Presentation on theme: "Planning and Organising a Research Study"— Presentation transcript:
1Planning and Organising a Research Study Anna Miller, MBChB, MPHSenior Technical AdvisorEGPAF Global Technical Policy UnitOperations Research TrainingKampala, Uganda5 November 2009
2Learning ObjectivesGain a comprehensive understanding of how to plan and organise a study from the literature review stage until utilisation of findings
3Session overview Group activity and feedback / discussion Slide presentationCountry experience-sharing and Question & Answer
4Group Exercise!Each group receives a set of cards with all key elements of planning and implementing a research study on them. They must organise them according to how they think they are put together over time. Cards will be stuck onto flip-chart paper. Each group will then present their picture to the others and talk about why things have been arranged in this way.
5Life! Experience! Problems! QuestionLiterature reviewIdentifyresearchteamSituationalAnalysisDesign Study (incl exit strategy)Write protocol and budgetSourcing of potential donorsPlanningphaseIRB submissionSubmission for fundingEstablish research teamDecide on authorshipDefine roles & responsibilitiesTIMEDesign tools, train teamLinks to stakeholdersImplement-ation phaseImplement interventionData collectionData qualitysystemsConduct evaluationData analysisFollowThroughphaseClose out studyWrite Up FindingsDisseminate Findings
6Communication Ethical Considerations Life! Experience! Problems!EthicalConsiderationsSituationalAnalysisLiterature reviewIdentifyresearchteamQuestionDesign StudyWrite protocol and budgetSourcing of potential donorsPlanningphaseIRB submissionSubmission for fundingEstablish research teamDecide on authorshipDefine roles & responsibilitiesLinks to stakeholdersImplement-ation phaseImplement interventionData collectionData qualitysystemsConduct evaluationData analysisClose out studyFollowThroughphaseWrite Up FindingsDisseminate Findings
7TimeframeTimeframe from question to dissemination of results varies according to size of study10-12 years for a big new studyMuch shorter with selected Operations Research (already have much experience and data to draw from)2 months pilot2 year writing papers / proposals6 months from funding to field (recruitment of community interviewers etc)Another 3 months to start of data collectionShapes of timeframe – see paper and make slides
8The Seven “P”s Prior Planning and Preparation Prevents a Pretty Poor Performance
9Question & Study Design Need to have a good question with the correct methods to answer that questionWrong question + wrong methods = can’t answer question = unethical and waste of resourcesInvolve statistician early and make sure study will sufficiently powered to attribute any changes to the intervention that was implementedIdentify your research team early - experts who know about the specific methods and/or issue being investigated
10Literature Review What is a literature review? Why (and when) are they necessary?How do I conduct a literature review?
11What is a literature review? A systematic critical review and appraisal of what has been published on a topic by researchers and other expertsNot simply a descriptive account of what has been publishedUsually part of a larger piece of work, such as a research paperCan also be done on its own (e.g. annotated bibliography)
12Qualities of a good literature review Organized around and directly related to the research question that you are addressingSynthesizes results into a summary of what is and what is not knownProvides the reader with information on the existing knowledge about a topic, and the strengths and weaknesses of that knowledgeIdentifies questions for future research
13When should I do one? When writing proposals When writing research articlesCan you think of any other times when a literature review could be helpful?
14Why should I do one?To identify gaps in current knowledge/practice that merit further investigation (to justify your research)To demonstrate that your research will fill a gap and contribute to the fieldTo provide a theoretical/methodological basis for your researchTo provide context for your researchTo show your audience that you’ve “done your homework”Ask participants: “Why should you do a lit review?”(Then click to display answers)
15How to: Conducting literature reviews What to includePeer-reviewed publicationsGrey literatureWhere to searchPubMed (and other databases, e.g. PsycInfo)Google ScholarOrganization / gov’t websites, etc.EGPAF journal access through GW LibraryRemember to look in the EGPAF Publication Database (on the intranet) before you request an article… it might already be there!
16PubMed Managed by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) PubMed is an online database of freely accessible biomedical journal citations and abstractsManaged by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH)Includes MEDLINEPubMed “Quick Start” help guide:PubMed tutorials:PubMed search:
17To do a basic PubMed search by subject: 1. Identify the key concepts for your search.For example, if your main question is “What is the risk of HIV transmission through breastfeeding?” you could enter the terms HIV and breastfeeding in the search box.2. Enter the terms in the search box. You do not need to use words like “and” or “the.”3. Click Search.
18You can limit your search in a few ways… Let’s say you only want articles about HIV and breastfeeding where Cathy Wilfert is one of the authors.You would enter HIV and breastfeeding in the search box, and enter Wilfert C in the author field.Then click Search.You can also also limit by journal, publication date, etc.
19More on search limits…PubMed contains free citations and abstracts, but some articles are also “open access.” This means you can access the full text of the article for free.To search only for articles with free full text, enter your search terms, then select the “Links to free full text” box.Then click Search.
20Click hereWhen we search for HIV and breastfeeding articles where Cathy Wilfert is one of the authors, these are the results.Let’s say we want article 2. Click on the title of the article.
21Link to free full text This article has a link to free full text. For articles that do not have free full text available, you can request the article through our partnership with GW’s med school library.Instructions for requesting articles through GW library are in your workshop materials.
22Google ScholarGoogle Scholar allows you to easily search for citations, abstracts, and articles across many disciplines at onceSearches documents from peer-reviewed publications, academic publishers, professional societies, books, etc.Articles are ranked by weighing the full text of the article, the author, the publication where the article appears, and how often the article is cited in other literatureGoogle Scholar help:Google Scholar search:If you have internet access, try doing a search!
231 4 2 3 You can see the most recent papers by clicking on “Recent articles”1423Title of the article: This links to the abstract, or full text if available for free.Cited by: Tells you who has cited this paper.Related articles: Searches for similar articles.Web search: Searches the web (via Google) for mentions of this article.As with PubMed results, if free full text is not available online, you can request it through our GW library partnership.
24Writing a Lit Review: Sections of a literature review IntroductionBroad overview of your topicBrief explanation of how you organized the literature review (see next slide)BodyDiscussion and critical evaluation of the literatureConclusion and recommendationsWhat has the literature taught us?What are the major gaps and why are they important?This section then leads into your research…
25Ways to organize your review “Pro & con”: works that support your position and those that do notMay also consider including works that present an entirely different positionBy methodology: Randomized controlled trials, observational studies, etc.Others: chronological, thematic, trends…These are just 2 examples of how to organize a lit review. Participants may have other suggestions.
26Things to consider when reviewing articles What is the author’s main argument? Is it clearly defined?Has the author evaluated the literature on the topic?Quality and appropriateness of the study designHow was the data collected and analyzed?Were the study components appropriate for the problem?What are the strengths and limitations of the study?Are the author’s conclusions valid?How do the findings contribute to the field?How does the article and its findings relate to your work specifically?You may not need to address all of these questions, it will depend on your topic and what type of article/document you are reviewing.
27Exit Strategy For Study Prepare exit strategy at the beginningThis is especially important with communities receiving interventionsThey need to know from the start what they can expect, for how long, and what will happen afterwards.This exit strategy should be integrated into consent, community communications, IEC materials etcIt should also include plans for dissemination of results to participating communities
28Establish research team Establishing team and setting up systems for management of team (may be combined functions in one or two people depending on size and budget for study. But same principles apply and systems / responsibilities needed for all of these):FinanceAdministration including procurementLogisticsImplementation of interventionEvaluation (should be different from those doing implementation as hard to be objective about the work you’ve done)
29Protocol And Budget Need to be written together (as for programming) Protocol requires lead person be identified to do the writingNeed to identify funder and use their guidance / formats for protocol and budgetFollow submission guidelines for funding and submit by due date!Submit to Institutional Review Board around same time – does not have to be funded before beginning IRB processes (right?!)Factor in sufficient time for regulatory processes – always take longer than you think
30Issues For Budget…Produce a time-bound chart of all activities by monthly or quarterly basis. Cost each activityOften divided into in and out of country costs (international collaborations)Budget lines may include:Supplies and equipmentOfficeResearch (intervention, data management and analysis)AdministrationSalariesConsultantsCommunication with community advisory boardsRegulatory feesParticipant reimbursement as per national standards (e.g. 150R per visit in SA; 3-5USd per visit in Zim)
31Establish Research Team Identify person in charge!Document specific roles and responsibilities of individuals and institutions involvedAgree any ongoing involvement if current employment arrangements changeInvolve statistician / data analyst at design stage; don’t wait until the endOutline your data analysis plan at the time of funding and certainly before data collection starts
32Authorship Definition of an Author Substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data;drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; andfinal approval of the version to be published.Authors should meet conditions 1, 2, and 3.Adapted from: International Committee of Medical Journal Editors
33Contributorship Examples of Contributors Person who provided purely technical help and/or writing assistanceDepartment chair or supervisor who provided only general supportAll contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an acknowledgments sectionIf such assistance was available, the authors should disclose the identity of the individuals who provided assistance with study design, data collection, data analysis, or manuscript preparation and the entity that supported it in the published article. Financial and material support should also be acknowledged.Adapted from: International Committee of Medical Journal Editors
34Design Tools & Train Team Develop appropriate research tools to fit the methods and answer the questionDevelop written protocols for all aspects of research, data collection and quality assurance of dataInvolve statistician at design stage of toolsDevelop locally appropriate IEC materials and informed consent formsTrain everyone involved in research team in specific protocols and tools
35Linkages to others including policy makers and communities Programmes made stronger by evidence and research made stronger by understanding programme needs and realitiesStakeholders can also give valuable input to improve the research approachMake early linkages with policy makers and key stakeholders who will take the findings of the study forwards into actionThey will be more likely to do this if they are aware and invested from the beginningCommunity advisory boards
36Implement intervention and conduct evaluation as per protocol …
37Data Collection & Quality Serious offence to fabricate dataGet people invested in good data quality from the outsetEarly involvement of statistician and data analysis planWritten protocol for data collection, quality assurance and analysisCollect data meticulouslyMake sure:Good quality questionsInterviewers appropriately trainedRight conditions for delivery of questions (e.g. being overheard asking confidential questions)Additional quality control including blind retesting of samples
38Data AnalysisHave written data analysis plan matching variables with questions being askedDevelop this with statistician right at the beginningRefine it as needed during implementation and data collection phaseData analysis is an iterative process between all investigators (including statistician) – not a “one stop shop”See example data analysis plan
39Writing Up FindingsPrioritise writing up informally to share with community participants and local stakeholders as early as possibleOften forgottenCan offer helpful interpretations and discussionPlan all publications, their authors and timeframe for completion, submissionGenerally use IMRAD Format – see writing workshop and other resourcesFollow guidelines for authorshipSelect target journal and use their guidelines for submission
40Overlapping Publications Duplicate submission: most journals do not accept manuscripts being considered simultaneously by other journalsRedundant publication: publication of a paper that overlaps substantially with one already published in print or electronic mediaDuplicate SubmissionAmong the principal considerations that have led to this policy are: 1) the potential for disagreement when two (or more) journals claim the right to publish a manuscript that has been submitted simultaneously to more than one; and 2) the possibility that two or more journals will unknowingly and unnecessarily undertake the work of peer review, edit the same manuscript, and publish the same article.Redundant PublicationReaders of primary source periodicals, whether print or electronic, deserve to be able to trust that what they are reading is original unless there is a clear statement that the author and editor are intentionally republishing an article.This policy does not preclude the journal considering a paper that has been rejected by another journal, or a complete report that follows publication of a preliminary report, such as an abstract or poster displayed at a professional meeting.It also does not prevent journals from considering a paper that has been presented at a scientific meeting but was not published in full or that is being considered for publication in a proceedings or similar format.See ICMJE guidelines for acceptable forms of overlapping publicationsAdapted from: International Committee of Medical Journal Editors
41Potential Conflicts of Interest: Project Support The conditions of project funding have the potential to bias and otherwise discredit the research.Authors should describe the role of the study sponsor, if any, in:study design;collection, analysis, and interpretation of data;writing the report; andthe decision to submit the report for publication.If the supporting source had no such involvement, the authors should so state.Adapted from: International Committee of Medical Journal Editors
42Privacy and Confidentiality: Patients and Study Participants Identifying information should not be published unless it is essential for scientific purposesIn these cases, the patient (or parent/guardian) must give written informed consent for publicationInformed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt that anonymity can be maintained.For example, masking the eye region in photographs of patients is inadequate protection of anonymity.Informed consent for this purpose requires that an identifiable patient be shown the manuscript to be published.Authors should disclose to these patients whether any potential identifiable material might be available via the Internet as well as in print after publication.Patient consent should be written and archived either with the journal, the authors, or both, as dictated by local regulations or laws.Adapted from: International Committee of Medical Journal Editors
43Think You’re Finished? Think Again! Most documents will have to go through some or all of the following processes before they are ready to be distributed to the public:Author and co-author approvalPartner/donor approvalPermissions for data use and/or borrowed materialCopyediting and ProofreadingDesign and TypesettingPrintingDisseminationFor peer-reviewed articles, publisher will handle these steps
45Questions For Discussion (if needed) What are your own experiences in beginning a piece of research and taking it to its conclusion?How did the sequence of events unfold and what did you learn from this?If you were starting to answer a new operations research question yourself tomorrow, what would you differently?Have you experienced any challenges regarding authorship or conflict of interest? If so, how were these resolved?Adapted from: International Committee of Medical Journal Editors