federalism amendment legislative branch executive branch judicial branch checks and balances Electoral College
Philosophers John Locke & Baron de Montesquieu Federalists: George Washington Benjamin Franklin James Madison Alexander Hamilton John Jay Antifederalists: Patrick Henry Mercy Otis Warren Catherine Graham
ancient Greece – why? British political ideas – English Magna Carta (1215) British Parliament English Bill of Rights of 1689 European Enlightenment philosophers – John Locke natural rights government based on contract between rulers and the ruled Baron de Montesquieu separation and balance of government powers to prevent tryanny
Federal System - The Constitution divides power between the national government & the states Supreme Law of the Land – The Constitution is supreme; states can not make laws going against it. Branches of Government – the national government’s power is divided between three branches: legislative – makes laws executive – carries out laws judicial – court system
Checks & Balances – each branch has a way to limit the power of the other two branches why? National Citizens – Officials answer to the people (citizens) as they are directly or indirectly elected by the people In the Constitution, the government pledges to protect the citizens’ personal freedoms
Not everyone agreed with the Constitution Nine out of thirteen states needed to ratify it for it to become law & go into effect All thirteen states needed to ratify it for the country to be successful
The Federalists – Supported ratification of the new Constitution Wrote series of essays supporting it; called The Federalist Papers Why did they support the Constitution? The Antifederalists – Opposed ratification of the Constitution Also wrote essays against the Constitution Why did they oppose it?
Many states refused to ratify the Constitution without the promise of an added bill of rights to protect individual freedoms. What did the Federalists fear? a bill of rights could weaken the central government a weak central government would lead to disorder What did the Antifederalists fear? the government could be too strong and oppress the citizens without a bill of rights
The first state to ratify was Delaware, on 12/7/1787. The Constitution became official with the ratification of New Hampshire on June 21, 1788 (9 th state). A bill of rights amendment was promised after Virginia refused to ratify without it. Rhode Island was the last state to ratify in May 1790. A bill of rights was added in 1791.
7-3 Cornell Notes - due Tues. 9/23 7-3 GR & SR – due Wed. 9/24 7-3 Quiz is on Wed. 9/24 Vocabulary sentences & symbols – due Thurs. 9/25 Ch. 7 Test is on Fri. 9/26
Constitutional Influences The US Constitution Federal System Branches of Government Checks and Balances Federalists Antifederalists bill of rights