules, etc.) in grades; include only achievement. Fix 2: Don’t reduce marks on “Work” submitted late; provide support for the learner. Fix 3: Don’t give points for extra credit or use bonus points; seek only evidence that more work has resulted in a higher level of achievement Fix 4: Don’t punish academic dishonesty with reduced grades; apply other consequences and reassess to determine actual level of achievement. Fix 5: Don’t consider attendance in grade determination; report absences separately. Fix 6: Don’t include group scores in grades; use only individual achievement evidence. FIXES FOR PRACTICES THAT DISTORT ACHIEVEMENT

20 WHAT’S MY THINKING NOW? How might I use Fixes 1-6 now? Why?

21 LUNCH Lunch Break : am- pm On Your Own Enjoy!

22 FIXES FOR LOW-QUALITY OR POORLY ORGANIZED EVIDENCE Fixes 7-10 Form a table group of 6 and choose a partner within that group. Assign readings as follows:  Partner group 1 – Fix 7, pp  Partner group 2 – Fix 8, pp  Partner group 3 – Fixes 9 and 10, pp Each partner group reads its section using the blue “Say Something” protocol. With the total table group, each partner group shares a brief summary of their section and two “say somethings.”

23 FIXES FOR LOW-QUALITY OR POORLY ORGANIZED EVIDENCE Fix 7: Don’t organize information in grading records by assessment methods or simply summarize into a single grade; organize and report evidence by standards/learning goals. Fix 8: Don’t assign grades using inappropriate or unclear performance standards; provide clear descriptions of achievement expectations. Fix 9: Don’t assign grades based on student’s achievement compared to other students; compare each student’s performance to present standards. Fix 10: Don’t rely on evidence gathered using assessments that fail to meet standards of quality; rely only on quality assessments.

24 THE KEYS TO QUALITY ASSESSMENT Key 1: Clear Purpose: Why assess? Key 2: Clear Targets: Assess what? Key 3: Sound Design: Assess how? Key 4: Effective Communication: Communicate how? Key 5: Student Involvement: How are students involved? Review the chart on page 83. Think about assessment in your classroom/building/district. Which of the keys are most evident in your classroom?” Discuss highlights with elbow partner.

25 WHAT’S MY THINKING NOW? How might I use Fixes 7-10 now? Why? FIXES FOR LOW-QUALITY OR POORLY ORGANIZED EVIDENCE

26 FIXES FOR INAPPROPRIATE GRADE CALCULATION Stand up. Form a group of four. Further, divide into pairs. 1. One pair read Fix 11, pp Second pair read Fix 12, pp  Use the Text Rendering Protocol sheet to reflect on what you read by choosing a word, phrase, and sentence from the chapter that summarizes a major idea from the reading  Write your word, phrase and sentence on your grey colored handout  Share your word, phrase and sentence with your group of four  Share highlights with whole group

27 FIXES FOR INAPPROPRIATE GRADE CALCULATION 1. What grade should each student receive? Why? 2. Is it accurate to use the same approach with each student? Why? 3. What additional information would help you make this decision? Assessments in OrderKarenAlexJenniferStephen Assessment Assessment Assessment Assessment Assessment Assessment Assessment Assessment Assessment Assessment Total630 Mean63% Median90%63%100%63% Mode90%63%100%?

28 FIXES FOR INAPPROPRIATE GRADE CALCULATION Fix 11: Don’t rely only on the mean; consider other measures of central tendency and use professional judgment. Fix 12: Don’t include zeros in grade determination when evidence is missing, or as punishment; use alternatives, such as reassessing to determine real achievement or use “I” for incomplete or insufficient evidence.

29 New Michigan Written Component for Teacher Evaluation 17/20 = 85% Required to Pass First Test 10/20 = 50% Second Test 10/ /20 = 27/40 = 67.5% Third Test 10/ / /20 = 45/60 = 75% Fourth Test 10/ / / /20 = 64/80 = 80% Fifth Test 10/ / / / /20 = 84/100 = 84% Sixth Test 10/ / / / / /20 = 104/120 = 86.5%

30 Whenever I hear statistics being quoted I am reminded of the statistician who drowned while wading across a river with an average depth of three feet. Gordon McMann Campbell River, B.C. Letter to the Editor Toronto Globe and Mail October 15, 2003

31 “Data should be used to INFORM not determine decisions” Management Consultant, The Hay Group, personal conversation, January 2002

32 “The use of an ‘I’ or ‘Incomplete’ grade is an alternative to assigning zeros that is both educationally sound and potentially quite effective.” Guskey and Bailey, Developing Grading and Reporting Systems for Student Learning, Corwin Press, 2001, 144

33 FIXES FOR INAPPROPRIATE GRADE CALCULATION WHAT’S MY THINKING NOW? How might I use Fixes 11 & 12 now? Why?

34 REFLECTION & EVALUATION I arrived today thinking… I’m leaving today thinking…

35 REFLECTION Is school primarily a formative or summative experience? How does your answer determine your grading practices? How do your current practices align to your beliefs?

36 MAY 2012 FEATURING KEN O’ CONNOR’S A REPAIR KIT FOR GRADING: 15 FIXES FOR BROKEN GRADES & HOW TO GRADE FOR LEARNING K-12 A Repair Kit for Grading: 15 Fixes for Broken Grades

37 I ARRIVED THINKING/I LEFT THINKING This concept is black and white This is a massive undertaking Believing many points consistent with O’Connor’s book Sweet! I can’t wait to learn about some of these “fixes”! That I would be resistant to some of the fixes proposed based on the reaction of other teachers who had attended this session There is more flexibility than I anticipated This is a massive undertaking And feeling validated Want to learn a lot more That I can see value in most of the fixes presented, but only when implemented effectively with support of both staff and administration

38 Walkabout Review Write down one Recollection, Insight, and Application from what you learned yesterday. Walk around the room and find people to share their Recollections, Insights, and Applications. Write down their name and ideas on your paper.

39 FIXES TO SUPPORT LEARNING Fixes At your table divide into two groups. Read the chapter(s). 1. Group 1: Read Fix 13, pp Group 2: Read Fixes 14 & 15, pp  Use the “First Turn/Last Turn” protocol with “like fix” group  Share highlights with whole group

40 FIXES TO SUPPORT LEARNING Fix 13: Don’t use information from formative assessments and practice to determine grades; use only summative evidence Fix 14: Don’t summarize evidence accumulated over time when learning is developmental and will grow with time and repeated opportunities; in those instances, emphasize more recent achievement Fix 15: Don’t leave students out of the grading process. Involve students; they can – and should – play key roles in assessment and grading that promote achievement

41 FIXES TO SUPPORT LEARNING Application Activity #2: Huang’s Lunchtime Surprise, Page 186, in How to Grade for Learning. Huang’s Lunchtime Surprise 1. How did the English teacher and the coach use feedback differently? 2. How does quality feedback during the learning process increase student involvement and promote achievement? 3. What does using past assessment data communicate to students about learning? 4. What information about grades is important to communicate to students prior to the beginning of a learning experience?

42 Fix 13 “The research indicates that improving learning through assessment depends on five, deceptively simple, key factors:  The provision of effective feedback to students  The active involvement of students in their own learning  Adjusting teaching to take account of the results of assessment  A recognition of the profound influence assessment has on the motivation and self-esteem of students, both of which are crucial influences on learning  The need for students to be able to assess themselves and understand how to improve.”

43 “Schools use grades because it’s one of those things somebody once decided on and now everybody goes along with it. I don’t know where it started, but I know where it stops - in the real world. You don’t see supervisors telling their employees, “Great job, I’m going to give you an A.” Or, “You really screwed up here; that’s a C-.” No, in the real world, adults get real feedback and indications of where they need improvement.” Littky, D., with S. Grabelle, The Big Picture, ASCD, Alexandria, VA, 2004

44 The key question is, “What information provides the most accurate depiction of students’ learning at this time?” In nearly all cases, the answer is “the most current information.” If students demonstrate that past assessment information no longer accurately reflects their learning, that information must be dropped and replaced by the new information. Continuing to rely on past assessment data miscommunicates students’ learning. Guskey, Thomas R. (Editor), Communicating Student Learning: The 1996 ASCD Yearbook, ASCD, Alexandria, VA, 1996, 21

45 Fix #14

46 “We know that students will rarely perform at high levels on challenging learning tasks at their first attempt. Deep understanding or high levels of proficiency are achieved only as a result of trial, practice, adjustments based on feedback and more practice.” McTighe, J., “What Happens Between Assessments”, Educational Leadership, Dec. ‘96 - Jan. ‘97, 11

47 WHAT’S MY THINKING NOW? How might I use Fixes now? Why? FIXES TO SUPPORT LEARNING

48 Redos and Retakes Done Right Read the article “Redos and Retakes Done Right” by Rick Wormeli for purpose:  + Affirms prior knowledge  ! Surprises you  ? You wish to know more about this At your tables, in round-robin fashion, explore the items you marked with a ! or ?. Each member shares only one item at a time.

49 49 School Level Change Not all change is of the same magnitude. Some changes have greater implications than others for various stakeholders. The differences in the magnitude or “order” of change are described below: First Order Change An extension of the past Within existing paradigms Consistent with prevailing attitudes and norms Focused Bounded Incremental Linear Marginal Implemented with existing knowledge and skills Problem and solution oriented Implemented by experts A break with the past Outside of the existing paradigms Conflicted with prevailing attitudes & norms Emergent Unbounded Complex Non-linear A disturbance to the whole system Requires new skill & knowledge to implement Neither problem nor solution oriented Implemented by stakeholders Second Order Change

50 50 First Order Changes Second Order Changes Process innovation In the box Doing work in new ways Radical innovation/Creative Out of the box Doing new work  Recognizing which changes are 1 st and 2 nd order Helps leaders select practices and initiatives that are appropriate for individuals and stakeholders Results in more sustainable efforts Results in a positive impact on achievement  A negative impact will likely result if we use 1 st order change when 2 nd order change is needed if we assume that 1 st and 2 nd order changes have the same impact Paraphrased from Balanced Leadership, McREL 2003

51 51 First and Second Order Changes Smaller classes Site-based councils Ninety-minute teaching blocks Schools within schools First Order ChangeSecond Order Change Changing relationships and teaching strategies Collaboration and ownership Extended teaching and learning opportunities New interactions and relationships Coordinated focused curriculum Teaching teams with common planning Research shows that second order changes are more likely to lead to increased student achievement than are first order changes.

52 Sabotage Confusion Anxiety Anger Sporadic Change False Starts First Order Change TrustVisionSkillsResources Action Plan Payoff Shared Values/Beliefs Second Order Change TrustVisionSkillsResources Action Plan Payoff Shared Values/Beliefs TrustVisionSkillsResources Action Plan Payoff Shared Values/Beliefs TrustVisionSkillsResources Action Plan Payoff Shared Values/Beliefs TrustVisionSkillsResources Action Plan Payoff Shared Values/Beliefs TrustVisionSkillsResources Action Plan Payoff Shared Values/Beliefs TrustVisionSkillsResources Action Plan Payoff Shared Values/Beliefs TrustVisionSkillsResources Action Plan Payoff Shared Values/Beliefs = Understanding Change = = = = = = =

53 CHANGE PROCESS What level change is represented in 15 Fixes for Broken Grades? Why? What row best represents your school/district? Why? If you were to have conversations about grading in your building/district, how might you consider these elements of change?

54 CREATING THE CONVERSATION What are our next steps as a school/department? What are my next steps personally?

55 CREATING THE CONVERSATION Who is your audience? Who are your allies? What might keep you from being successful? On whom/what else does your success depend? What is the starting point? How might you relate it to the experience of your audience? How will you consider the elements of change?

56 ACTION PLANNING TEMPLATE Strategy(ies) How will we accomplish our objective? Activities What are the specific tasks needed to implement the strategy? Indicators/ Measures How will we know if we are successful? Constraints What might keep us from being successful? Dependencies On who/what else outside of our team does our success depend upon? Resources/ Data Needed What supplies/ information do we need? Responsible Party Who will accomplish this task? Timeline By when will this task be completed?

57 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS What insight have you gained around these essential questions?  For whom do we grade?  What is the purpose of grades? What should a grade tell us? Is grading primarily about growth or about amount of knowledge?  What is a “fair” grade? What does fairness in grading mean?  What should be included in a grade? What are the implications of including factors besides achievement in grades?  Should grades reflect credit for doing, credit for learning, or both?  How can grading distort student achievement?  How can the quality and organization of evidence impact students’ grades?  What is the relationship between learning and grading?

58 SIX-WORD NOVEL Using only six words, summarize your learning or your takeaway from the past two days. Grades reflect achievement; paradigm shift necessary. Am I using defensible grading practices? The finish line matters the most. Assess knowledge not the learning process. Innocent but wrong; now quite enlightened. Grades need to represent content mastery.

59 SURVEY ON MARKING AND GRADING PRACTICES 15 Fixes User Guide Appendix C

60 1. Explore cutting edge research on grading 2. Reflect upon assumptions about grading 3. Consider alignment between grades and learning 4. Reflect on personal and systemic grading practices OUTCOMES

61 REFLECTION & EVALUATION Printed reflection & evaluation Five outcomes What are our next steps as a school/department? What are my next steps personally?

62 QUICK WRITE How do educators lead students to change their focus from point accumulation to learning?


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