The Culprits Salmonella – Found in eggs, milk, chickens, beef, and turkey Campylobacter – Found in poultry, raw milk, and drinking water Clostridium botulinum – Lives in the soil, grows in meats and vegetables – Multiples in poorly canned or smoked foods Staphylococcus aureus – Found on human skin – Enters food supply by improper handling of food by workers
The Culprits Shigella – Normally found in the intestinal tract of humans – Thus why you always washer your hands after using the restroom!!! Escherichia coli (E.coli) O157:H7 – Undercooked beef, lettuce, salami, unpasteurized apple cider and milk Listeria monocytogenes – Soft cheese, unpasteurized milk, imported seafood, likes low temperatures Clostridium perfingens – Most common in red meats, survive hot cooking and multiply when food is not kept hot
Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Estimates that 4,000 people in the US die each year from these top 4 bacteria – Salmonella, Campylobacter, E. coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes
Legislation Food and Drug Administration enforce food additive usage and research 1958 Delaney Clause was added to the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938 to prohibit use of any food additive that causes cancer in humans or animals….zero tolerance Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 revised DCA of 1938 of the zero tolerance to carcinogens to be labeled as “a reasonable certainty of no harm” USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is responsible for verifying that meat and poultry processing plants meet regulatory requirements and take enforcement action when a plant fails to meet these requirement.
Plant Protection Protocol Sanitation Standard Operation Procedures (SSOPs) – A plant must develop SSOP guidelines for the production of raw and processed foods Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) – Develop a HACCP plan for each product to identify points in processing that could cause harm to the food product, and provide techniques to correct a potential problem
Irradiation Definition: the treatment of food with radioactive isotopes to kill bacteria, insects, and molds that are present in the food – Cobalt-60 is widely used as a short wavelength radiation – Cesium-137 is also used sometimes – Strict processing chambers are constructed to protect workers from exposure to the radiation Energy waves are not retained by the food The food does not become radioactive No significant difference in nutrition quality has been found in irradiated foods Food that irradiation doesn’t work for include: diary products, some fruits like peaches and nectarines
Irradiation Process began in the 1950, 37 countries already use this form of food protection Current approved foods – Aug 21, 1963: wheat and wheat flour to control insects – Aug 8, 1964: white potatoes to control sprout development – July 5, 1983: herbs, spices, and vegetable seasonings to decontaminate and control insects and microorganisms – June 10, 1985: dry enzyme preparations primarily used in fermentation type food processes to control insects and microorganisms – July 22, 1985: pork to control parasite that causes trichinosis – April 19, 1986: fruits, veggies, and grains to control insects and inhibit growth and ripening – May 1, 1990: chicken, turkey, and other fresh or frozen uncooked poultry to control Salmonella and other disease causing bacteria – Dec 2, 1997: fresh and frozen red meats such as beef, lamb and pork to slow spoilage and control disease-causing microorganisms
Irradiation There are many speculators out there, but this form of food preservation is becoming more accepted as health advocates see it as safe to eat Traditional cooking of meats to 165 o F-212 o F to kill microorganisms (MO) Refrigeration immediately decreases MO population growth Reheating leftovers to at least 165 o F reduces the risk of MO food poisoning/death
Education The best way to understand your food and your preparation procedures is to be educated about producing, processing and consuming food products. Remember, its your life!