Africa’s Size # Second largest continent 11.7 million sq miles # 10% of the world’s population. # 2 ½ times the size of the U. S.
Topography Of AFRICA… A giant plateau! Nile River Congo River Zambezi River Niger River Orange River Limpopo River Mediterranean Sea Atlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean Indian Ocean Red Sea L. Victoria L. Albert--> L. Chad--> L. Tanganyika-> <--Gulf of Aden Drajensburg Mts. Ruwenzori Mts. Δ Mt. Kenya Δ Mt. Kilimanjaro Sahara Desert Sahel Kalahari Desert Namib Desert Libyan Desert Great Rift Valley Atlas Mts. Tropic of Cancer 20° N Tropic of Capricorn 20° S Equator 0°
latitude & trade winds = “striped” climate & vegetation pattern on the continent. Climate & Vegetation Absence of coastal mtn ranges also impacts climate.
Landforms Highest point : Mt Kilimanjaro Lowest point : Lake Assal Victoria Falls in Zambia
Mt. Kilimanjaro: Tanzania Glacier has been melting… 80% loss from 1912 to present day. What element of LEMPOSA contributes to the glacier and the snow found on Kilimanjaro?
The Mighty Nile River: “Longest River in the World” Farmers DEPEND on this River as a source of water for their farms, and before the Aswan High Dam was built, farmers depended on the nutrients left behind as natural fertilizer for the soil and thus their crops. Negative impact for people being relocated & for farmers.
Hydroelectric Power Hydroelectric Power: An example of how humans have MODIFIED their environment
The Sahara Desert:Desertification Over the last 11,000 years the Sahara has been growing… Causes: 1. Overgrazing 2. Farming “average” land 3. Destruction of plants 4. Incorrect irrigation 5. Changes in the Earth’s orbit 6. Atmospheric & vegetation changes in the subtropical regions.
African Savannah: 5 million sq miles Rolling grassland scattered with shrubs & isolated trees. Can be found between a tropical rainforest and desert biome
African Rain Forest # Annual rainfall of up to 17 ft. # Rapid decomposition (very humid). # Covers 37 countries, 15% of the land surface of Africa.
Seismic Activity in Africa What physical features lie along these areas of seismic activity?
Bantu Migrations 1000-1800 AD: Large wave of migrations from W to E Africa. 1 st to arrive: The Bantu from the Congo or Niger Delta Basin “Bantu” = group of people who speak the same/similar language with common word “NTU”, means “a person”
The Middle Passage The portion of the triangular trade in which millions of people from Africa were shipped to North America as their need for people to farm the land rose. Slaves were sold, or often kidnapped.
Age-Group Differences Developing vs. Industrialized countries Age-Group Differences Developing vs. Industrialized countries
Education Compulsory in much of Africa. Obstacles: Lack of teachers in rural areas Gov’t spend more $$ on military Boys education takes priority over girls. College limited & hard to get into.
Health A combination of new diseases and reemerging old ones is putting the lives of millions of Africans in serious jeopardy. HIV/AIDS 1 st case – 1959 in Belgian Congo Reasons for spread: Multiple partners. Mother-to-child Lack of education & superstitious beliefs Malaria “silent killer” Spread by the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito Kills 700,000 children every year.
1000 different languages 1000+ different tribes
Common Traits or Characteristics of Traditional African Tribal Life 1. The good of the group comes ahead of the good of the individual. 2. All land is owned by the group. 3. Strong feeling of loyalty to the group. 4. Important ceremonies at different parts of a person’s life. 5. Special age and work associations. 6. Deep respect for ancestors. 7. Religion is an important part of everyday life. 8. Government is in the hands of the chiefs [kings].
“Brain Drain” “brain drain” when a country becomes short of skills b/c people with expertise emigrate. Why leave? Education Why not return home? economic & political issues 1960-1975: 27,000 Africans left 1960 – 1975: 40,000 left By 1990 at least 20,000 leave the continent annually.