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Module 8 Review This review will help you in many ways!

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1 Module 8 Review This review will help you in many ways!
1. Will help you study for the DBA for module 8 2. Will help you study for the module 8 Exam 3. Can help you study and prepare for the Second segment exam

2 8.01 Roots of the Cold War In a cold war, the two combatants do not fight militarily. Instead, they attack one other economically and ideologically. The divisions between the United States and the Soviet Union emerged from a conflict of ideology and interests. The Soviet Union was invested in the concept of communism (Karl Marx): state control of the means of production (jobs, media, housing, etc). In other words, wealth should be owned by the country. The United States, on the other hand, advocated a free-market capitalist approach and democracy. It felt that private investment would stimulate markets and lead to larger prosperity around the world. The United States and the Soviet Union had very different foreign policies. - Soviet Union Foreign Policy: 1.They wanted to keep their homeland safe from foreign attack 2.They wanted to spread communism to as many other countries as they could. They spread communism eastward causing an “Iron Curtain” (a divide) between Eastern and Western Europe - U.S. Foreign Policy: President Truman pursued a reactionary policy of containing communism simply called containment . This was the idea that the United States could use a series of foreign policy tools to prevent communism from spreading to places it hadn’t been before, especially in decolonized countries. Truman reasoned that poor, hungry, and desperate people were more likely to accept a totalitarian government that promised to meet their needs. Comfortable, well-fed, happy people would be less likely to comply. This came to be called the Truman Doctrine (contain and challenge communism, and help weaker countries; it led directly to the Marshall Plan that helped to rebuild Europe). Soviets viewed this as America being imperialistic.

3 Cold War Map

4 8.01 continued After WWII, Germany and the city of Berlin were divided into West Germany (supported by the U.S.) and East Germany was a satellite nation of the S.U. NATO supported West Germany while East Germany was a part of the Warsaw Pact (S.U. and communist treaty) Stalin, one leader of the S.U. had little concern for human rights and would kill any one who opposed his views. As a result, the S.U. often thought America hypocritical during our Civil Rights Movement. The Space Race: the competition between the Soviet Union and the United States spread to space when the Soviets launched the world's first artificial satellite into orbit around Earth. The launch of Sputnik, as it was called, surprised and frightened the western world because most in the U.S. had not thought the Soviets capable of producing such technology. In return, the U.S. government created NASA. In the meantime, the Soviets already placed a man in space and next the US put men on the moon. It was a race to space competition during this time. The Arms Race: With the possibility that a cold war could turn into a hot war at any time, both sides built up huge stockpiles of conventional and unconventional weapons. Each side hoped to become so mighty militarily that the other side would never dare strike. The effect, however, was that the weapons each side developed became more and more destructive. When the Soviets developed their own atomic bomb in 1949, the U.S. felt compelled to respond. President Truman authorized the development of a hydrogen bomb, a more powerful weapon than an atomic bomb. The SU built theirs next. By 1961, the combined nuclear arsenals of the two sides were enough to destroy all life on Earth. Throughout the 1950s, Americans prepared for a possible nuclear war. Public buildings with basements were designated as community bomb shelters. In school, students practiced air raid drills, just as you practice fire drills. At the sound of a special siren, students and adults would go down to a basement, crouch in the hallway with their arms over their heads. The U.S. government put out comic books and short videos showing a turtle hiding in its shell to teach children how to "Duck and Cover" if a bomb was coming. This had a serious psychological effect.

5 8.02 Modern China Soon after Mao Zedong and the Communist Party gained control of China he sought to catch up with both the agricultural and industrial gains of Western nations. Mao decided that China’s large work force could be used to achieve rapid industrialization. His plan came to be called the Great Leap Forward. This plan proved to be one of the most ironically named movements in history because of its disastrous results. The government grouped farms into giant communes, containing about 5,000 households each. The communes were then tasked to build "backyard furnaces" to produce steel throughout China. However, the steel created by these furnaces was inferior. In addition, officials implemented the commune plan too rapidly, which contributed to the inefficiency. Then a series of natural disasters hit China. All of these factors combined to greatly disrupt Chinese agriculture. Famine killed about 30 million people from 1959 to 1962. During the 1960s, the Communist Chinese government became divided between radicals and moderates. The radicals wanted to uphold the ideals of communism and strive for a classless society. The moderates emphasized modernization and viewed the goals of the radicals as unrealistic. Mao supported the radicals, who gained the upper hand in the government. With Mao as their leader, the radicals began a movement called the Cultural Revolution. This approach attempted to achieve the ideals of communism by eliminating opposition to Mao. Some were thrown in jail, fired from their jobs, or forced into different positions if they criticized the communist government. Mao believed that you “learn revolution by making revolution” which ultimately led to an attack on people’s personal liberties. When Mao died, Deng Xiaoping took over and he allowed farmers more responsibility for their work and for their profits. He also lessened governmental control of industry. Because of these changes, agricultural production soared. Believed more in free enterprise.

6 8.03 Proxy Wars Although the United States and Soviet Union never met on a traditional battlefield, they still fought for decades around the world. Instead of traditional battles, the Cold War was fought through proxy wars: wars in which the belligerents (states or nation at war) were substitutes for the United States and the Soviet Union. The U.S. feared that communism would spread, increase the influence of the Soviet Union, and threaten U.S. interests. As a result, the United States adopted a policy of containment, in which they tried to prevent new countries from becoming communist and supported capitalist states against communist threats. For this reason, the U.S. became involved in many proxy wars; most notably: Korea and Vietnam. The U.S. only pulled out of Vietnam will public protests and popularity for the war at home waned. Also, the United States sponsored the contras in Nicaragua because they hoped they would defeat the Sandinistas. Also, the U.S. created a military blockade to stop the delivery of Soviet weapons to Cuba. Cuba had a strong relationship with the S.U. as they. had previously supported Castro’s attempts to promote communism in the Americas. Cuba likewise partnered with the S.U. during the Cuban Missile Crisis and it was also in Cuba where the US was humiliated with the failed Bay of Pigs mission (entering trained insurgents into Cuba). Both the US and the S.U. strategized themselves into Africa as well to support their political influence there as well.

7 8.04 The Iron Curtain Comes Down (fall of the S.U.)
The Soviet Union had extended its hand and had taken over many Eastern European countries. In the 1980s, these countries started to protest and rebel against the Soviet Union causing upheaval. Czechoslovakia started to rid their communist party through student and popular protests. In Poland, an independent trade union, “Solidarity”, paved the way for privately owned business. In Latvia, Stalin and Lenin’s communist ideals were no longer supported by the people. The Eastern Bloc countries finally gained their independence as the Soviet Union broke apart. In Berlin, Germany, the Berlin wall was taken down where the residents of communist East Berlin could finally travel to the more prosperous and democratic West Berlin. It was a celebrated event. Overall, the reach of the Soviet Union was unable to effectively support itself economically and with that combined with the rebellions in the Eastern Bloc countries and new Soviet leaders implementing more open-ness and freedom, the Soviet Union collapsed.

8 8.05 New Nationalism Israel: In the early 20th century, many Jews became part of the Zionist Movement, which believes that the Bible promises Jews a homeland in Israel. Also, many believed this would resolve many problems with Anti-Semitism. Supported by the U.S. and other countries, Israel declared its independence in 1948 and has had a long road of conflict with Palestinian Arabs and neighboring countries due to many being displaced from their homes. An example would be the Yom Kippur War which ultimately furthered U.S. support of Israel. U.S. supply of weapons and money to Israel has been a long time criticism by Palestinians. In fact, the Palestine Liberation Organization, or PLO, which has assumed the role of a Palestinian government, with Yasser Arafat at its head blames Palestinian occupation on “western aggression”. Arafat militated for a Palestinian state, which earned him a reputation as a terrorist. At times, peace talks have been started such as at the Camp David Accords, but conflict remains today. Cuba saw a reawakening with Castro bringing communism to Cuba and East Timor won independence from Indonesia in 2002. Egypt: Gamal Abdel Nasser helped start the republic of Egypt. He was the country's first president. Nasser was a pan-Arabist who believed that all Muslim nations should unite in cooperation to achieve their aims. He seized control of the Suez canal, a major waterway, to nationalize it as part of Egypt. Cyprus: Who has power over this island nation is still disputed by Turkey and Greece Haiti: Francois "Papa Doc" Duvalier became Haiti's first president. His dictatorial regime was long and infamous for its brutality and resulted in many fleeing the island. Spain:. In 1975, many Basques–who speak an ancient language and are culturally different from the Spaniards–began to stage protests calling for local autonomy from the Spanish government. In response, Spain granted some aspects of self-rule. They have limited and local autonomy (self-rule). India: Jawaharlal Nehru was a leader of the Indian independence movement and a close associate of Gandhi. He became the first president of independent India. Significance: Nehru was one of the first leaders to start an independence movement in India. He also helped to establish a democracy in India and worked to improve living standards. Kashmir: Turmoil mainly due to religious conflict.

9 8.06 Globalization World War II's end meant an economic boom for the United States. The economic boom also led to a baby boom. When soldiers returned from active duty, they began to settle down and start families. These new and growing families needed places to live. As a result, suburbs outside of cities began to grow-but they lacked racial diversity. Also, an economic boom in Europe increased the standard of living and Japan recovered quickly after WWII by adopting educational and economic reforms. The world was ready for globalization. Globalization refers to the way that the individual nations of the world are becoming more connected to each other. It helps international investment and business. After WWII immigration and especially international trade led people to become more connected which led to cultural diffusion. Immigrants from former imperial nations moved to city centers. Culture was shared. Cultural Diffusion is the borrowing of traits such as languages, values, and material objects between various cultures. This is fueled by increased exposure to the movies, television programs, music, books, foods, and clothing styles of other countries. Examples of cultural diffusion would be an American eating Sushi or a baseball game in Japan. A country trying to hold on to their own traditions (clothing, language, food, etc.) is a barrier to cultural diffusion.

10 Globalization Continued (8.06)
Today countries are categorized as either developed or developing nations. Developing nations tend to have less developed infrastructure and a low GDP. Developed countries tend to build factories or outsource to developing nations due to the low wage workforce and cheaper production costs. However, a main criticism of this is that it decreases the quality of services. Today, there are also trading agreements and organizations that help bring about globalization and easier trading. The European Union (EU) is the world’s largest trading bloc and even have their own currency. There are some criticisms that Turkey is not allowed in and many claim its because they are a predominately Muslim nation. The North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is between Canada, the US and Mexico and is a trade agreement for easier trade. Many criticize that large corporations are benefiting from cheap labor and many labor unions in the US are unhappy because they often get left out. The Union of South American Nations (UNSUR) is similar to the EU but does not have a single currency.

11 8.07 Invisible Warfare Terrorism is the act of using the fear of violence or disruption in order to accomplish certain political, national, or religious goals. It is invisible because the victims of attacks usually have no warning and no immediate knowledge of the attacker, it is not a traditional war fought between 2 countries. Terrorism is often targeted on civilians to make more of an impact. An example of terrorism is the 9/11/2001 attacks on the United States. The response to that and to terrorism in general has been an international effort. The United Nations passed a resolution encouraging nations to work together to fight terrorism. President George W. Bush declared that he would "make no distinction between those who committed these acts and those who harbor them.” He was referring to Afghanistan and in fact, the US invaded the country within months of the 9/11 attack. As a result, the Taliban fell from power in the country, an event that has sparked hopes for women of the country to become for free and active.

12 Invisible Warfare Continued (8.07)
Terrorism is often blamed on religious fundamentalists (or extremists). The attacks carried out by fundamentalists in the Middle East has caused instability in the region. In 1988, religious fundamentalists attacked an American embassy on a date that symbolized their rejection of US influence. In fact, some blame the US involvement in the Persian Gulf War as an event that fueled terrorism because of extremists’ criticism of US involvement and influence in the Middle East at the time. Other examples of terrorism include Ireland vs. Northern Ireland where tensions are rooted in politics and religion. The Kashmir region sees conflict due to colonialism, geography, and religion. And in Spain, the group Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA) is a Spanish nationalist group from the Basque Country with the goal of achieving independence for the Basque people from Spain. In 1961, ETA began a series of attacks that killed hundreds of people over the next four decades

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