Presentation on theme: "Georgia and the American Experience"— Presentation transcript:
1Georgia and the American Experience Chapter 6:An Age of Expansion,Study Presentation
2Georgia and the American Experience Section 1: Creating A New GovernmentSection 2: Land Fever in GeorgiaSection 3: Economic Growth in GeorgiaSection 4: Georgia At the Dawn of a New CenturySection 5: The War of 1812Section 6: Native Americans in Georgia
3Section 1: Creating A New Government Essential QuestionWhat was Georgia’s role in the Constitutional Convention?
4Section 1: Creating A New Government What words do I need to know?U.S. ConstitutionBill of RightsGeneral Assembly
5Constitutional Convention of 1787 William Few and Abraham Baldwin represented Georgia at the 1787 Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia; George Washington presidedU.S. Constitution established three governmental branches: Executive, Legislative, and JudicialSenate and House of Representatives established; only three-fifths of slave population would count toward representation
6U.S. Constitution Ratified in 1788 Georgia was fourth state to ratify (approve) the new ConstitutionConstitution could be amended (changed); first 10 amendments became Bill of RightsGeorge Washington became the first President
7Postwar GeorgiaEconomy in ruin; government provided food basics as farmers tried to reestablish their farmsCapital moved to AugustaGeorgia delegates met in 1788 and 1789; adopted state constitution similar to national government, with three branchesGeneral Assembly had two houses, Senate and House of Representatives; appointed governor and judges; controlled spending decisionsClick to return to Table of Contents
8Section 2: Land Fever in Georgia Essential QuestionHow did many Georgians obtain land in the twenty years following the end of the American Revolution?
9Section 2: Land Fever in Georgia What words do I need to know?headright systemYazoo land fraudLouisiana Purchase
10Headright SystemIndian land in Georgia east of the Oconee River was given to settlersEvery white male counted as a head of household and had the “right” to receive up to 1,000 acresThis was generally replaced in 1803 by a land lottery for government-owned land west of the OconeeAll white heads-of-household could buy a lottery chance and win land; millions of acres in several states were given away
11Yazoo Land FraudAround 1795, four companies bribed the governor and legislatorsBought millions of acres in western Georgia (today’s Alabama and Mississippi) for 1½¢ an acreThe public found out and protested; the legislators involved were voted out of officeGeneral Assembly repealed the law approving the sale; the federal government paid more than $4 million to help Georgia settle Yazoo land claims
12The Western TerritoryIn 1802, Georgia ceded (gave up) its land claims west of the Chattahoochee River to the federal government for $1.25 millionPresident Thomas Jefferson doubled the nation’s size in 1803 with the Louisiana territory purchase; the U.S. paid France $15 million for land that stretched to the Rocky MountainsClick to return to Table of Contents
13Section 3: Economic Growth in Georgia ESSENTIAL QUESTIONHow did Georgia rebuild and expand its economy in the late 17th and early 18th century?
14Section 3: Economic Growth in Georgia What words do I need to know?depressionturnpikecotton ginmechanical reaper
15Cotton and the Cotton Gin Eli Whitney in 1793 invented a machine for separating cotton seeds from its fiberIncreased the amount cotton growers could process each dayThe gin used wire teeth on a turning cylinder to separate the seed from fiber
16The Mechanical ReaperCyrus McCormick invented a machine to cut grain in a fieldWooden paddles attached to a horse’s harness allowed six times more grain to be cut per day than previous methodsGeorgia farmers could work larger and more profitable farms with these agricultural machines
17Depression and the Panic of 1837 Many Georgia banks failed between 1837 and the early 1840sThis happened during a depression (a sharp economic downturn)Many business failed; many farmers and planters lost their landMany banks didn’t have enough cash to pay out money their depositors had entrusted to them
18Early Roads in GeorgiaRailroads, most built after 1830, replaced horses, stagecoaches, and boatsMost Georgia roads ran east to west; they were former Indian footpathsPlank roads over wetlands that featured “pikes” or gates were called turnpikesTravelers paid a toll, or fee at each pike; the Old Federal Road connected Athens north to Tennessee
19TerminusLocated at the southern end of a rail line that originated in Chattanooga, TennesseeLater remained Marthasville, after the daughter of former Governor Wilson LumpkinMarthasville became Atlanta, and the capital of GeorgiaRail lines greatly reduced travel time for people and freightClick to return to Table of Contents
20Section 4: Georgia at the Dawn of a New Century ESSENTIAL QUESTIONHow did lifestyles differ in Georgia between frontier families and town dwellers?
21Section 4: Georgia at the Dawn of a New Century What words do I need to know?pioneersfrontier Georgiacultural refinementstownsfolk
22Frontier Georgia Undeveloped land in central and western Georgia Few settlers; much land given away in land lotteriesFar-flung trading posts were only storesOften danger lurked from hostile attacksSocial activities often centered around necessary workThe country store became the center of activity; few luxuries were available
23Life in Georgia’s Towns Cultural refinements (higher level living) set apart frontier and town lifestylesNewspapers, theater, and debate societiesFancy balls, barbecues, camp meetings, and horse racingOrphanages, hospitals, and facilities for people with special needs were operated
24Religious ActivitiesAnglicans, Quakers, and Methodist circuit riders (traveling ministers for frontier dwellers) grew in numberGeorgia’s first Roman Catholic Church established in Wilkes County in 1796Savannah had active Jewish synagogueAs more towns were established, churches become central to community lifeIn other parts of America, the Mormon church and the African Methodist Episcopal (A.M.E.) churches were started
25Education in GeorgiaThe University of Georgia chartered in 1785 as nation’s first land-grant university; opened for classes in 1801UGA was often called Franklin College in its early daysBy 1820, there were forty academies (schools) across the stateGeorgia Female College (later Wesleyan College) opened in 1836Click to return to Table of Contents
26Section 5: The War of 1812 ESSENTIAL QUESTION What were the causes of the War of 1812?
27Section 5: The War of 1812 What words and people do I need to know? embargopresident James Madisonwar hawksTreaty of Ghent
28Unhappy with French and British Trade Policies Years of war between Great Britain and France prompted both countries to try to block U.S. trade with its enemyBritish ships made American sailors serve with the British NavyPresident Thomas Jefferson ordered an embargo in 1807 to stop trade with foreign countries; this proved disastrous to American shipping
29The War Hawks Land-hungry Southerners and Westerners Believed British were stirring up the Indians in the western territoriesArgued for war against Great BritainBelieved the British should be driven from Canada to eliminate the problems in the western territoriesPresident James Madison pushed Congress to declare war on Great Britain in 1812; the war declaration narrowly passed
30War Breaks OutWar lasted for two years; neither side gained advantage during first two yearsIn 1814, British attack and burn Washington, the young national capitalBritish later attacked Baltimore harbor; “The Star Spangled Banner” written during The Battle of Fort McHenryThe Battle of New Orleans, fought after the Treaty of Ghent ended the war, was a decisive American victoryThe war united the American states as one nation; Andrew Jackson became a national heroClick to return to Table of Contents
31Section 6: Native Americans in Georgia ESSENTIAL QUESTIONWhy were the Indians removed from Georgia?
32Section 6: Native Americans in Georgia What words do I need to know?syllabaryOconee WarTreaty of New YorkRed SticksWhite SticksTreaty of Indian SpringsTrail of Tears
33Cherokee CultureMost advanced of Georgia’s tribes; learned quickly from white settlersSome, like Chief James Vann, lived in large housesChief Vann encouraged ChristianitySequoyah developed a syllabary, a group of symbols that stand for whole syllables; it gave Cherokees a written form of their languageGovernment modeled on that of United States; capital at New Echota by 1825
34Creek IndiansSeries of clashes between Creek and settlers who pushed into their land known as Oconee WarTreaty of New York: Creeks give up all land east of the Oconee River, but could keep land on the west side; this angered Georgia settlers, who felt betrayed by their governmentLand treaties were often brokenRed Stick Creeks endorsed war to fight for their land claims; White Stick Creeks wanted peace
35The Creek WarRed Sticks attacked Fort Mims, killing more than 400 peopleThe Battle of Horseshoe Bend, in Alabama, ended the Creek War in 1814; Andrew Jackson led the U.S. troopsThe Creeks were forced to give up nearly all their land to the U.S. governmentThe Treaty of Indian Springs gave up last Creek lands in Georgia to the U.S.; Chief William McIntosh was later murdered by rival Creeks for signing the treaty
36Creek RemovalTreaty of Washington (1832) resulted in 5 million acres of Creek land ceded to the United StatesU.S. agreed to allow Creeks who wished to remain and live on 2 million of those acres; the U.S. promised to protect those who stayedThose who didn’t wish to stay would have to move to the western territoriesThe treaty was broken; by 1840, nearly all Creeks were forced to move west
37The Trail of TearsDiscovery of gold in north Georgia heightened demand for Cherokee landThe Supreme Court ruled that Cherokee territory was not subject to state law, but the ruling was not enforcedBetween 1832 and 1835, Cherokees were stripped of their landIn 1838, thousands of Cherokees were forcibly removed to Oklahoma; about 4,000 died from disease, exposure, or hunger700 to 800 escaped and hid in the North Carolina mountainsClick to return to Table of Contents