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End Show Slide 1 of 39 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 12-3 RNA and Protein Synthesis 12–3 RNA and Protein Synthesis.

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Presentation on theme: "End Show Slide 1 of 39 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 12-3 RNA and Protein Synthesis 12–3 RNA and Protein Synthesis."— Presentation transcript:

1 End Show Slide 1 of 39 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 12-3 RNA and Protein Synthesis 12–3 RNA and Protein Synthesis

2 End Show 12–3 RNA and Protein Synthesis Slide 2 of 39 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 12–3 RNA and Protein Synthesis Genes are coded DNA instructions that control the production of proteins. Genetic messages can be ______________ by copying part of the nucleotide sequence from DNA into RNA. RNA contains coded information for making_________________________.

3 End Show 12–3 RNA and Protein Synthesis Slide 3 of 39 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Structure of RNA RNA consists of a long chain of ______________. Each nucleotide is made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.

4 End Show 12–3 RNA and Protein Synthesis Slide 4 of 39 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Structure of RNA There are three main differences between RNA and DNA: The sugar in RNA is _________________ instead of deoxyribose. RNA is generally ________________-stranded. RNA contains ______________ in place of thymine.

5 End Show 12–3 RNA and Protein Synthesis Slide 5 of 39 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Types of RNA There are three main types of RNA: _______________________ RNA

6 End Show 12–3 RNA and Protein Synthesis Slide 6 of 39 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Types of RNA Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries copies of instructions for assembling _______________________into proteins.

7 End Show 12–3 RNA and Protein Synthesis Slide 7 of 39 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Types of RNA Ribosomes are made up of ________________ and _____________________ RNA (rRNA). Ribosome Ribosomal RNA

8 End Show 12–3 RNA and Protein Synthesis Slide 8 of 39 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Types of RNA During protein construction, _______________ RNA (tRNA) transfers each amino acid to the ribosome. Amino acid Transfer RNA

9 End Show 12–3 RNA and Protein Synthesis Slide 9 of 39 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Transcription RNA molecules are ________________ by copying part of a nucleotide sequence of DNA into a complementary sequence in RNA. This process is called __________________________________. Transcription requires the enzyme RNA ___________________________.

10 End Show 12–3 RNA and Protein Synthesis Slide 10 of 39 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Transcription During transcription, RNA polymerase binds to DNA and _________________ the DNA strands. RNA polymerase then uses one strand of __________________ as a template from which nucleotides are assembled into a strand of RNA.

11 End Show 12–3 RNA and Protein Synthesis Slide 11 of 39 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Transcription RNA polymerase binds only to regions of DNA known as__________________________. Promoters are signals in DNA that indicate to the _________________________ where to bind to make RNA.

12 End Show 12–3 RNA and Protein Synthesis Slide 12 of 39 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Transcription RNA RNA polymerase DNA

13 End Show 12–3 RNA and Protein Synthesis Slide 13 of 39 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall RNA Editing The DNA of eukaryotic genes contains sequences of nucleotides, called _________________, that are not involved in coding for proteins. The DNA sequences that code for proteins are called _________________________. When RNA molecules are formed, introns and exons are ____________________ from DNA.

14 End Show 12–3 RNA and Protein Synthesis Slide 14 of 39 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall RNA Editing The introns are _____ out of RNA molecules. The exons are the __________________ together to form mRNA. Exon Intron DNA Pre-mRNA mRNA Cap Tail

15 End Show 12–3 RNA and Protein Synthesis Slide 15 of 39 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Genetic Code The genetic code is the language of mRNA ____________________________. The code is written using ___________ letters (the bases: A, U, C, and G).

16 End Show 12–3 RNA and Protein Synthesis Slide 16 of 39 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Genetic Code A _________________ consists of three consecutive nucleotides on mRNA that specify a particular amino acid.

17 End Show 12–3 RNA and Protein Synthesis Slide 17 of 39 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Genetic Code Each codon specifies a particular amino acid that is to be placed on the __________________chain. Some amino acids can be __________________ by more than one codon.

18 End Show 12–3 RNA and Protein Synthesis Slide 18 of 39 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Genetic Code

19 End Show 12–3 RNA and Protein Synthesis Slide 19 of 39 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Genetic Code There is one codon_______________that can either specify the amino acid methionine or serve as a ______________codon for protein synthesis. There are three _______________codons that do not code for any amino acid. These stop codons signify the end of a polypeptide.

20 End Show 12–3 RNA and Protein Synthesis Slide 20 of 39 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Translation Translation is the ________________ of an mRNA message into a polypeptide chain (protein). Translation takes place on _____________. During translation, the cell uses information from _________________ RNA to produce proteins.

21 End Show 12–3 RNA and Protein Synthesis Slide 21 of 39 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Translation Nucleus mRNA Messenger RNA is transcribed in the ____________, and then enters the ________________ where it attaches to a ribosome.

22 End Show 12–3 RNA and Protein Synthesis Slide 22 of 39 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Translation Translation begins when an mRNA molecule __________________ to a ribosome. As each ________________ of the mRNA molecule moves through the ___________________, the proper amino acid is brought into the ribosome by tRNA. In the ribosome, the amino acid is transferred to the growing polypeptide chain.

23 End Show 12–3 RNA and Protein Synthesis Slide 23 of 39 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Translation Each ____________ molecule carries only one kind of amino acid. In addition to an amino acid, each tRNA molecule has three __________________ bases. These bases, called the ___________________are complementary to one mRNA codon.

24 End Show 12–3 RNA and Protein Synthesis Slide 24 of 39 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Translation Lysine tRNA Phenylalanine Methionine Ribosome mRNA Start codon The ribosome binds new tRNA molecules and amino acids as it moves along the mRNA.

25 End Show 12–3 RNA and Protein Synthesis Slide 25 of 39 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Translation Protein Synthesis tRNA Ribosome mRNA Lysine Translation direction

26 End Show 12–3 RNA and Protein Synthesis Slide 26 of 39 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Translation The process continues until the ribosome reaches a stop codon. Polypeptide Ribosome tRNA mRNA

27 End Show 12–3 RNA and Protein Synthesis Slide 27 of 39 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Roles of RNA and DNA The cell uses the DNA ____________________ to prepare RNA _______________________The DNA stays in the nucleus. The RNA molecules go to the protein ______________________sites in the cytoplasmthe ribosomes.

28 End Show 12–3 RNA and Protein Synthesis Slide 28 of 39 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Genes and Proteins Genes contain ____________________ for assembling proteins. Many proteins are enzymes, which _______________________and regulate chemical reactions. Proteins are each specifically _______________ to build or operate a component of a living cell.

29 End Show 12–3 RNA and Protein Synthesis Slide 29 of 39 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Genes and Proteins The sequence of bases in DNA is used as a ______________ for mRNA. The codons of mRNA specify the __________________ of amino acids in a protein. Codon mRNA Alanine Arginine Leucine Amino acids within a polypeptide Single strand of DNA


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