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Georgia and the American Experience

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1 Georgia and the American Experience
Chapter 6: An Age of Expansion, Study Presentation

2 Georgia and the American Experience
Section 1: Creating A New Government Section 2: Land Fever in Georgia Section 3: Economic Growth in Georgia Section 4: Georgia At the Dawn of a New Century Section 5: The War of 1812 Section 6: Native Americans in Georgia

3 Section 1: Creating A New Government
Essential Question What was Georgia’s role in the Constitutional Convention?

4 Section 1: Creating A New Government
What words do I need to know? U.S. Constitution Bill of Rights General Assembly

5 Constitutional Convention of 1787
William Few and Abraham Baldwin represented Georgia at the 1787 Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia; George Washington presided U.S. Constitution established three governmental branches: Executive, Legislative, and Judicial Senate and House of Representatives established; only three-fifths of slave population would count toward representation

6 U.S. Constitution Ratified in 1788
Georgia was fourth state to ratify (approve) the new Constitution Constitution could be amended (changed); first 10 amendments became Bill of Rights George Washington became the first President

7 Postwar Georgia Economy in ruin; government provided food basics as farmers tried to reestablish their farms Capital moved to Augusta Georgia delegates met in 1788 and 1789; adopted state constitution similar to national government, with three branches General Assembly had two houses, Senate and House of Representatives; appointed governor and judges; controlled spending decisions Click to return to Table of Contents

8 Section 2: Land Fever in Georgia
Essential Question How did many Georgians obtain land in the twenty years following the end of the American Revolution?

9 Section 2: Land Fever in Georgia
What words do I need to know? headright system Yazoo land fraud Louisiana Purchase

10 Headright System Indian land in Georgia east of the Oconee River was given to settlers Every white male counted as a head of household and had the “right” to receive up to 1,000 acres This was generally replaced in 1803 by a land lottery for government-owned land west of the Oconee All white heads-of-household could buy a lottery chance and win land; millions of acres in several states were given away

11 Yazoo Land Fraud Around 1795, four companies bribed the governor and legislators Bought millions of acres in western Georgia (today’s Alabama and Mississippi) for 1½¢ an acre The public found out and protested; the legislators involved were voted out of office General Assembly repealed the law approving the sale; the federal government paid more than $4 million to help Georgia settle Yazoo land claims

12 The Western Territory In 1802, Georgia ceded (gave up) its land claims west of the Chattahoochee River to the federal government for $1.25 million President Thomas Jefferson doubled the nation’s size in 1803 with the Louisiana territory purchase; the U.S. paid France $15 million for land that stretched to the Rocky Mountains Click to return to Table of Contents

13 Section 3: Economic Growth in Georgia
ESSENTIAL QUESTION How did Georgia rebuild and expand its economy in the late 17th and early 18th century?

14 Section 3: Economic Growth in Georgia
What words do I need to know? depression turnpike cotton gin mechanical reaper

15 Cotton and the Cotton Gin
Eli Whitney in 1793 invented a machine for separating cotton seeds from its fiber Increased the amount cotton growers could process each day The gin used wire teeth on a turning cylinder to separate the seed from fiber

16 The Mechanical Reaper Cyrus McCormick invented a machine to cut grain in a field Wooden paddles attached to a horse’s harness allowed six times more grain to be cut per day than previous methods Georgia farmers could work larger and more profitable farms with these agricultural machines

17 Depression and the Panic of 1837
Many Georgia banks failed between 1837 and the early 1840s This happened during a depression (a sharp economic downturn) Many business failed; many farmers and planters lost their land Many banks didn’t have enough cash to pay out money their depositors had entrusted to them

18 Early Roads in Georgia Railroads, most built after 1830, replaced horses, stagecoaches, and boats Most Georgia roads ran east to west; they were former Indian footpaths Plank roads over wetlands that featured “pikes” or gates were called turnpikes Travelers paid a toll, or fee at each pike; the Old Federal Road connected Athens north to Tennessee

19 Terminus Located at the southern end of a rail line that originated in Chattanooga, Tennessee Later remained Marthasville, after the daughter of former Governor Wilson Lumpkin Marthasville became Atlanta, and the capital of Georgia Rail lines greatly reduced travel time for people and freight Click to return to Table of Contents

20 Section 4: Georgia at the Dawn of a New Century
ESSENTIAL QUESTION How did lifestyles differ in Georgia between frontier families and town dwellers?

21 Section 4: Georgia at the Dawn of a New Century
What words do I need to know? pioneers frontier Georgia cultural refinements townsfolk

22 Frontier Georgia Undeveloped land in central and western Georgia
Few settlers; much land given away in land lotteries Far-flung trading posts were only stores Often danger lurked from hostile attacks Social activities often centered around necessary work The country store became the center of activity; few luxuries were available

23 Life in Georgia’s Towns
Cultural refinements (higher level living) set apart frontier and town lifestyles Newspapers, theater, and debate societies Fancy balls, barbecues, camp meetings, and horse racing Orphanages, hospitals, and facilities for people with special needs were operated

24 Religious Activities Anglicans, Quakers, and Methodist circuit riders (traveling ministers for frontier dwellers) grew in number Georgia’s first Roman Catholic Church established in Wilkes County in 1796 Savannah had active Jewish synagogue As more towns were established, churches become central to community life In other parts of America, the Mormon church and the African Methodist Episcopal (A.M.E.) churches were started

25 Education in Georgia The University of Georgia chartered in 1785 as nation’s first land-grant university; opened for classes in 1801 UGA was often called Franklin College in its early days By 1820, there were forty academies (schools) across the state Georgia Female College (later Wesleyan College) opened in 1836 Click to return to Table of Contents

26 Section 5: The War of 1812 ESSENTIAL QUESTION
What were the causes of the War of 1812?

27 Section 5: The War of 1812 What words and people do I need to know?
embargo president James Madison war hawks Treaty of Ghent

28 Unhappy with French and British Trade Policies
Years of war between Great Britain and France prompted both countries to try to block U.S. trade with its enemy British ships made American sailors serve with the British Navy President Thomas Jefferson ordered an embargo in 1807 to stop trade with foreign countries; this proved disastrous to American shipping

29 The War Hawks Land-hungry Southerners and Westerners
Believed British were stirring up the Indians in the western territories Argued for war against Great Britain Believed the British should be driven from Canada to eliminate the problems in the western territories President James Madison pushed Congress to declare war on Great Britain in 1812; the war declaration narrowly passed

30 War Breaks Out War lasted for two years; neither side gained advantage during first two years In 1814, British attack and burn Washington, the young national capital British later attacked Baltimore harbor; “The Star Spangled Banner” written during The Battle of Fort McHenry The Battle of New Orleans, fought after the Treaty of Ghent ended the war, was a decisive American victory The war united the American states as one nation; Andrew Jackson became a national hero Click to return to Table of Contents

31 Section 6: Native Americans in Georgia
ESSENTIAL QUESTION Why were the Indians removed from Georgia?

32 Section 6: Native Americans in Georgia
What words do I need to know? syllabary Oconee War Treaty of New York Red Sticks White Sticks Treaty of Indian Springs Trail of Tears

33 Cherokee Culture Most advanced of Georgia’s tribes; learned quickly from white settlers Some, like Chief James Vann, lived in large houses Chief Vann encouraged Christianity Sequoyah developed a syllabary, a group of symbols that stand for whole syllables; it gave Cherokees a written form of their language Government modeled on that of United States; capital at New Echota by 1825

34 Creek Indians Series of clashes between Creek and settlers who pushed into their land known as Oconee War Treaty of New York: Creeks give up all land east of the Oconee River, but could keep land on the west side; this angered Georgia settlers, who felt betrayed by their government Land treaties were often broken Red Stick Creeks endorsed war to fight for their land claims; White Stick Creeks wanted peace

35 The Creek War Red Sticks attacked Fort Mims, killing more than 400 people The Battle of Horseshoe Bend, in Alabama, ended the Creek War in 1814; Andrew Jackson led the U.S. troops The Creeks were forced to give up nearly all their land to the U.S. government The Treaty of Indian Springs gave up last Creek lands in Georgia to the U.S.; Chief William McIntosh was later murdered by rival Creeks for signing the treaty

36 Creek Removal Treaty of Washington (1832) resulted in 5 million acres of Creek land ceded to the United States U.S. agreed to allow Creeks who wished to remain and live on 2 million of those acres; the U.S. promised to protect those who stayed Those who didn’t wish to stay would have to move to the western territories The treaty was broken; by 1840, nearly all Creeks were forced to move west

37 The Trail of Tears Discovery of gold in north Georgia heightened demand for Cherokee land The Supreme Court ruled that Cherokee territory was not subject to state law, but the ruling was not enforced Between 1832 and 1835, Cherokees were stripped of their land In 1838, thousands of Cherokees were forcibly removed to Oklahoma; about 4,000 died from disease, exposure, or hunger 700 to 800 escaped and hid in the North Carolina mountains Click to return to Table of Contents

38 Click to return to Table of Contents

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