Presentation on theme: "Periodical Development By Farid 20081 Standar Kompetensi: 1.Memahami struktur atom, sifat-sifat periodik unsur, dan ikatan kimia Kompetensi dasar: 1.1."— Presentation transcript:
Periodical Development By Farid 20081 Standar Kompetensi: 1.Memahami struktur atom, sifat-sifat periodik unsur, dan ikatan kimia Kompetensi dasar: 1.1. Memahami struktur atom berdasarkan teori atom Bohr, sifat-sifat unsur, massa atom relatif, dan sifat-sifat periodik unsur dalam tabel periodik serta menyadari keteraturannya, melalui pemahaman konfigurasi elektron. Indikator: 1. Membandingkan perkembangan tabel periodik unsur untuk mengidentifikasi kelebihan dan kekurangannya. 2. Menjelaskan dasar pengelompokan unsur-unsur.
Periodical Development By Farid 20082 At present, scientists have succesfuly finding and identify about 118 element, and 90 element among other are the element which there are in nature (nature element), while the remainder (sisanya) are the artificial elements (unsure buatan). Because of the elements in nature are plenty (sangat banyak), hence to facilitate (memudahkan) us to study and identify a given element. The scientists try to group the elements in a given group based on their similar properties.
Periodical Development By Farid 20083 For begining, elements are grouped on their metallic properties based only, those are become the metallic element, nonmetallic and semi metallic element (metalloid). However, then element grouped in periodic tables based on atomic number and atomic mass number of that elements. The following are explanations about history of element grouping development since early until present.
4 1. Dobreiner Triads According to Johann Wolfgang Dobreiner, if a triad consist of element A, B and C, so the average sum of atomic mass of A and atomic mass of B is equal to the atomic mass of C. In this case A, B and C are the element with similar properties. The examples of triads are : Cl, Br, I Ca, Sr, Ba S, Se, Te Fe,Co, Mn
Periodical Development By Farid 20085 Meanwhile, its weakness is the limited number of element which can be grouped in triads and the confusion (kesulitan) about the existed concerning the distinction (perbedaan) between atomic weights and molecular weights, 2. Newlands Octave In 1859 the German physicists John A.R. newlands listed the elements in the order based on the increase of atomic weights and he noted that a given properties of the elements in the list, recurs at every eighth element.
Periodical Development By Farid 20086 1234567 HLiBeBCNO FNaMgAlSiPS ClKCaCrTiMnFe Co, Ni CuZnYInAsSe
Periodical Development By Farid 20087 HFClCo/NiBrPdIPt/Ir LiNaKCuRbAgCsTl BeMgCaZnSrCdBa/VPb BAlCrYCe/LaUTaTh CSiTiInZrSnWHg NPMnAsDi/MoSbNbBi OSFeSeRo/RuTeAuOs
8 Newlands octave has the excess (kelebihan) compared than Dobreiner triads, that is the more classified elements. Meanwhile, its weakness is at element which its mass is large enough (>40), the element properties repletion is not happened any more, so that elemens grouping based on Newlands octave is not used in present day. Or the law octaves has weakness that is the suitable only at elements which its mass is small.
Periodical Development By Farid 20089 3. Mendeleev’s Periodic Table Independently, Russian chemist Dmitry Mendeleev in 1869 and German chemist Julius Lothar Meyer in 1870 proposed a chemical law that the properties of all the elements are periodic functions of their atomic mass. According to that the law (periodic law), Mendeleev and Meyer grouped about 66 elements based on the increases of their atomic mass. Mendeleev give a place elements having similar properties in a coulomn called GROUP.
Periodical Development By Farid 200811 Mendeleev’s Periodic table has some excess compared than Newlands Octave, those are: Giving correction to some values of relative atomic mass of the element. The example of the relative atomic mass of Uranium is changed from 10 become 240 and Beryllium for 13 become 9. Mendeleev take place the tellurium element (128) before iodine (127).
Periodical Development By Farid 200812 Mendeleev’s Periodic table (has weakness) is still has the lack (kekurangan), that is some sequence (urutan) of the elements placement apparently (ternyata) inappropriate (unsuitable) with the increase of their atomic mass. Mendeleev set a side a vacant space from his table. Then this place was later assigned to the element scandium, discovered in 1879, which has properties justifying its position in that periodic table. The placement of the noble gasses in the mendeleev’s periodic table do not modify the early formation of the other elements.
Periodical Development By Farid 200813 4. Short-Form Periodic Table The raising of new element discoveries during period of 1817-1898 caused the Mendeleev’s periodic table become no longer be relevant to classify the element. Therefore, in 1930 the scientists developed the new periodic table which is the development of mendeleev’s periodic table. The periodic table is recognized (dikenal) as the short-form periodic table.
Periodical Development By Farid 200814 Group 0 IIIIIIIVVVIVIIVIII a b abababab abababab H HeLiBeB C N O F NeNaMgAl Si Si P S Cl Cl Ar K Cu Ca Zn Sc Ga Ti Ge V As Cr Se Mn Br Fe,Co,Ni Kr Rb Ag Sr Cd Y In Zr Sn Nb Sb Mo Te - 153 Ru,Rh,Pd Xe Cs Au Ba Hg 57-71* Tl Hf Pb Ta Bi W Po Re - Os,Ir,Pt RnRaAcThPaU
Periodical Development By Farid 200815 5. Long-Form Periodic table (Modern Periodic Table) In 1914 Henry G.J. Moseley found that the properties of element are periodic function of their atomic number. Based on that case, so the short-form periodic table developed become the long-form periodic table, then this periodic table completed become the modern periodic table ratified (disahkan) its use by IUPAC (The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemists) in 1923. In modern periodic table, element take placed at row called period and group. In this case, period is the placement row of the elements is in the horizontal lines, meanwhile, group is the placement of the elements is in the vertical columns.
Periodical Development By Farid 200818 Period Placement of element in period are relied on the periodical properties of element that according to the order of their atomic number alteration (perubahan). In modern periodic table, element are grouped into 7 period that consist of: shortest period (period 1 consist of 2 elements) short period (period 2 and period 3, each consist of 8 elements) Long period (period 4 and period 5, each consist of 18 elements) Longest period (period 6, consist of 32 elements) Uncomplete period (period 7)
Periodical Development By Farid 200819 Group Elements which take placed in one group are the elements having the similar properties of one another. The group of element in periodic table is distinguished (dibedakan) into principal group (group A) and transition group (group B)
Periodical Development By Farid 200820 Modern Periodic System (Moseley) Element characteristics are the periodic function of the atom number-NOT the atom mass. In the year of 1985, IUPAC establishes (menetapkan) a Modern Periodic System.
Periodical Development By Farid 200821 B. Groups Periods of Elements in Periodic System 1. Group Group are columns in periodic system
Periodical Development By Farid 200822 Modern Periodic System Consists of : a. 8 major groups ( I A – VIII A ) b. 8 Transition groups ( I B – III B ) c. Internal transition groups ( Lantanida and Actinida )
Periodical Development By Farid 200823 For major groups, they are: a. IA group ( alkaline metal group) Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr b. IIA group ( earth alkaline metal group ) Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra c. IIIA group ( aluminium group ) B, Al, Ga, In, Tl
Periodical Development By Farid 200824 d. IVA group ( carbon group ) Ca, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb Ca, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb e. VA group ( nitrogen group ) N, P, As, Sb, Bi f. VIA group ( khalkogen / oxygen group ) O, S, Se, Te, Po g. VIIA group ( halogen group ) He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn