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Planning of Clinical Trials 13, July 2001 CCTER CUHK.

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Presentation on theme: "Planning of Clinical Trials 13, July 2001 CCTER CUHK."— Presentation transcript:

1 Planning of Clinical Trials 13, July 2001 CCTER CUHK

2 Development of a Clinical Trial Idea  Reviews from the experts(Sponsor or CRO)  First planning meeting (basic design features)  Second planning meeting (draft protocol)  Final protocol (ethical and scientific, signed by a statistician)  Evaluation (scientific review, IRB, funding)  Implementation  Final analysis and publication

3 Evolution of Trial Structure Large cooperative trials (multicenter trials) High scientific level protocol Well-defined administrative structure Control of performance at all levels (SOPs) Competent biometric advice (ICH E9) Careful ethical considerations

4 Why Multicenter Trials? Small but important effect Enhance generalizability of the results Bring new treatment to the community

5 Clinical Trial Protocol

6 A detailed plan giving instructions to the study investigators(doctors) about the way to conduct the study. – Contributors to the protocol development investigators, medical personnel from the Sponsor or delegated CRO representatives from the study monitoring team project statistician

7 Crucial Roles of Statisticians Design (very important!!!) Monitoring Analysis Reporting New statistical methodology

8 Sophisticated Statistical Techniques O’Brien and Fleming Boundaries Lan & DeMets “Spending function” Equivalence testing Repeated measures Bayesian methods Nonlinear random effect modeling

9 Functions of Clinical Trial Protocol Guideline for the conduct of the trial Quality control for all aspects of a clinical trial To provide guidelines to the monitoring groups such as: IEC / IDMC.

10 Functions of Clinical Trial Protocol Written agreement between: – the investigator – the participant, – and the scientific community Legal documents for – FDA and other regulatory bodies To procure funding

11 Duration of Protocol Development 7days-6months!!! 4-50 pages long!!!

12 Three Fundamental Aspects Which patients are eligible Which treatment are to be evaluate How each patient’s response is to be assessed

13 Background Rationale Unpublished work of the investigators Pharmacological and toxicity Any new and non standard methods

14 Specific Objectives New treatment New indication Determine the best of a number of standard treatments To provide additional data on safety or efficacy

15 Methods – Hypothesis – Patient population (operational definition) Inclusion Criteria Exclusion Criteria More homogeneous less generalizable!!

16 Treatment Regimens Required procedures for treatment administration, including precise rules for does determinations

17 Trial Design Control groups Define and justify the control group Safety consideration of the placebo group

18 Trial Design Randomization (verifiable method) –Method used to generate the allocation schedule –Method of allocation concealment Packing number Telephone Remote data entry –Timing of assignment

19 Trial Design Balance on P rognostic F actors –Stratification –Minimization

20 Trial Design Blinding Mechanism of treatment blinding Single, double, triple, quadruple blinding Assessment of the effectiveness of blinding Experimental design Parallel designs Cross-over designs Factorial designs Sequential designs

21 Treatment Phase Patient management guidelines, including specifications for does reductions, treatment delays and treatment terminations Schedules of required clinical tests and assessments

22 Follow-up phase Schedule of submission of required materials and data, including long-term follow-up Data and materials submission procedures

23 Termination Procedures for ending patients’ participation in the trial

24 Study Flow Diagram A flowchart describe how patients progress through the trial – Initial screening – Randomization – Planned schedule – Follow-up visits – Early termination

25 Outcome Measures Primary end points Secondary end points

26 Statistical Issues Power analysis justifying sample size requirements Interim monitoring and analysis plans Planned time and methodology of final analyses e.g. ITT, PP, NNT, CI Methods on secondary aims, compare toxicities

27 Ethics and Safety Protection of the trial patient’s right and safety – How the patient is approached for entry into the trial – Regulatory obligations, including informed consent and reporting of adverse events – Plan and action if a SAE be detacted

28 Other Topics in a Study Protocol Laboratories Compliance – How compliance is monitored – Methods used to improve compliance Organization – Roles – Responsibilities Budget Study Forms (CRFs) and data handling Administrative responsibilities

29 CRF Design Identification data Research data Administrative data Regulatory data Soilker, B. Schoenfelder, J. (1991). Data Collection Forms in Clinical Trials. Racen Press, New York

30 Basic Information in CRF Consent dates Eligibility checklist Baseline assessments Dosing of study medications ( incl. compliance) Concomitant illness Safety Effectiveness Premature termination of study

31 Administrative Structure of Multicentre Trials Steering Committee – Leadership body of the investigative group Data and Safety Monitoring Committee – Assess the progress, safety and efficacy – Recommendations about continue, modify or terminate.

32 Study Chairman Chair steering committee Responsible for the overall project Overseeing the design and conduct of the trial Implementation of SOPs and good clinical practices Compliance with international and local regulations.

33 Coordinating Centre – Training – Registration – Randomization – Supplying – Collecting and processing CRFs – Coordination of accrual sites – Auditing study sites – Regulatory reporting

34 Statistical Centre – Data entry and processing – Ongoing monitoring of toxicity data – Periodical interim analysis of study endpoints – Final data analyses – Preparation abstract and manuscripts

35 Central Laboratory

36 Other Major Personnel Trial statistician Clinical research associate Data manager Randomization specialist Quality assurance officer Computer support personnel Resource Centre Directors Training directors Field site personnel Independent Data Monitoring Committee

37 Field Site Personnel Investigator/Study coordinator Research Nurse/ – Participants accrual – Intervention – Primary data collection – Follow-up

38 Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) To ensure that the specific tasks in the trial are carried out in a consistent manner. Topics for SOPs for Investigators:

39 General Topics General quality assurance Quality control procedures Research personnel qualifications Clinical audit Regulatory authority inspections

40 Ethics Ethics Initial and continuing review by ethics committees Informed consent Consent forms and information sheets

41 Study Setup Review of: – investigator brochures – Protocols – Protocol amendments – CRFs – agreements (e.g. responsibility, financial, confidential, insurance/indemnity agreement)

42 Monitoring and Initial Data Review: Monitoring visits Source data verification Data query

43 Management of Study Medications and Clinical Laboratory Samples: Shipment Receipt Control at study sites Dispensing inventory Compliance with use of study medication Randomization procedures Clinical laboratory samples

44 Safety Event Reporting Definitions Recording and reporting AEs Recording and reporting AEs to ethics committees;

45 Closing The Study Review of clinical study reports Premature termination or suspension Archiving

46 Some Important ICH Guidelines E2A Clinical Safety Data Management: Definitions and Standards for Expedited Reporting E3 Structure and Content of Clinical Study Report (1995) E6 Good Clinical Practice (1996) E7 Clinical Trials in Special Populations: Geriatrics (1993) E8 General Consideration for Clinical Trials (1997) E9 Statistical Principles for Clinical Trials (1998) E10 Choice of Control Group in Clinical Trials (TBI) – ICH home page: – FDA guidelines:

47 Federal Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) OHRP is responsible for monitoring subject protections at more than 4,000 HHS (Department of Health and Human Services) funded universities, hospitals and other research institutions.

48 Investigational Melanoma Vaccine Research Study (MV)- Oklahoma Case OHRP Halts Human Research at University of Oklahoma for Subject Protection Violations Suspension Date: June 29 2000 Suspension of 75 federally funded clinical trials performed though the Tulsa campus

49 Major OHRP Findings: MV failure to meet GMP allowed for potential subject exposure to bacterial and viral infections. 26 of 96 subjects (vaccine arm) died. Investigators failed to ensure that risks to subjects were minimized.

50 Major OHRP Findings: Incomplete informed consent documents – the purpose of the study – Procedures – Foreseeable risks and discomforts – Any expected benefit from study participation – Overstated the benefits of the study as capable of preventing the recurrence of melanoma or reducing existing tumor mass IRB failure to meet its federal regulatory obligations.

51 Major OHRP Findings: Implemented substantive changes to the study without obtaining IRB approval. Failure to adhere to the protocol inclusion/exclusion criteria. Recruited 96 patients with IRB approved size <=40. Directly ship study vaccine to some subject’s homes for self-administration.

52 Actions Taken Independent accreditation of a newly formed Tulsa IRB Require that sponsor use DSMB as a condition for approval; Mandatory certification in human subject protection for those involved in the conduct of clinical studies Educational program specially for clinical investigators, research staffs and IRB members

53 Consequences Director of the Office of Research resigned Chair of IRB retired PI (Former Vice Chairman of the University’s dept. of Surgery) has been relieved of all his administrative duty at the University, which in process of terminating his appointment as a tenured faculty member.

54 Consequences Federal lawsuit against – study’s PI, – its corporate co-sponsor – and its IRB members, Violations of – human subject protection regulations, – international recognized ethical standards for research conduct – and civil rights laws.

55 Controlled Clinical Trial A Journal An official journal for the Society for Clinical Trials The first issue was published in the May of 1980. Aim and scope: – Basic Design – Operating features – Organization – Analysis Current editor (1999-) James D. Neaton

56 Other Useful Journals Applied Clinical Trials Statistical Methods in Medical Research Statistics in Medicine Biometrics

57 Thank you!

58 Statistical Principles for Clinical Trials ICH E9 Considerations for overall clinical development Trial design considerations Trial conduct considerations Data analysis considerations Evaluation of safety and Tolerability Reporting

59 Scope of Trials (ICH E9) Population Primary and Secondary Variables Composite variables Global Assessment variables Multiple Primary Variables Surrogate Variables Categorized Variables

60 Design Techniques to Avoid Bias ( ICH E9) Blinding Randomization

61 Trial Design Considerations ( ICH E9) Design Configuration Parallel Group Design Cross-over Design Factorial Design Mulitcentre Trials

62 Trial Design Considerations ( ICH E9) Type of Comparison – Trials to show superiority – Trials to show Equivalence or Non- inferiority – Trials to show Does-response Relationship Group sequential designs Sample Size Data capture and Processing

63 Trial Conduct Considerations ( ICH E9) Trial Monitoring and Interim Analysis Changes in Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Accrual Rates Sample Size Adjustment Interim Analysis and Early stopping Role of IDMC

64 Data Analysis Considerations ( ICH E9) Prespecification of the Analysis Analysis Sets – Full Analysis Set – Per Protocol Set – Roles of the Different Analysis Sets Missing Values and Outliers

65 Data Analysis Considerations ( ICH E9) Data Transformation Estimation, CIs and Hypothesis Testing Adjustment of Significance and Confidence Levels Subgroups, Interactions and Covariates Integrity Data and Computer Software Validity

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