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Authored by Rich Simerson 01-Mar-2004 Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron For Local Training Rev 6.0 02-Jan-2014.

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Presentation on theme: "Authored by Rich Simerson 01-Mar-2004 Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron For Local Training Rev 6.0 02-Jan-2014."— Presentation transcript:

1 Authored by Rich Simerson 01-Mar-2004 Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron For Local Training Rev Jan-2014

2 2 This Training Slide Show is a project undertaken by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell of the TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron, Fort Worth, TX for local use to assist those CAP Members interested in advancing their skills. The information contained herein is for CAP Member’s personal use and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for any of the CAP National Training Programs. Users should review the presentation’s Revision Number at the end of each file name to ensure that they have the most current publication.

3 3 Mission Observer Requirements Trainee Trainee Qualified General Emergency Services (GES) Qualified General Emergency Services (GES) Qualified as Mission Scanner Qualified as Mission Scanner At least 18 years of age (minimum; should be mature) At least 18 years of age (minimum; should be mature) 101T-MO familiarization and preparatory training 101T-MO familiarization and preparatory training Commanders authorization Commanders authorization Qualification Qualification 101T-MO requirements 101T-MO requirements Complete Basic Communications User Training and Task L-001 Complete Basic Communications User Training and Task L-001 Exercise participation (two separate missions) Exercise participation (two separate missions) Unit certification and recommendation Unit certification and recommendation

4 CAPR 60-Series Review

5 5 Primary Responsibility during searches: Visual Search Primary Responsibility during searches: Visual Search Report for briefings Report for briefings Assist in planning – may be mission commander Assist in planning – may be mission commander Check necessary equipment aboard (checklists) Check necessary equipment aboard (checklists) Assist in avoiding obstacles during taxiing Assist in avoiding obstacles during taxiing Assist in setting up and operating radios Assist in setting up and operating radios Assist in setting up and operating nav equipment Assist in setting up and operating nav equipment Maintain situational awareness Maintain situational awareness Assist in monitoring fuel status Assist in monitoring fuel status Observer Duties and Responsibilities

6 6 Observer Duties and Responsibilities (Continued) Assist enforcing the sterile cockpit rules Assist enforcing the sterile cockpit rules Assist pilot during searches, particularly ELT Assist pilot during searches, particularly ELT Keep mission base/high bird appraised of status Keep mission base/high bird appraised of status Coordinate scanner assignments, schedule breaks, monitor crew for fatigue & dehydration Coordinate scanner assignments, schedule breaks, monitor crew for fatigue & dehydration Maintain observer’s log Maintain observer’s log Report for debriefing Report for debriefing Assist with all post-mission paperwork Assist with all post-mission paperwork Keep track of assigned equipment and supplies Keep track of assigned equipment and supplies

7 7 Observers Log Provides a record of Provides a record of the flight Preflight calculations Preflight calculations Record of observations Record of observations Basis for debriefing Basis for debriefing Used to complete CAPF 104 Used to complete CAPF 104 Information is forwarded to mission staff to guide mission management Information is forwarded to mission staff to guide mission management Good logs can be combined from several sorties to give the mission staff a better picture of how the search is going Good logs can be combined from several sorties to give the mission staff a better picture of how the search is going Observer Log AircraftPilotObserverMissionDate DestinationTotal Dist ETE Remain Takeoff Time ETA ATA Fuel Remain Fuel Inflight Observations Time Observation Departure Pt. Check Points Mag Hdg Dist Ground Speed Ident Freq ETE

8 8 Forms CAPF 100 CAPF 100 CAPF 101 CAPF 101 CAPF 101Ts CAPF 101Ts CAPF 104 CAPF 104 CAPF 108 CAPF 108

9 9 CAPF 104 Mission Flight Plan/Briefing Form Page 1

10 10 CAPF 104 Mission Flight Plan/Briefing Form Page 2

11 11 CAPF 104 Mission Flight Plan/Briefing Form Page 3

12 12 CAPF 104 Mission Flight Plan/Briefing Form Page 4

13 13 CAPF 104 Mission Flight Plan/Briefing Form

14 14 FAA Flight Plan FAA Form FAA Form (8-82) CLOSE VFR FLIGHT PLAN WITH ________________FSS ON ARRIVAL U. S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION FLIGHT PLAN TIME STARTEDSPECIALIST INITIALS 1. TYPE VFR IFR DVFR 2. AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION 3. AIRCRAFT TYPE/ SPECIAL EQUIPMENT 4. TRUE AIRSPEED KTS 8. ROUTE OF FLIGHT PROPOSED (Z)ACTUAL (Z) 5. DEPARTURE POINT 6. DEPARTURE TIME 7. CRUISING ALTITUDE 9. DESTINATION (Name of airport and city) 10. EST. TIME ENROUTE HOURSMINUTES 12. FUEL ON BOARD HOURS MINUTES 13. ALTERNATE AIRPORT(S) 11. REMARKS 14. PILOTS NAME, ADDRESS, & TELEPHONE NUMBER & AIRCRAFT HOME BASE 17. DESTINATION CONTACT / TELEPHONE (OPTIONAL) 15. NUMBER ABOARD 16. COLOR OF AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT PILOTS, FAR Part 91 requires you file an IFR flight plan to operate under instrument flight rules in controlled airspace. Failure to file could result in a civil penalty not to exceed $1,000 for each violation (Section 901 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 as amended (FAA USE ONLY)PILOT BRIEFING STOPOVER VNR CPF 4239 N99545, CAP Flight

15 15 Flight Plans and Forms Summary Forms are important! Forms are important! Complete, accurate and legible Complete, accurate and legible Label attachments Label attachments You implement the CAP mission You implement the CAP mission Know the source regulations Know the source regulations CAPR 60-1 (flying operations) CAPR 60-1 (flying operations) CAPR 60-3 CAPR 60-3 CAPR 60-4 CAPR 60-4 MOUs MOUs

16 16 Records For Your Aircrew File (Optional But Recommended) Current CAP Membership card Current CAP Membership card Current CAP 101 card Current CAP 101 card Current CPR, Basic Care, Bloodborne Pathogens cards Current CPR, Basic Care, Bloodborne Pathogens cards CAP Communications certificate (CAPF 76, if held) CAP Communications certificate (CAPF 76, if held) Award of Aeronautical Rating (CAPF 2a) Award of Aeronautical Rating (CAPF 2a) Emergency Notification Data (CAPF 60) Emergency Notification Data (CAPF 60) Total Scanner/Observer hours (photocopy from your logbook) Total Scanner/Observer hours (photocopy from your logbook)

17 17 Remember to check the credentials of non-CAP passengers (Center)

18 18 Communications

19 19 Throughout these slides, each objective is followed by: Throughout these slides, each objective is followed by: The mission specialty rating to which the objective applies (S = Scanner; O = Observer; P = Pilot) The mission specialty rating to which the objective applies (S = Scanner; O = Observer; P = Pilot) The section in the Aircrew Reference Text where the answer to the objective may be found The section in the Aircrew Reference Text where the answer to the objective may be found Objectives

20 20 Describe how to use the Audio Panel and FM radio. {O & P; & 4.1.3} Describe how to use the Audio Panel and FM radio. {O & P; & 4.1.3} Describe how to recognize a stuck mike, and corrective actions. {O; 4.1.5} Describe how to recognize a stuck mike, and corrective actions. {O; 4.1.5} Discuss CAP FM radio reports {O & P; 4.1.6} Discuss CAP FM radio reports {O & P; 4.1.6} List the minimum required reports List the minimum required reports Discuss in-flight services {O; 4.3} Discuss in-flight services {O; 4.3} Flight Service Station (FSS) purpose and how to contact Flight Service Station (FSS) purpose and how to contact ATIS information and how to obtain it ATIS information and how to obtain it AWOS/ASOS information and how to obtain it AWOS/ASOS information and how to obtain it The importance of PIREP’s The importance of PIREP’s Objectives (Continued)

21 21 Using the Audio Panel On/Off, Volume control On/Off, Volume control Mic Selector switch and receiver switches Mic Selector switch and receiver switches Split mode Split mode Swap mode Swap mode Intercom mode Intercom mode

22 22 Audio Panel Transmitter combinations Intercom modes

23 23 Using the FM Radio Main and Guard (squelch is automatic) Main and Guard (squelch is automatic) Normal settings: Normal settings: MN MN G1 G1 HI HI 4 or 6 to scroll through frequencies 4 or 6 to scroll through frequencies 5 Scan (if enabled) 5 Scan (if enabled) 2 (increase brightness) and 8 (decrease brightness) 2 (increase brightness) and 8 (decrease brightness)

24 24 Using the FM Radio (Continued) Volume controls (Guard is receive only) Volume controls (Guard is receive only) Main usually set to ‘004’ (Air-to-Ground) Normally G1 (Air- to-Ground) [G2 is Primary] Main usually set to ‘004’ (Air-to-Ground) Normally G1 (Air- to-Ground) [G2 is Primary] If base wants to call you, you will hear them no matter what (Main) frequency you’re on If base wants to call you, you will hear them no matter what (Main) frequency you’re on Just take MN/GD switch to GD, answer, then back to MN Just take MN/GD switch to GD, answer, then back to MN

25 25 Stuck Mike Can block transmissions Can block transmissions Indications: Indications: The ‘T’ symbol or TX LED remains illuminated The ‘T’ symbol or TX LED remains illuminated You don’t receive a reply to your transmission You don’t receive a reply to your transmission Difference in radio background noise Difference in radio background noise Try re-keying the microphone or turning the radio off and then back on Try re-keying the microphone or turning the radio off and then back on

26 26 FM Radio Reports Radio check (initial flight of the day) Radio check (initial flight of the day) Minimum required reports: Minimum required reports: Take-off (wheels up) Take-off (wheels up) Entering search area Entering search area Exiting search area Exiting search area Landing (wheels down) Landing (wheels down) Operations normal (Ops Normal) reports Operations normal (Ops Normal) reports Defined during briefing, usually every one-half hour Defined during briefing, usually every one-half hour

27 27 Communications The radio is the primary link to the ATC system The radio is the primary link to the ATC system The most important part of pilot-controller communications is understanding The most important part of pilot-controller communications is understanding Brevity is important Brevity is important Professionalism is important; it enhances safety and brings you better service Professionalism is important; it enhances safety and brings you better service

28 28 Technique Check for proper frequency Check for proper frequency Check volume Check volume Mentally compose message before transmitting Mentally compose message before transmitting Listen before transmitting Listen before transmitting Key mike, pause briefly before talking Key mike, pause briefly before talking

29 29 Message Format Who *Who you are calling *Who you are Who *Who you are calling *Who you are Where *Your location Where *Your location What *Your request What *Your request

30 30 CAP Aircraft Call Signs CAP has the FAA authorized callsign “CAP” CAP has the FAA authorized callsign “CAP” FAA call signs are stated in ‘group’ form FAA call signs are stated in ‘group’ form CPF 4239 is stated as “CAP Forty-Two Thirty-Nine” CPF 4239 is stated as “CAP Forty-Two Thirty-Nine” AIM a.5 and FAA AIM a.5 and FAA

31 31 CAP Aircraft Call Signs (Continued) CAP aircraft should only use the word “Rescue” in their call sign when priority handling is critical CAP aircraft should only use the word “Rescue” in their call sign when priority handling is critical “CAP Forty-Two Thirty-Nine Rescue” “CAP Forty-Two Thirty-Nine Rescue” DO NOT abuse this! DO NOT abuse this!

32 32 In-Flight Services - FSS Flight Service Stations (FSS) provide weather information before and after takeoff Flight Service Stations (FSS) provide weather information before and after takeoff Some FSS provide transcribed weather briefings Some FSS provide transcribed weather briefings FSS can provide assistance to a pilot who has temporarily misplaced himself (i.e., he’s lost) FSS can provide assistance to a pilot who has temporarily misplaced himself (i.e., he’s lost) FSS having voice services on VOR or NDB broadcast at 15 minutes after the hour FSS having voice services on VOR or NDB broadcast at 15 minutes after the hour Weather reports and advisories Weather reports and advisories Pilot and radar reports Pilot and radar reports Alerts and Notices to Airmen (NOTAM) Alerts and Notices to Airmen (NOTAM)

33 33 In-Flight Services - ATIS Broadcast continuously (taped) Broadcast continuously (taped) Actual weather information, updated hourly or when special conditions warrant Actual weather information, updated hourly or when special conditions warrant Frequency found on sectional or in A/FD Frequency found on sectional or in A/FD

34 34 In-Flight Services AWOS Automated Weather Observation System Automated Weather Observation System On sectional by airport name On sectional by airport name Transmitted UHF or on navaid Transmitted UHF or on navaid Real time information includes: Real time information includes: Location and time Location and time Wind speed, direction and gusts Wind speed, direction and gusts Temperature and dew point Temperature and dew point Altimeter setting Altimeter setting Density altitude when it exceeds field elevation by 1000’ Density altitude when it exceeds field elevation by 1000’ Can go to or call 800-any-awos Can go to or call 800-any-awoswww.anyAWOS.com

35 35 In-Flight Services - ASOS Automated Surface Observing System Automated Surface Observing System On sectional by airport name On sectional by airport name Transmitted VHF or on navaid; also telephone Transmitted VHF or on navaid; also telephone Real time information may include: Real time information may include: Location and time Location and time Wind speed, direction and gusts Wind speed, direction and gusts Visibility and cloud height Visibility and cloud height Temperature and dew point Temperature and dew point Altimeter setting Altimeter setting Density altitude when it exceeds field elevation by 1000’ Density altitude when it exceeds field elevation by 1000’

36 36 In-Flight Services PIREP’s Pilot Weather Reports Pilot Weather Reports Very useful to other pilots Very useful to other pilots Information should include: Information should include: Type of aircraft (Cessna 172) Type of aircraft (Cessna 172) Location (usually in relation to a VOR) Location (usually in relation to a VOR) Cloud bases, tops and layers Cloud bases, tops and layers Flight visibility Flight visibility Precipitation Precipitation Visibility restrictions (e.g., smoke, haze and dust) Visibility restrictions (e.g., smoke, haze and dust) Temperature and wind Temperature and wind

37 37 Weather

38 38 Discuss how convection currents affect aircraft glide path. (O) Discuss how convection currents affect aircraft glide path. (O) Discuss wind patterns around high- and low-pressure areas. (O) Discuss wind patterns around high- and low-pressure areas. (O) Define “ freezing level ” and “ lapse rate ” (O) Define “ freezing level ” and “ lapse rate ” (O) Discuss airframe icing and its affect on aircraft performance. (O) Discuss airframe icing and its affect on aircraft performance. (O) Discuss carburetor icing and its affect on aircraft performance. (O) Discuss carburetor icing and its affect on aircraft performance. (O) Objectives

39 39 Discuss the characteristics of cold, unstable air masses and warm, stable air masses. (O) Discuss the characteristics of cold, unstable air masses and warm, stable air masses. (O) Concerning reduced visibility conditions, state the minimums for: (O) Concerning reduced visibility conditions, state the minimums for: (O) VFR visibility VFR visibility Cloud bases when they cover one-half the sky Cloud bases when they cover one-half the sky How far aircraft must remain below cloud cover How far aircraft must remain below cloud cover Discuss the dangers of windshear. (O) Discuss the dangers of windshear. (O) Describe the ‘ stages ’ of a typical thunderstorm and discuss the dangers of flying too close. (O) Describe the ‘ stages ’ of a typical thunderstorm and discuss the dangers of flying too close. (O) Objectives (Continued)

40 40 The most important aspect of weather is its impact on flight conditions The most important aspect of weather is its impact on flight conditions Safety is paramount Safety is paramount Navigation — Visual verses Instruments Navigation — Visual verses Instruments Effects on Search Effects on Search Prevailing visibility Prevailing visibility Search visibility Search visibility Search patterns and altitudes Search patterns and altitudes Information — National Weather Service, Flight Service Stations, Flight Watch, PIREP’s Information — National Weather Service, Flight Service Stations, Flight Watch, PIREP’s Weather

41 41 Weather — Circulation

42 42 Weather — Circulation (Continued) The earth rotates The earth rotates Air moving north is pulled toward the east Air moving north is pulled toward the east This builds a high pressure belt about 30 degrees latitude This builds a high pressure belt about 30 degrees latitude The northerly air flow cools and starts southward The northerly air flow cools and starts southward These large circulations are responsible for mixing the air and most weather These large circulations are responsible for mixing the air and most weather

43 43 Circulation Around a High H

44 44 Circulation Around a Low L

45 45 Upward Convection Currents Terrain which heats up creates updrafts Terrain which heats up creates updrafts Updrafts tend to keep you from descending Updrafts tend to keep you from descending Normally where there are updrafts there are also downdrafts Normally where there are updrafts there are also downdrafts ROCKY TERRAIN PLOUGHED GROUND PAVED ROAD NORMAL GLIDE PATH EFFECT OF CONVECTION CURRENTS

46 46 Downward Convection Currents Terrain which remains cool up creates downdrafts Terrain which remains cool up creates downdrafts Downdrafts cause you to descend Downdrafts cause you to descend

47 47 As altitude increases the temperature decreases at a fairly uniform rate of 3.6 degrees F per 1000 feet; this is known as lapse rate As altitude increases the temperature decreases at a fairly uniform rate of 3.6 degrees F per 1000 feet; this is known as lapse rate Use this on hot days to determine how high you should climb to get to a comfortable temperature Use this on hot days to determine how high you should climb to get to a comfortable temperature At some altitude the air temperature reaches the freezing temperature of water; the freezing level At some altitude the air temperature reaches the freezing temperature of water; the freezing level Terms

48 48 Icing Frost Frost Snow Snow Icing Icing Airframe Airframe (lift & weight) (lift & weight) Carburetor Carburetor Lift Thrust Decreases Weight Increases Decreases Drag Increases Rime ice is rougher Glaze ice is clearer

49 49 Causes of Frontal Activity DRY AIR COLD POLAR AIR TROPICAL MOIST AIR

50 50 Warm Front St LouisIndianapolisColumbusPittsburgh Nimbostratus Altostratus Cirrostratus Cirrus WARM AIR COLD AIR

51 51 Cold Front St LouisIndianapolisColumbusPittsburgh COLD AIR WARM AIR Cumulonimbus

52 52 Occluded Front St LouisIndianapolisColumbusPittsburgh COLD AIR WARM AIR COLD AIR Cumulonimbus Nimbostratus Altostratus Cirrostratus Cirrus

53 53 Reduced Visibility Under almost all circumstances, VFR daytime flight requires: Under almost all circumstances, VFR daytime flight requires: At least three miles visibility At least three miles visibility When clouds cover more than one-half the sky, cloud bases must be no lower than 1,000 ft. AGL When clouds cover more than one-half the sky, cloud bases must be no lower than 1,000 ft. AGL Search aircraft must usually remain at least 500 ft. below the cloud deck Search aircraft must usually remain at least 500 ft. below the cloud deck There are exceptions: ask your PIC There are exceptions: ask your PIC

54 54 Reduced Visibility (Continued) Fog Fog Haze Haze Snow Snow White out White out Blowing dust Blowing dust Affected by sun angle and direction Affected by sun angle and direction Aircrew must increase vigilance during these conditions Aircrew must increase vigilance during these conditions

55 55 Turbulence Planning flight around high terrain requires special care Planning flight around high terrain requires special care Wind currents on the downwind side can be very strong Wind currents on the downwind side can be very strong Ridges and peaks should be cleared by at least 2000 feet Ridges and peaks should be cleared by at least 2000 feet Wind Flight Path 2000 ft.

56 56 Wind Shear Thunderstorms Thunderstorms Fronts - wind shear may advance as far as 15 nm Fronts - wind shear may advance as far as 15 nm Air flow around obstacles Air flow around obstacles Windward

57 57 Wind Shear (Continued) Two potentially hazardous situations, dangerous mainly during landing: Two potentially hazardous situations, dangerous mainly during landing: Tailwind turns calm or to a headwind Tailwind turns calm or to a headwind Headwind turns calm or to a tailwind Headwind turns calm or to a tailwind Pilot must adjust quickly Pilot must adjust quickly

58 58 Weather Thunderstorms Cumulus StageMature StageDissipating Stage

59 59 Radio Services Flight Service Station (FSS) Flight Service Station (FSS) Flight Watch (122.0) Flight Watch (122.0) Automatic Terminal Information Service(ATIS) Automatic Terminal Information Service(ATIS) Transcribed weather broadcasts (TWEB) Transcribed weather broadcasts (TWEB) Scheduled weather broadcasts Scheduled weather broadcasts Fifteen minutes after the hour Fifteen minutes after the hour Alerts, hourly weather, Advisory, Pilot Reports, Radar Alerts, hourly weather, Advisory, Pilot Reports, Radar Pilot Weather Reports (PIREP) Pilot Weather Reports (PIREP)

60 60 High Altitude And Terrain Considerations

61 61 Concerning atmospheric pressure: (O) Concerning atmospheric pressure: (O) State the pressure at sea level, and describe how to compensate for ‘other-than-sea level pressures’ when setting the altimeter State the pressure at sea level, and describe how to compensate for ‘other-than-sea level pressures’ when setting the altimeter Discuss the three factors that affect the density of an air mass. Discuss the three factors that affect the density of an air mass. Define density altitude Define density altitude State the phases of flight affected by a decrease in atmospheric pressure, and how aircraft performance is affected. (O) State the phases of flight affected by a decrease in atmospheric pressure, and how aircraft performance is affected. (O) Objectives

62 62 Discuss strategies to compensate for high DA during searches. (O) Discuss strategies to compensate for high DA during searches. (O) Discuss mountainous terrain precautions and strategies. (O) Discuss mountainous terrain precautions and strategies. (O) Objectives (Continued)

63 63 A barometer is used to register changes in pressure; measured in inches of mercury A barometer is used to register changes in pressure; measured in inches of mercury Standard sea-level pressure and temperature: Standard sea-level pressure and temperature: inches of mercury inches of mercury 59 degrees F (15 degrees C) 59 degrees F (15 degrees C) A change of 1000 feet in elevation makes a change of about one inch A change of 1000 feet in elevation makes a change of about one inch To correct for local elevation, set altimeter to latest reading (ATIS/AWOS/ASOS/FSS) or enter field elevation To correct for local elevation, set altimeter to latest reading (ATIS/AWOS/ASOS/FSS) or enter field elevation Atmospheric Pressure

64 64 Three factors: Three factors: Pressure Pressure Temperature Temperature Humidity Humidity Altitude and pressure combined to determine pressure altitude Altitude and pressure combined to determine pressure altitude Add non-standard temperature to get density altitude Add non-standard temperature to get density altitude Pilots calculate (next slides) or can get on ASOS Pilots calculate (next slides) or can get on ASOS Density Altitude

65 65 Density Altitude (Continued)

66 66 Flight Computer Circular slide rule Circular slide rule Density altitude Density altitude Nautical to statute miles Nautical to statute miles True airspeed True airspeed Other stuff Other stuff

67 67 Density altitude and aircraft weight have a tremendous effect on aircraft performance Density altitude and aircraft weight have a tremendous effect on aircraft performance Both must be accurately calculated, especially for mountain flying missions Both must be accurately calculated, especially for mountain flying missions Aircraft Performance

68 68 As altitude increases pressure decreases; this decrease can have a pronounced effect on flight: As altitude increases pressure decreases; this decrease can have a pronounced effect on flight: Engine (hp) and prop are less efficient Engine (hp) and prop are less efficient Take off distance, climb rate, and landing distance effected Take off distance, climb rate, and landing distance effected Take off distance almost doubles with a 5000 foot elevation increase Take off distance almost doubles with a 5000 foot elevation increase Rate of climb slows with higher elevation Rate of climb slows with higher elevation Landing distance increases with higher elevation Landing distance increases with higher elevation Higher Humidity, Heat or Height result in reduced aircraft performance Higher Humidity, Heat or Height result in reduced aircraft performance Pressure vs. Performance

69 69 Reduced Performance

70 70 Don ’ t fly at high elevation during the hottest part of the day Don ’ t fly at high elevation during the hottest part of the day Carefully calculate DA and weight Carefully calculate DA and weight Reduce load: Reduce load: Less fuel Less fuel Crew of three instead of four Crew of three instead of four Less baggage Less baggage Remember “ High to Low, Look out Below ” (update altimeter setting hourly) Remember “ High to Low, Look out Below ” (update altimeter setting hourly) If you fly in the mountains, take the Mountain Fury Course If you fly in the mountains, take the Mountain Fury Course Strategies

71 71 Flight Near Mountainous Terrain Crews must be constantly careful that the search never takes them over terrain that rises faster than the airplane can climb. Narrow valleys or canyons that have rising floors must be avoided, unless the aircraft can be flown from the end of higher elevation to the lower end, or the pilot is certain that the aircraft can climb faster than the terrain rises. Careful chart study by the crew prior to flight will help identify this dangerous terrain. Crews must be constantly careful that the search never takes them over terrain that rises faster than the airplane can climb. Narrow valleys or canyons that have rising floors must be avoided, unless the aircraft can be flown from the end of higher elevation to the lower end, or the pilot is certain that the aircraft can climb faster than the terrain rises. Careful chart study by the crew prior to flight will help identify this dangerous terrain. If you fly in the mountains, take the Mountain Fury Course If you fly in the mountains, take the Mountain Fury Course

72 72 Flight Near Mountainous Terrain (Continued)

73 73 Flight Near Mountainous Terrain (Continued)

74 74 Flight Near Mountainous Terrain (Continued)

75 75 Navigation and Position Determination

76 76 Discuss considerations for operating near controlled airports, and identify them on a sectional. (O) Discuss considerations for operating near controlled airports, and identify them on a sectional. (O) Discuss the following special use airspaces, and identify them on a sectional: Discuss the following special use airspaces, and identify them on a sectional: Prohibited and Restricted Areas (O) Prohibited and Restricted Areas (O) Military operating areas and training routes (O) Military operating areas and training routes (O) Discuss the use and limitations of the following: Discuss the use and limitations of the following: ADF (O) ADF (O) VOR (O) VOR (O) DME (O) DME (O) GPS (O) GPS (O) Objectives

77 77 Given a sectional chart, a plotter, and two airports: (O) Given a sectional chart, a plotter, and two airports: (O) Plot the course Plot the course Identify check points along the route Identify check points along the route Calculate how long it should take to get from one airport to the other, flying at 100 kts with no wind Calculate how long it should take to get from one airport to the other, flying at 100 kts with no wind Given Attachment E of the U.S. National SAR Supplement to the International Aeronautical and Maritime SAR Manual, grid a sectional. (O & P) (and Attachment 1) Given Attachment E of the U.S. National SAR Supplement to the International Aeronautical and Maritime SAR Manual, grid a sectional. (O & P) (and Attachment 1) Given coordinates and a sectional, use the Standardized Latitude and Longitude Gird System to draw a search grid. (O & P) Given coordinates and a sectional, use the Standardized Latitude and Longitude Gird System to draw a search grid. (O & P) Objectives (Continued)

78 78 BAK North

79 79 BAK South

80 80 Electronic Aids to Navigation Automatic direction finder (ADF) Automatic direction finder (ADF) Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Range (VOR) Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Range (VOR) Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) Long Range Navigation (LORAN) Long Range Navigation (LORAN) Global Positioning System (GPS) Global Positioning System (GPS)

81 81 ADF Automatic Direction Finding Automatic Direction Finding Oldest system Oldest system Fair accuracy Fair accuracy Low cost Low cost Homing only Homing only Needle always points toward the station Aircraft headed North

82 82 Using ADF to Determine Position Automatic Direction Finding Automatic Direction Finding ADF ADF Oldest system Oldest system Fair accuracy Fair accuracy Low cost Low cost Homing only Homing only

83 83 VOR Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Ranging Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Ranging VOR VOR Very common Very common Most air routes defined by VORs Most air routes defined by VORs Good Accuracy Good Accuracy VOR provides heading and course deviation indication Radial

84 84 VOR (Continued)

85 85 VOR (Continued)

86 86 Using the VOR to Determine Position Turn the OBS knob until the needle centers with a FROM flag Turn the OBS knob until the needle centers with a FROM flag Read the bearing from the station directly at the top Read the bearing from the station directly at the top Plot the bearing on the chart Plot the bearing on the chart

87 87 Keeping Track of Position

88 88 DME Distance Measuring Equipment Distance Measuring Equipment TACAN or VORTAC TACAN or VORTAC Very Accurate when flying directly towards Very Accurate when flying directly towards Slant range Ground Range

89 89 DME

90 90 LORAN Low Frequency Low Frequency Omnidirectional Omnidirectional Radio Radio Aided Aided Navigation Navigation Accurate Accurate Aircraft & Ships Aircraft & Ships Susceptible to precipitation; western coverage spotty Susceptible to precipitation; western coverage spotty

91 91 GPS Global Positioning System Global Positioning System 24 Satellites 24 Satellites GPS receiver GPS receiver Very accurate Very accurate

92 92 Position Determination Sectional or Map Sectional or Map Work from larger to smaller Work from larger to smaller Work from a known location to present location Work from a known location to present location Watch the scale on maps Watch the scale on maps Remain suspicious if all points don’t seem to line up right Remain suspicious if all points don’t seem to line up right Use groups of 3 characteristics to verify position Use groups of 3 characteristics to verify position

93 93 Sectional Aeronautical Charts 1 to 500,000 1 to 500,000 Medium to slow speed aircraft Medium to slow speed aircraft Types of Information: Legend, Aeronautical, Topographical Types of Information: Legend, Aeronautical, Topographical

94 94 Standardized Lat/Long Grid System This system does not require special numbering This system does not require special numbering Lat-long of lower right corner defines the grid (latitude first) Lat-long of lower right corner defines the grid (latitude first) Letters are used to define sub-grids Letters are used to define sub-grids W W N N AB C B C D 36/102 AA N W W A B C D 36/102 ADB

95 95 Know Your Chart Symbols

96 96 Search Planning and Coverage

97 97 In basic terms, discuss how search planners determine the Maximum Area of Probability and then the Probability Area. (O) In basic terms, discuss how search planners determine the Maximum Area of Probability and then the Probability Area. (O) Given a POD table, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various search altitudes and speeds over the three major types of terrain. (O) Given a POD table, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various search altitudes and speeds over the three major types of terrain. (O) Discuss the importance of proper execution of search patterns. (O) Discuss the importance of proper execution of search patterns. (O) Optional – Review POD example Optional – Review POD example Objectives

98 98 Narrowing the Search Search Involves Search Involves Estimating the position of the wreck or survivors Estimating the position of the wreck or survivors Determining the area to be searched Determining the area to be searched Selecting the search techniques to be used Selecting the search techniques to be used Maximum Possibility Area Maximum Possibility Area Circle around the Last Known Position (LKP) Circle around the Last Known Position (LKP) The radius is equal to the endurance of the aircraft The radius is equal to the endurance of the aircraft Correct for wind Correct for wind Probability Area Probability Area Where is the aircraft likely to be Where is the aircraft likely to be

99 99 Search Factors Factors which effect detection Factors which effect detection Weather; terrain; lighting conditions Weather; terrain; lighting conditions Sweep Width (W) Sweep Width (W) Track Spacing (S) Track Spacing (S) Coverage Factor (C) Coverage Factor (C) Probability of Detection (P) Probability of Detection (P) Determine factors for search area coverage Determine factors for search area coverage Type and number of aircraft available Type and number of aircraft available Search visibility Search visibility Probability Of Detection (POD) Probability Of Detection (POD)

100 100 Determining the Maximum Possibility Area LKP Corrected for wind Wind vector No Wind Endurance Maximum possibility area Flight level winds: 330/20 Aircraft Speed: 100 Kts Endurance: 2 Hours 200 NM 40NM

101 101 Probability Area Where was the last point where radar had the aircraft identified? Where was the last point where radar had the aircraft identified? Is there an ELT? Is there an ELT? Was there a flight plan (even if not on file with the FAA)? Was there a flight plan (even if not on file with the FAA)? Dead reckoning from LKP and heading Dead reckoning from LKP and heading Reports of sightings Reports of sightings Other aircraft Other aircraft People living along the intended route of flight People living along the intended route of flight

102 102 Narrowing the Probability Area Flight plan Flight plan Weather information Weather information National Track Analysis Program data National Track Analysis Program data Airports along the intended flight track Airports along the intended flight track Aircraft performance Aircraft performance Pilots flying habits Pilots flying habits Radar coverage as a limiting factor Radar coverage as a limiting factor Nature of terrain along the flight track Nature of terrain along the flight track Position reports — fuel stops, etc. Position reports — fuel stops, etc. Most likely within 5 miles of intended track Most likely within 5 miles of intended track

103 103 Search Priorities Areas of bad weather Areas of bad weather Low clouds and poor visibility Low clouds and poor visibility Areas where weather was not as forecast Areas where weather was not as forecast High terrain High terrain Areas not covered by radar Areas not covered by radar Reports of low flying aircraft Reports of low flying aircraft Survival factors Survival factors Radio contacts or MAYDAY calls Radio contacts or MAYDAY calls

104 104 Probability of Detection (POD) POD expressed as a “percent” search object was detected POD expressed as a “percent” search object was detected Four interrelated factors used to calculate: Four interrelated factors used to calculate: Track Spacing Track Spacing Search Visibility Search Visibility Search Altitude Search Altitude Type of Terrain Type of Terrain Cumulative POD calculated using a chart Cumulative POD calculated using a chart “Effectiveness” must also be considered “Effectiveness” must also be considered

105 105 POD Table

106 106 POD Chart - Detail 500 Feet 0.5 nm35%60%75% Feet 0.5 nm40%60%75%80% ,000 Feet 0.5 nm40%65%80%85% OPEN, FLAT TERRAIN SEARCH ALTITUDE (AGL) Track Spacing SEARCH VISIBILITY 1 mi 2 mi 3 mi 4 mi

107 107 Cumulative POD Chart 5-10% % % % % % % % % %11-20%21-30%31-40%41-50%51-60%61-70%71-80%80+% POD For This Search Previous POD

108 108 Electronic Search Patterns

109 109 Discuss the various types of ELTs. (O) Discuss the various types of ELTs. (O) Describe how an ELT can be detected. (O) Describe how an ELT can be detected. (O) Describe how the aircraft DF works in both the Alarm and DF modes. (O) Describe how the aircraft DF works in both the Alarm and DF modes. (O) Discuss using the DF during a typical ELT search (O) Discuss using the DF during a typical ELT search (O) Response during initial phase, including signal fade Response during initial phase, including signal fade Response when getting close Response when getting close Response as you pass over the beacon Response as you pass over the beacon Objectives

110 110 Describe the following ELT search methods: (O) Describe the following ELT search methods: (O) Homing Homing Wing null Wing null Aural Aural Signal Signal Discuss signal reflection and interference. (O) Discuss signal reflection and interference. (O) Describe how to silence an ELT and the legal issues involved. (O) Describe how to silence an ELT and the legal issues involved. (O) Objectives (Continued)

111 111 Emergency Locator Transmitter Direction Finding for Aircrews Use Of Equipment Commonly Found In CAP Aircraft N98987

112 112 Objective the Elusive ELT Automatic radio beacon (100 milliwatts) Automatic radio beacon (100 milliwatts) Roughly equal to that of a regular flashlight Roughly equal to that of a regular flashlight Can be heard on a line-of-sight basis. Can be heard on a line-of-sight basis. Remember that the ELT may be attached to an aircraft or vessel in distress! Remember that the ELT may be attached to an aircraft or vessel in distress!

113 113 Activated by g-force (when armed) Activated by g-force (when armed) Some can be activated by the pilot in the cockpit Some can be activated by the pilot in the cockpit Three frequencies: Three frequencies: MHz (VHF emergency) MHz (VHF emergency) 243 MHz (UHF emergency – military guard) 243 MHz (UHF emergency – military guard) MHz (third generation advanced ELT/EPIRB/PLB) MHz (third generation advanced ELT/EPIRB/PLB) General types: General types: General aviation aircraft General aviation aircraft Military (“beepers” or “beacons”) Military (“beepers” or “beacons”) Marine EPIRB Marine EPIRB Test station (training practice beacon) Test station (training practice beacon) Advanced (406) Advanced (406) The ELT

114 114 ELT Aircraft Antenna

115 115 Most Aircraft Have ELTs Installed But they don’t always survive a crash

116 116 Most Aircraft Have ELTs Installed But they don’t always survive a crash

117 117 Most common type is the URT-33/C Most common type is the URT-33/C Personnel ejecting/parachuting will have a 243 MHz beacon Personnel ejecting/parachuting will have a 243 MHz beacon Some downed pilots may be able to communicate via two- way radio on 243 MHz using a PRC-90 or later military survival radio Some downed pilots may be able to communicate via two- way radio on 243 MHz using a PRC-90 or later military survival radio Beacon mode transmits like an ELT on 243 MHz Beacon mode transmits like an ELT on 243 MHz Military Beacons

118 118 Personal Locator Beacon (PLB) or Personal Emergency Transmitter (PET): Personal Locator Beacon (PLB) or Personal Emergency Transmitter (PET): Intended for hikers and other remote wilderness travelers Intended for hikers and other remote wilderness travelers Use a 406 MHz transmitter and a MHz homing signal (at only 25 milliwatts) Use a 406 MHz transmitter and a MHz homing signal (at only 25 milliwatts) Many are also equipped with a built-in GPS receiver that provides lat/long coordinates Many are also equipped with a built-in GPS receiver that provides lat/long coordinates Each PLB must be registered Each PLB must be registered [See discussion of Advanced ELTs] [See discussion of Advanced ELTs] Personal Beacons

119 119 Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon Similar to an ELT, an EPIRB is used on ships and boats Similar to an ELT, an EPIRB is used on ships and boats Mandatory on certain commercial vessels Mandatory on certain commercial vessels Some activate automatically and others are manually activated Some activate automatically and others are manually activated Marine EPIRB

120 120 Designed to operate with SARSAT/COSPAS Designed to operate with SARSAT/COSPAS MHz beacons have data burst encoding that identifies each (registered) individual beacon MHz beacons have data burst encoding that identifies each (registered) individual beacon Also produces a MHz homing signal and may transmit GPS coordinates Also produces a MHz homing signal and may transmit GPS coordinates Sends a coded signal that can be used to obtain the owner's name, address and type of aircraft, so AFRCC can call the number to see if the aircraft is really missing (70% resolved) Sends a coded signal that can be used to obtain the owner's name, address and type of aircraft, so AFRCC can call the number to see if the aircraft is really missing (70% resolved) Advanced ELTs

121 121 Advanced ELTs (Continued) Since geostationary satellites process the signal it will be heard more quickly and allow a much faster response (~ 6 hours). If the unit has a GPS receiver, it can transmit lat/long coordinates to further speed the search. The signal can also penetrate dense cover (e.g., trees). Since geostationary satellites process the signal it will be heard more quickly and allow a much faster response (~ 6 hours). If the unit has a GPS receiver, it can transmit lat/long coordinates to further speed the search. The signal can also penetrate dense cover (e.g., trees). Still very expensive (~ three times as much as a MHz ELT) Still very expensive (~ three times as much as a MHz ELT)

122 122 Training Practice Beacons Training Practice Beacons Includes ones used by CAP Includes ones used by CAP All should be converted from to MHz by now (if it isn ’ t, don ’ t use it) All should be converted from to MHz by now (if it isn ’ t, don ’ t use it) During practice searches, avoid calling the practice beacon an ‘ ELT ’ when communicating over the radio During practice searches, avoid calling the practice beacon an ‘ ELT ’ when communicating over the radio May cause confusion May cause confusion Always use the term ‘ Practice Beacon ’ Always use the term ‘ Practice Beacon ’ Practice Beacon

123 123 Can test the aircraft ’ s ELT within the first five minutes after each hour Can test the aircraft ’ s ELT within the first five minutes after each hour Only allowed up to three sweeps Only allowed up to three sweeps When was the last time you tested the ELT in your aircraft? When was the last time you tested the ELT in your aircraft? Do you regularly monitor MHz after you land? Do you regularly monitor MHz after you land? Ensure your ELT didn’t activate Ensure your ELT didn’t activate This isn’t considered a test, by the way, but you can try this excuse if you like This isn’t considered a test, by the way, but you can try this excuse if you like Testing an Aircraft ELT

124 124 Excessively hard landings (Welcome aboard, Ensign!) Excessively hard landings (Welcome aboard, Ensign!) Inadvertent change of switch position Inadvertent change of switch position During removal/installation During removal/installation Malfunction Malfunction Non-ELT source on MHz (computers, broadcast stations, even pizza ovens!) Non-ELT source on MHz (computers, broadcast stations, even pizza ovens!) Monsieur Murphy Monsieur Murphy Inadvertent Activation

125 125 Approximately 97% of received ELT signals are false alarms Approximately 97% of received ELT signals are false alarms For MHz ELTs abut 1 in 1000 are actual emergencies For MHz ELTs abut 1 in 1000 are actual emergencies (2 in 100 composite alerts) For 406 MHz ELTs abut 1 in 10 are actual emergencies For 406 MHz ELTs abut 1 in 10 are actual emergencies What ’ s the big deal? What ’ s the big deal? SARSAT can only monitor 10 ELTs at once SARSAT can only monitor 10 ELTs at once Easy to overload the system Easy to overload the system They block emergency communications on and 243 MHz (guarded by towers, ARTCC, and the military) They block emergency communications on and 243 MHz (guarded by towers, ARTCC, and the military) False Alarms

126 126

127 127 Detection Timeline

128 128 For a regular MHz beacon: For a regular MHz beacon: Said to be a nautical mile radius (~ 452 square nm) Said to be a nautical mile radius (~ 452 square nm) Actually an oval shape with a 50% probability of being 15 nm wide and 7 nm high Actually an oval shape with a 50% probability of being 15 nm wide and 7 nm high System is more accurate North to South (latitude) System is more accurate North to South (latitude) Average six-hour detection/alert Average six-hour detection/alert For a 406 MHz beacon it ’ s a 1-3 nm radius (~ 12.4 square nm) with 45 – 60 minute detection/alert For a 406 MHz beacon it ’ s a 1-3 nm radius (~ 12.4 square nm) with 45 – 60 minute detection/alert For a 406 MHz beacon with GPS it ’ s a 0.05 nm radius (within 100 yards) with an average five-minute detection/alert For a 406 MHz beacon with GPS it ’ s a 0.05 nm radius (within 100 yards) with an average five-minute detection/alert Accuracy of SARSAT/COSPAS

129 129 AS AN EMERGENCY! AS AN EMERGENCY! Its not possible to know whether an ELT signal is a distress signal or a false alarm Its not possible to know whether an ELT signal is a distress signal or a false alarm Although the statistics are against it, you must act as though it is a distress call Although the statistics are against it, you must act as though it is a distress call If you take advantage of them, every ELT mission allow you to keep your skills sharp! If you take advantage of them, every ELT mission allow you to keep your skills sharp! So how should I treat an ELT Mission?

130 130 Route or parallel track to pick up the signal Route or parallel track to pick up the signal If no SARSAT hits or definitive LKP: If no SARSAT hits or definitive LKP: 4,000 to 10,000 AGL 4,000 to 10,000 AGL Large track spacing (start at 60 nm, then do halves) Large track spacing (start at 60 nm, then do halves) Once signal is located, DF the signal Once signal is located, DF the signal Locating the ELT Signal

131 131 Direction Finder (DF) A direction finder compares signal strengths from two antenna patterns to let the user know: A direction finder compares signal strengths from two antenna patterns to let the user know: When you are “centered” on a signal When you are “centered” on a signal headed directly towards OR away from from the signal source headed directly towards OR away from from the signal source Which direction to turn when not centered Which direction to turn when not centered Similar to an ADF needle, but only points left or right, hence the term “left-right homing” Similar to an ADF needle, but only points left or right, hence the term “left-right homing”

132 132 L - Tronics DF Normal: Alarm toggle in ‘up’ position Normal: Alarm toggle in ‘up’ position DF: toggle is ‘down’ DF: toggle is ‘down’

133 133 DF Antenna These are mounted on the bottom, but may be on top.

134 134 Step 1 Acquire the Signal To hear the signal you can use your L-Tronics receiver or one of your comm radios To hear the signal you can use your L-Tronics receiver or one of your comm radios To acquire with a comm radio, turn the squelch OFF (pull out the volume knob out or flip the appropriate switch) To acquire with a comm radio, turn the squelch OFF (pull out the volume knob out or flip the appropriate switch) The static you hear may be annoying, but it will allow you to hear the signal at the earliest possible time The static you hear may be annoying, but it will allow you to hear the signal at the earliest possible time Allows for a weak or distant signal to be heard Allows for a weak or distant signal to be heard Proceed at a reasonable altitude to the SARSAT composite hit, or to the point designated by your incident commander Proceed at a reasonable altitude to the SARSAT composite hit, or to the point designated by your incident commander

135 135 NO SIGNAL SIGNALHEARD! ELT Beginning the Search Altitude Selection Higher altitudes allow for reception of the ELT signal at greater distances Higher altitudes allow for reception of the ELT signal at greater distances ELTs transmit on MHz and MHz, both of which limit reception to “line of sight” ELTs transmit on MHz and MHz, both of which limit reception to “line of sight” Terrain will block ELT signals Terrain will block ELT signals HIGHER is therefore usually BETTER to acquire a signal HIGHER is therefore usually BETTER to acquire a signal Medium altitude is generally better for searching (after signal heard) - 3,000 to 5,000 AGL Medium altitude is generally better for searching (after signal heard) - 3,000 to 5,000 AGL

136 136 Altitude Selection

137 Intersection Area

138 138 Step 2 Track (DF) the Signal There are many different ways to DF an ELT signal: There are many different ways to DF an ELT signal: Left-Right DF Homing (L-Tronics DF) Left-Right DF Homing (L-Tronics DF) Wing Shadow Method Wing Shadow Method Aural Search Aural Search Metered Search Metered Search Combinations of the above techniques Combinations of the above techniques

139 139 Wing Shadowing By flying the airplane in a circle, at some point the wing will block the ELT signal to the receiver antenna By flying the airplane in a circle, at some point the wing will block the ELT signal to the receiver antenna This causes an audible decrease in volume, called a “null” This causes an audible decrease in volume, called a “null” Almost any VHF-AM aircraft communications radio may be used with this method Almost any VHF-AM aircraft communications radio may be used with this method

140 140 Wing Shadowing Antennas To properly use the Wing Shadowing method, you MUST know where the antenna for the radio you are using is installed & located on the aircraft To properly use the Wing Shadowing method, you MUST know where the antenna for the radio you are using is installed & located on the aircraft Communications radio antennas are usually, but not always, located above the wings Communications radio antennas are usually, but not always, located above the wings Can be above the fuselage, in the tail, etc. Can be above the fuselage, in the tail, etc. L-Tronics Aircraft DF antennas may be above or below the aircraft L-Tronics Aircraft DF antennas may be above or below the aircraft Below the aircraft is the preferred installation Below the aircraft is the preferred installation

141 141 Communications Antennas Above the Wing N98987 Antennas Above the Wing

142 142 DF Antennas Below the Wing N98987 Antennas Below the Wing

143 143 How to DF by Wing Shadowing Fly a constant bank angle 360° turn Fly a constant bank angle 360° turn the audio will “null,” the audio will “null,” or get significantly quieter, or get significantly quieter, when your wing blocks the antenna’s reception of the ELT signal when your wing blocks the antenna’s reception of the ELT signal N S E W

144 144 Wing Shadowing-Signal Blocking For Antennas Above the Wings SIGNAL ELT NULL

145 145 Wing Shadowing Antennas Above the Wing Turn in a circle until you hear the null (significant decrease in volume) Turn in a circle until you hear the null (significant decrease in volume) The ELT is 90º to your LEFT The ELT is 90º to your LEFT SUBTRACT 90º from your heading SUBTRACT 90º from your heading N S E W ELT

146 146 Wing Shadowing-Signal Blocking For Antennas Below the Wings SIGNAL ELT NULL

147 147 Wing Shadowing Antennas Below the Wing Turn in a circle until you hear the null (significant decrease in volume) Turn in a circle until you hear the null (significant decrease in volume) The ELT is 90º to your RIGHT: ADD 90º to your heading The ELT is 90º to your RIGHT: ADD 90º to your heading N S E W ELT

148 148 Aural (Hearing) Search Method This is based on the assumption that the area of equal beacon signal strength is circular: do NOT adjust volume during this search; you will need it to determine equal levels of signal This is based on the assumption that the area of equal beacon signal strength is circular: do NOT adjust volume during this search; you will need it to determine equal levels of signal Begin by plotting your position as soon as you receive the ELT signal Begin by plotting your position as soon as you receive the ELT signal Fly that course for a short distance, then turn 90º left or right and proceed until the signal fades Fly that course for a short distance, then turn 90º left or right and proceed until the signal fades Turn around (180º) and mark where the signal fades on the other side of the circle Turn around (180º) and mark where the signal fades on the other side of the circle Plot chord lines similar to that of the diagram Plot chord lines similar to that of the diagram Bisect the chord lines at a perpendicular Bisect the chord lines at a perpendicular Plot a course to the location where the perpendicular lines intersect: this should be the location of the target! Plot a course to the location where the perpendicular lines intersect: this should be the location of the target!

149 149 Aural Search Equal signal strength circle: barely audible signal in aircraft receiver at search altitude chord 1 chord 2 chord 3 ELT commence low altitude pattern descending SIGNAL FADES SIGNAL HEARD SIGNAL HEARD SIGNAL HEARD SIGNAL FADES

150 150 Metered Search Build & Fade Method This search requires a signal strength meter (like that on the L- Tronics DF units-if the DF portion of the unit is inoperative you can still use this type of search as long as RECeive is OK. This search requires a signal strength meter (like that on the L- Tronics DF units-if the DF portion of the unit is inoperative you can still use this type of search as long as RECeive is OK. Note your signal strength when beginning the search. Note your signal strength when beginning the search. Fly a straight line until the signal gets lower, then increases to your original level. Fly a straight line until the signal gets lower, then increases to your original level. Turn 180º and return to the lowest level of signal, then turn 90º left or right. Turn 180º and return to the lowest level of signal, then turn 90º left or right. You should now be headed directly towards or away from the transmitter. You should now be headed directly towards or away from the transmitter. If the signal increases in strength, you are headed directly for the ELT. If the signal increases in strength, you are headed directly for the ELT. If the signal decreases in strength, turn 180º If the signal decreases in strength, turn 180º

151 151 FADE MAXIMUM SIGNAL MAXIMUM SIGNAL THEN DROP FIRST SIGNAL ELT Metered Search

152 152 Left-Right DF Homing Most CAP corporate aircraft have L-Tronics LA-Series Left-Right Homing DF units Most CAP corporate aircraft have L-Tronics LA-Series Left-Right Homing DF units These units operate virtually the same, but there are two major varieties: These units operate virtually the same, but there are two major varieties: Single Meter Models Single Meter Models Dual Meter Models Dual Meter Models

153 153 L - Tronics DF Types Single Meter Model Dual Meter Model L-Tronics ALARM OFF AUX   SENS  VOL VHF DF DF STRENGTH L-Tronics ALARM OFF   SENS  VOL VHF-DF AUX DF REC

154 154 Frequency Switch Selects frequency to be used Selects frequency to be used Use MHz for actual ELTs/EPIRBs Use MHz for actual ELTs/EPIRBs MHz may also be used for all actual electronic searches MHz may also be used for all actual electronic searches Use MHz for training Use MHz for training Refer to owners manual for use of the “AUX” position Refer to owners manual for use of the “AUX” position L-Tronics ALARM OFF   SENS  VOL VHF-DF AUX DF REC

155 155 Mode Switch Only Single-meter units have this switch Only Single-meter units have this switch Dual-meter units use two displays, so both REC and DF operate continuously and simultaneously Dual-meter units use two displays, so both REC and DF operate continuously and simultaneously REC is short for RECeive mode REC is short for RECeive mode REC makes the unit’s dial work as a strength meter REC makes the unit’s dial work as a strength meter DF is short for Direction Find DF is short for Direction Find DF gives left-right homing to the ELT/EPIRB signal DF gives left-right homing to the ELT/EPIRB signal ALARM is for NON-MISSION flights only ALARM is for NON-MISSION flights only Use only during normal flying to alert the presence of an ELT or EPIRB Use only during normal flying to alert the presence of an ELT or EPIRB L-Tronics ALARM OFF   SENS  VOL VHF-DF AUX DF REC

156 156 Volume & Sensitivity Volume controls the audio level to the speaker or headsets Volume controls the audio level to the speaker or headsets Sensitivity controls the amount of signal that enters into the DF unit Sensitivity controls the amount of signal that enters into the DF unit It is critical that the proper amount of signal enters the DF: half- scale, or the middle, is an optimum starting place It is critical that the proper amount of signal enters the DF: half- scale, or the middle, is an optimum starting place As the signal gets stronger, reduce SENSITIVITY, not volume As the signal gets stronger, reduce SENSITIVITY, not volume The DF will be unreliable as too much signal is received, so you must cut out part of it by reducing the sensitivity The DF will be unreliable as too much signal is received, so you must cut out part of it by reducing the sensitivity More than three-quarters scale is too much More than three-quarters scale is too much L-Tronics ALARM OFF AUX   SENS  VOL VHF DF DF STRENGTH

157 157 DF Settings For Single Meter Models MISSIONS MISSIONS Select (or for training missions) Select (or for training missions) Select DF Mode Select DF Mode Turn Sensitivity to Maximum (Full Clockwise) Turn Sensitivity to Maximum (Full Clockwise) Turn Volume to About Mid-Scale Turn Volume to About Mid-Scale DF Needle Will Move Slightly Left and Right DF Needle Will Move Slightly Left and Right NON-MISSION FLIGHTS NON-MISSION FLIGHTS Select Select Select Alarm Mode Select Alarm Mode Turn Sensitivity To Maximum Turn Sensitivity To Maximum

158 158 DF Settings For Dual Meter Models MISSIONS MISSIONS Select (or for training missions) Select (or for training missions) Ensure Alarm Toggle Off Ensure Alarm Toggle Off Turn Sensitivity to Maximum (Full Clockwise) Turn Sensitivity to Maximum (Full Clockwise) Turn Volume to About Mid-Scale Turn Volume to About Mid-Scale DF Should Stay About Centered DF Should Stay About Centered Strength Meter Will Move Up-Scale to Right Strength Meter Will Move Up-Scale to Right NON-MISSION FLIGHTS NON-MISSION FLIGHTS Select Select Turn Alarm Toggle On Turn Alarm Toggle On Turn Sensitivity To Maximum Turn Sensitivity To Maximum

159 159 Pre-Flight Functional Check Just as you pre-flight the rest of the aircraft, you should preflight your DF when going on an ELT electronic search mission Just as you pre-flight the rest of the aircraft, you should preflight your DF when going on an ELT electronic search mission These procedures are covered in the Mission Aircrew Reference Text. These procedures are covered in the Mission Aircrew Reference Text.

160 160 Six Steps Use these 6 steps for locating ELTs and EPIRBs with L-Tronics LA- series airborne DF equipment Use these 6 steps for locating ELTs and EPIRBs with L-Tronics LA- series airborne DF equipment Use the full procedure every time for the best results Use the full procedure every time for the best results RECeive RECeive HALF HALF DF DF TURN TURN CHECK CHECK SHOOT SHOOT Each of these steps will be described in detail in the slides to follow Each of these steps will be described in detail in the slides to follow

161 161 Step 1 - RECeive Once you have started to receive the ELT or EPIRB signal on the proper frequency Once you have started to receive the ELT or EPIRB signal on the proper frequency If you have a single-meter unit, turn the mode selector to RECeive and turn the volume to a comfortable level If you have a single-meter unit, turn the mode selector to RECeive and turn the volume to a comfortable level If you have a dual meter unit, refer to the STRENGTH window (no need to change modes) If you have a dual meter unit, refer to the STRENGTH window (no need to change modes)

162 162 RECeive Mode/Strength Window In receive mode or in the strength window, the unit measures signal strength In receive mode or in the strength window, the unit measures signal strength Needle to the left means low; to the right means high Needle to the left means low; to the right means high Values are relative depending on the sensitivity you have selected Values are relative depending on the sensitivity you have selected You may still be able to use the strength meter even if the DF is not functioning perfectly You may still be able to use the strength meter even if the DF is not functioning perfectly It is possible to locate an ELT using only the Receive Mode It is possible to locate an ELT using only the Receive Mode Utilize Aural Search/Metered Search methods to accomplish Utilize Aural Search/Metered Search methods to accomplish If the unit isn’t completely operable, try wing shadowing using one of the aircraft’s communications radios and use the DF unit’s strength meter as a backup using the aural/metered methods If the unit isn’t completely operable, try wing shadowing using one of the aircraft’s communications radios and use the DF unit’s strength meter as a backup using the aural/metered methods

163 163 Step 2: Half Now that the unit is in RECeive mode and you have a good signal, turn the Sensitivity Knob to HALF SCALE Now that the unit is in RECeive mode and you have a good signal, turn the Sensitivity Knob to HALF SCALE This is in the center of the window This is in the center of the window If you are flying with a dual-meter unit, turn the Sensitivity Knob so the needle reads HALF SCALE in the STRENGTH window If you are flying with a dual-meter unit, turn the Sensitivity Knob so the needle reads HALF SCALE in the STRENGTH window A half-scale strength reading will prevent too much signal (over sense) from entering the unit and will provide you with a good starting point A half-scale strength reading will prevent too much signal (over sense) from entering the unit and will provide you with a good starting point It is also the optimum for the DF homing antennas It is also the optimum for the DF homing antennas

164 164 Step 3: DF For single-meter units, turn the mode selector knob to DF For single-meter units, turn the mode selector knob to DF In DF mode, you can think of the needle as always pointing Direct to the Flipping target. In DF mode, you can think of the needle as always pointing Direct to the Flipping target. For dual-meter models, simply refer to the DF window (no need to change modes) For dual-meter models, simply refer to the DF window (no need to change modes)

165 A Direction Finding Primer Antenna Theory Antennas can be more or less directional depending on their design Imagine a car radio antenna: it is unidirectional Its pattern looks like the one on the left A Satellite Dish is highly directional It would have a pattern like the one on the right car radio antenna (monopole) satellite dish (parabolic reflector)

166 166 DF Antenna The aircraft DF unit has a 2 or 3 “element” antenna The aircraft DF unit has a 2 or 3 “element” antenna Commonly, we might call this two or three antennas Commonly, we might call this two or three antennas It just means there are two or three rods! It just means there are two or three rods! This antenna setup is directional This antenna setup is directional One element actually receives the signal One element actually receives the signal The other elements (rods) reflect the signal away from the first rod The other elements (rods) reflect the signal away from the first rod N98987 Antenna Elements

167 167 Antenna Reception Pattern When viewed from the bottom, an antenna setup like the one pictured on the previous slide produces a reception pattern like the one shown here When viewed from the bottom, an antenna setup like the one pictured on the previous slide produces a reception pattern like the one shown here This pattern is called “carotid,” which means “heart-shaped” This pattern is called “carotid,” which means “heart-shaped” The pattern is the same even if the antennas are mounted above the wing The pattern is the same even if the antennas are mounted above the wing Element 123

168 DF Unit Antenna Pattern AIRCRAFT VIEW TOP VIEW RECEIVING ELEMENT REFLECTOR ELEMENTS DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA PATTERN

169 169 Direction Finding Mode/Window The DF mode rapidly alternates the receiving and reflecting antenna elements The DF mode rapidly alternates the receiving and reflecting antenna elements It chooses one element as the receiver and the other two as the reflectors, then switches to the other set It chooses one element as the receiver and the other two as the reflectors, then switches to the other set This produces a carotid pattern each time the unit switches This produces a carotid pattern each time the unit switches one is shown in blue, the other in yellow one is shown in blue, the other in yellow By comparing the two patterns, the unit will determine when they are equal By comparing the two patterns, the unit will determine when they are equal When they’re equal, the needle centers! When they’re equal, the needle centers! When the needle is centered, the target is either directly ahead or behind you! When the needle is centered, the target is either directly ahead or behind you!

170 170 Step 4: Turn Turn at least one FULL circle, noting where the DF needle centers Turn at least one FULL circle, noting where the DF needle centers Under ideal conditions, the needle will center twice Under ideal conditions, the needle will center twice When facing directly at the source of the signal When facing directly at the source of the signal When facing 180º away from the target When facing 180º away from the target You will solve this problem (called ambiguity) in the next step You will solve this problem (called ambiguity) in the next step

171 171 DF Centers Alternating Antenna Patterns Alternating Antenna Patterns When The Patterns Are Equal, The DF Needle Centers! ELT (Possibility 1) ELT (Possibility 2)

172 172 Step 5: Check Use Turn to Tell Use Turn to Tell Remembering that in DF mode the needle always points Direct to the Flipping target Remembering that in DF mode the needle always points Direct to the Flipping target When you have the needle centered, turn left or right When you have the needle centered, turn left or right If you turn left and the needle goes left, the ELT is 180º from your present heading If you turn left and the needle goes left, the ELT is 180º from your present heading If you turn left and the needle turns right, the ELT is dead ahead If you turn left and the needle turns right, the ELT is dead ahead

173 173 Ambiguity ELT (Possibility 1) ELT (Possibility 2) When Needle Centers When Needle Centers ELT is Directly Ahead or Behind ELT is Directly Ahead or Behind This situation is called “ambiguity” This situation is called “ambiguity” To Solve ambiguity: To Solve ambiguity: Use Turn to Tell Use Turn to Tell Make a turn left or right Make a turn left or right The needle always points Direct to the Flipping Target (DF!) The needle always points Direct to the Flipping Target (DF!)

174 174 DF Needle ELT Compare the YELLOW (LEFT) and the BLUE (RIGHT) antenna patterns Compare the YELLOW (LEFT) and the BLUE (RIGHT) antenna patterns In this case, the LEFT pattern is stronger than the RIGHT In this case, the LEFT pattern is stronger than the RIGHT In DF mode, the needle would then point LEFT In DF mode, the needle would then point LEFT The needle always points Direct to the Flipping Target! The needle always points Direct to the Flipping Target!

175 175 Solving Ambiguity Actual ELT position is unknown to user Actual ELT position is unknown to user Make a small turn left or right Make a small turn left or right As a teaching reminder, “Use a TURN to TELL” As a teaching reminder, “Use a TURN to TELL” ELT (Possibility 1) ELT (Possibility 2)

176 176 Solving Ambiguity Actual ELT position is unknown to user Actual ELT position is unknown to user Make a small turn left or right Make a small turn left or right As a teaching reminder, “Use a TURN to TELL” As a teaching reminder, “Use a TURN to TELL” Example: Example: TURN LEFT TURN LEFT needle goes left needle goes left ELT (Possibility 1) ELT (Possibility 2)

177 177 Solving Ambiguity ELT (Possibility 2) Actual ELT position is unknown to user Actual ELT position is unknown to user Make a small turn left or right Make a small turn left or right As a teaching reminder, “Use a TURN to TELL” As a teaching reminder, “Use a TURN to TELL” Example: Example: TURN LEFT TURN LEFT If needle goes left If needle goes left ELT is to your left (behind you) ELT is to your left (behind you) ELT (Possibility 2)

178 178 Solving Ambiguity If you turn Left and the needle moves Right If you turn Left and the needle moves Right The ELT is in Front of you! The ELT is in Front of you! ELT (Possibility 1) ELT (Possibility 2)

179 179 Solving Ambiguity ELT (Possibility 1) ELT (Possibility 2) If you turn Left and the needle moves Right If you turn Left and the needle moves Right The ELT is in Front of you! The ELT is in Front of you! Example: Example: Turn left Turn left Needle goes right Needle goes right

180 180 Solving Ambiguity ELT (Possibility 1) Solution: Solution: If you turn Left and the needle moves Right If you turn Left and the needle moves Right The ELT is in Front of you! The ELT is in Front of you!

181 181 Step 6: Shoot Use your DG to determine a bearing to the target & follow it Use your DG to determine a bearing to the target & follow it You may need to fly through a zone of signal dropout You may need to fly through a zone of signal dropout Be watchful for signs of signal passage Be watchful for signs of signal passage If you get signal passage, consider using the “pinpointing the target” techniques listed in this presentation If you get signal passage, consider using the “pinpointing the target” techniques listed in this presentation Frequently repeat the full six steps to ensure you are heading in the right direction and that you didn’t inadvertently over fly the ELT Frequently repeat the full six steps to ensure you are heading in the right direction and that you didn’t inadvertently over fly the ELT N S E W

182 182 How a L - Tronics DF Unit Works -Summary- Two Main Modes of Operation Two Main Modes of Operation RECeive RECeive DF DF RECeive Mode is a Strength Meter RECeive Mode is a Strength Meter Left is low, right is high Left is low, right is high DF Mode Centers on Signal DF Mode Centers on Signal Always points to the signal Always points to the signal Use a Turn to Tell when solving ambiguity Use a Turn to Tell when solving ambiguity Aircraft and ground units work the same way Aircraft and ground units work the same way

183 183 Reflections Reflections of an ELT signal work just like a flashlight off of a mirror Reflections of an ELT signal work just like a flashlight off of a mirror Any flat, hard, or wet object can cause signal reflections Any flat, hard, or wet object can cause signal reflections Mountains, especially cliff faces Mountains, especially cliff faces Hangars and other metal structures Hangars and other metal structures Wet grass or snow Wet grass or snow Large bodies of water or ice Large bodies of water or ice Power lines can also have a large effect on a low- powered signal such as an ELT Power lines can also have a large effect on a low- powered signal such as an ELT

184 184 Beating Reflections Check your sensitivity at half-scale or lower Check your sensitivity at half-scale or lower But ensure that its high enough to receive adequate signal But ensure that its high enough to receive adequate signal Reflections will generally be weaker than the most direct path to the target Reflections will generally be weaker than the most direct path to the target Following reflections will generally take your closer to the target Following reflections will generally take your closer to the target If sensitivity is set to minimum, try DFing on a different frequency If sensitivity is set to minimum, try DFing on a different frequency For example, if you are trying to locate an actual ELT on MHz, try locating it on or MHz when you get close For example, if you are trying to locate an actual ELT on MHz, try locating it on or MHz when you get close When all else fails, fly somewhere else to get a good DF bearing-or try that at the first sign of problems! When all else fails, fly somewhere else to get a good DF bearing-or try that at the first sign of problems!

185 Beating Reflections m You don’t always need to hear the ELT or EPIRB to find it m A carrier-only signal may be broadcasting with no audible sweep m This is especially true with low or old batteries, damaged ELTs, or spurious transmissions m You can identify a carrier-only signal by DEFLECTION m If it looks like you’re finding an ELT, even if you can’t hear it, you have good DEFLECTION m Good needle deflection generally indicates a signal that is strong enough to DF

186 186 Carrier-Only Signals You don’t always need to hear the ELT or EPIRB to find it You don’t always need to hear the ELT or EPIRB to find it A carrier-only signal may be broadcasting with no audible sweep A carrier-only signal may be broadcasting with no audible sweep This is especially true with low or old batteries, damaged ELTs, or spurious transmissions This is especially true with low or old batteries, damaged ELTs, or spurious transmissions You can identify a carrier-only signal by DEFLECTION You can identify a carrier-only signal by DEFLECTION Good needle deflection generally indicates a signal that is strong enough to DF Good needle deflection generally indicates a signal that is strong enough to DF

187 Compare your deflection to another frequency Compare your deflection to another frequency If you are using MHz, try it on MHz If you are using MHz, try it on MHz If deflection is the same in both frequencies, you DON’T have a signal, just random noise If deflection is the same in both frequencies, you DON’T have a signal, just random noise If deflection is different, keep at it! You have the signal. If deflection is different, keep at it! You have the signal. If a signal is only received on 243 MHz, it may be a malfunctioning antenna (e.g., an FAA tower). If you DF to the location (particularly on or near an airport) and you keep ending up at an antenna, investigate. Find out who owns the antenna and its purpose. Inform the IC and let the controlling agency troubleshoot the problem. If a signal is only received on 243 MHz, it may be a malfunctioning antenna (e.g., an FAA tower). If you DF to the location (particularly on or near an airport) and you keep ending up at an antenna, investigate. Find out who owns the antenna and its purpose. Inform the IC and let the controlling agency troubleshoot the problem. 187 Carrier-Only Signals

188 188 Vertical Reflections and Signal Dropout The transmission pattern (similar to the reception pattern of the DF antennas, only for transmission) of an ELT is not a perfect circle or sphere The transmission pattern (similar to the reception pattern of the DF antennas, only for transmission) of an ELT is not a perfect circle or sphere It has lobes, or, stronger and weaker points It has lobes, or, stronger and weaker points This is accentuated when the ELT is transmitting from a location above the surrounding ground This is accentuated when the ELT is transmitting from a location above the surrounding ground When you get a good DF heading and the signal fades or drops out completely you may just be outside of one of the signal lobes When you get a good DF heading and the signal fades or drops out completely you may just be outside of one of the signal lobes When you reacquire the signal, it should be stronger than when you lost it When you reacquire the signal, it should be stronger than when you lost it

189 189 Signal Dropout NO SIGNAL SIGNALHEARD If you encounter a signal dropout, continue to fly on your last good DF heading If you encounter a signal dropout, continue to fly on your last good DF heading You should reacquire the signal in a few minutes You should reacquire the signal in a few minutes Actual time will depend upon your distance to the target Actual time will depend upon your distance to the target If you are unable to reacquire, return to where you last heard the signal and re-DF If you are unable to reacquire, return to where you last heard the signal and re-DF

190 190 Signal Strength The rate of change in signal strength increases as you get closer to the transmitter, and RECeive mode or the STRENGTH window measures signal strength The rate of change in signal strength increases as you get closer to the transmitter, and RECeive mode or the STRENGTH window measures signal strength This is due to Maxwell’s inverse square law: This is due to Maxwell’s inverse square law: When you double the distance from an object, the energy it you receive from it is 1/4 of what you originally received, or the inverse square: 1/(2 2 ) = 1/4 When you double the distance from an object, the energy it you receive from it is 1/4 of what you originally received, or the inverse square: 1/(2 2 ) = 1/4 After Scottish Physicist James Clerk Maxwell, After Scottish Physicist James Clerk Maxwell, You will therefore need to turn down the sensitivity to keep the unit at half scale in the RECeive mode or STRENGTH window much more often as you get close to the source of the signal You will therefore need to turn down the sensitivity to keep the unit at half scale in the RECeive mode or STRENGTH window much more often as you get close to the source of the signal This should let you know that you’re getting close This should let you know that you’re getting close

191 191 Signal Strength Rate of Change   SENS  VOL

192 192 “Cone of Confusion” Cone of Confusion Antennas receive best when the pole is perpendicular to the signal Antennas receive best when the pole is perpendicular to the signal When you approach the directly overhead position on an ELT, your DF will become unreliable When you approach the directly overhead position on an ELT, your DF will become unreliable It may swing left and right It may swing left and right It may center regardless of your heading It may center regardless of your heading You should practice to see what this “station passage” reading looks like You should practice to see what this “station passage” reading looks like It is similar to crossing a VOR It is similar to crossing a VOR

193 193 Reception in the “Cone of Silence” antenna signal GOOD POOR You may also get a significant drop in ELT signal since the antennas don’t receive well directly off of their tips You may also get a significant drop in ELT signal since the antennas don’t receive well directly off of their tips Although called a cone of silence, you will probably only see & hear a large decrease in signal instead of complete silence Although called a cone of silence, you will probably only see & hear a large decrease in signal instead of complete silence

194 194 Pinpointing the ELT If you get a station passage indication, make an approximate 180 degree turn and DF back to the target If you get a station passage indication, make an approximate 180 degree turn and DF back to the target Repeat this process using different approach angles each time, remembering that your path may be curved due to wind (like uncorrected NDB holding) Repeat this process using different approach angles each time, remembering that your path may be curved due to wind (like uncorrected NDB holding) The point where station passage is received several times should be the location of the target The point where station passage is received several times should be the location of the target 1 2 3

195 195 Pinpointing the ELT After you think you have the target located After you think you have the target located make a low pass over the suspected location and visually scan make a low pass over the suspected location and visually scan if signal strength decreases significantly or drops out, climb back and try again if signal strength decreases significantly or drops out, climb back and try again this is not the target: sometimes false targets will appear due to reflections or other interference this is not the target: sometimes false targets will appear due to reflections or other interference If you hear the ELT at low altitude, you probably have the right place If you hear the ELT at low altitude, you probably have the right place a low pass down a runway might be a good idea if you suspect a particular airport a low pass down a runway might be a good idea if you suspect a particular airport

196 Becker SAR-DF 517 Completely different theory of operation from L-Tronics DF Completely different theory of operation from L-Tronics DF Pseudo Doppler Shift Pseudo Doppler Shift Beyond the scope of this course Beyond the scope of this course The advanced ELT course has an explanation The advanced ELT course has an explanation Easy to use Easy to use Displays a delayed average heading to the beacon Displays a delayed average heading to the beacon Can be used on 121.5, 243.0, or MHz Can be used on 121.5, 243.0, or MHz Able to process newest ELTs, EPIRBs, & PLBs Able to process newest ELTs, EPIRBs, & PLBs

197 Becker Operation Power Mode Page Tune Squelch DF Locate

198 Power POWER Press the ON/OFF button—unit should power up and illuminate Be prepared to execute the next steps… If you’re not fast enough, you may need to recycle power (turn it off and back on)

199 Mode MODE Using the PAGE knob (upper right knob), select: EMERGENCY for an actual SAR or TRAINING for a training mission This setting can only be changed on power up Recycle power to change the Mode After setting EMERGENCY or TRAINING, just WAIT until the unit automatically goes to the next page The “wait time” is about 15 seconds Don’t push any buttons or turn any knobs during this period

200 Page Use the PAGE knob to cycle to desired page Page 1 is most like an ADF Page 2 is good for forward quarter only Page 3 is most easily read by the entire crew, but only in relative bearing

201 Tuning The lower-right +/- knob changes the frequency You want 121,500 for an actual SAR or 121,775 for training You can alternately use 243,000 or 243,550 respectively You will only be able to select training frequencies while in the training mode Similarly, you can only select actual SAR frequencies in the emergency mode 156,800 is for Marine Band Channel 16 EPIRBs Notice the commas: the Becker is made in Europe; the commas replace a decimal point

202 Squelch Adjust the squelch knob on the upper left of the unit Adjust the squelch knob on the upper left of the unit The squelch knob may be marked SQL or DIM (depending when your Becker was made) The squelch knob may be marked SQL or DIM (depending when your Becker was made) Adjust the small triangle arrow until it is pointing barely above the solid bar Adjust the small triangle arrow until it is pointing barely above the solid bar The solid bar represents static or ambient noise, but you will want to listen and make sure that the “static” is not actually a signal The solid bar represents static or ambient noise, but you will want to listen and make sure that the “static” is not actually a signal When trying to acquire a signal, you may want the squelch all the way down When trying to acquire a signal, you may want the squelch all the way down You may also want to do this to make sure you can hear audio from the Becker You may also want to do this to make sure you can hear audio from the Becker Turn the lower left knob to adjust the volume to a comfortable listening level Turn the lower left knob to adjust the volume to a comfortable listening level Squelch Knob Squelch Setting Triangle Ambient Noise Level

203 Direction Finding (DF) Follow the relative bearings to the ELT Follow the relative bearings to the ELT Use homing procedures like an ADF Use homing procedures like an ADF Correct for strong winds, if known Correct for strong winds, if known Remember that these are RELATIVE bearings with the nose of the aircraft being 360°/ 000° !!! Remember that these are RELATIVE bearings with the nose of the aircraft being 360°/ 000° !!! If you are showing a >006> that means turn right 6° If you are showing a >006> that means turn right 6° If the unit shows <354<, then turn LEFT 6° If the unit shows <354<, then turn LEFT 6° This is similar to a fixed-card ADF This is similar to a fixed-card ADF “Rub The Tub” RB + TH = TB “Rub The Tub” RB + TH = TB Relative Bearing + True Heading = True Bearing Relative Bearing + True Heading = True Bearing This is also true if we replace magnetic bearing and heading instead of the trues: RB + MH = MB This is also true if we replace magnetic bearing and heading instead of the trues: RB + MH = MB Therefore if the Becker DF indicates >010> and you are flying a 270° heading, the magnetic bearing of the ELT is 280°. Add right, subtract left. Therefore if the Becker DF indicates >010> and you are flying a 270° heading, the magnetic bearing of the ELT is 280°. Add right, subtract left.

204 Becker Direction Finding Notes The clear marbles indicate when the Becker first and last receives the ELT signal in its circle Watching the clear marbles will give you an indication of how coherent your DF solution is The marbles will always jump around; if they jump around a LOT you don’t have a good DF You can test this by seeing what your indications are when you reduce the squelch enough to “DF” static The clear marbles will jump all over the place Static can sometimes look like a carrier-only signal The dark marble should be fairly stable on an actual signal because of signal-averaging software >020> DARK MARBLE CLEAR MARBLES

205 Locate After flying over the ELT, you should get a “station passage” indication Turn around and re-DF to locate the target This is similar to locating with the L-Tronics DF If you keep the signal at 090 or 270, you can fly a “turn around a point” using the DF If the target isn’t visually significant, this will give your Scanner(s) the opportunity to put eyes on the target

206 Bearing on more than One Transmitter If bearing from a long distance, the DF will be pointing at the middle of the two transmitters This is because the Becker averages the signals it gets Exactly in the middle between two transmitters, the DF will display an unusable bearing value The clear marbles will swing WIDE (180 degrees or more) when in the middle of 2 averaged signals Exactly over one transmitter the DF will be pointing to another (garbling cone) Tactic for this situation: don’t fly the approach exactly following the indicated averaged bearing: fly about 20 degrees left or right

207 Becker Thoughts The Becker unit is not as sensitive as the L-Tronics DF, so you must be significantly closer to the ELT to get initial signal Because it uses averaging functions, it will not instantaneously point to an ELT like the L-Tronics unit—there is defnitely a delayed raction The displays on the Becker lead you to believe that it is a pseudo- RMI or ADF type pointer. This is not the case. Even when the complete circle (page 1) is displayed, the arrow only indicates left or right, NOT how much (such as an ADF). The same is true for the “pie” display, page 2 Look to the “dark marble” to indicate the relative direction of the signal; this acts as an ADF-type pointer

208 Becker Thoughts Look to the “dark marble” to indicate the relative direction of the signal; this acts as an ADF-type pointer If you do not have an operable training beacon to practice with, pick an AWOS, ASOS, or other continuously-transmitting source that is within the training frequency range. If you tune it in (see the manual, training mode only) you can DF it. A caution with this method, however, is that an AWOS transmits at least 250 times the power level of an ELT. This makes DFing an AWOS much easier than an ELT Be careful with the unit as it costs roughly $10,000. MAKE SURE THE UNIT IS OFF DURING ENGINE START/SHUTDOWN. Some installations have the DF independent of the avionics master and the unit is sensitive to surges from start/shutdown. The complete user manual is available at

209 209 After Locating the ELT After location, coordinate with ground teams to bring them on-scene After location, coordinate with ground teams to bring them on-scene Use radio communication and relay GPS coordinates Use radio communication and relay GPS coordinates Pick up the ground team at a predetermined location and lead them to the target Pick up the ground team at a predetermined location and lead them to the target Alternately, coordinate a pick up point on the radio Alternately, coordinate a pick up point on the radio Practice your air-to-ground coordination skills often Practice your air-to-ground coordination skills often try it both with and without radio communication try it both with and without radio communication Air-to-ground is CAP’s best unique ES skill! Air-to-ground is CAP’s best unique ES skill!

210 210 Many times the ELT is located at an airfield where it is easier for you to land and locate the ELT than it is to get a ground team to the scene Many times the ELT is located at an airfield where it is easier for you to land and locate the ELT than it is to get a ground team to the scene You can use a hand-held radio or hand-held DF unit You can use a hand-held radio or hand-held DF unit The most commonly used in CAP is the Little L-Per The most commonly used in CAP is the Little L-Per You did remember to put one of these (with charged batteries) in the aircraft before you left, didn ’ t you? You did remember to put one of these (with charged batteries) in the aircraft before you left, didn ’ t you? DF Upon Landing

211 211 Six Steps Six Steps Receive Receive Half Half DF DF Center Center Turn Turn Shoot Shoot Little L - Per

212 212 You land at an airport with multiple hangars and each hangar is full of aircraft You land at an airport with multiple hangars and each hangar is full of aircraft This can make it difficult to find the ELT This can make it difficult to find the ELT Two methods can help: Two methods can help: Signal-offset Signal-offset Using a hand-held radio without its antenna Using a hand-held radio without its antenna If the suspect aircraft has an external DF antenna and you can ’ t get inside to turn the ELT off, try placing an aluminum foil ‘ sleeve ’ over the antenna to see if the signal strength decreases significantly If the suspect aircraft has an external DF antenna and you can ’ t get inside to turn the ELT off, try placing an aluminum foil ‘ sleeve ’ over the antenna to see if the signal strength decreases significantly Which of these planes is it in?

213 213 Signal-offset: reflected signals are generally weaker so by tuning your radio further away from the primary frequency you can isolate the signal: Signal-offset: reflected signals are generally weaker so by tuning your radio further away from the primary frequency you can isolate the signal: Assume ELT transmitting on 121.5; set to Assume ELT transmitting on 121.5; set to As you home in set in (you may even work up to 121.7) As you home in set in (you may even work up to 121.7) As you get further away from the area where the signal will break through the squelch becomes smaller and smaller (you can even turn up the squelch to get further isolation) As you get further away from the area where the signal will break through the squelch becomes smaller and smaller (you can even turn up the squelch to get further isolation) Which of these planes is it in? (Continued)

214 214 Using a hand-held radio without its antenna: Using a hand-held radio without its antenna: Once you’ve narrowed the suspects down to one or two aircraft (usually side-by-side), remove the radio’s antenna and hold it next to one of the ELT antennas Once you’ve narrowed the suspects down to one or two aircraft (usually side-by-side), remove the radio’s antenna and hold it next to one of the ELT antennas Turn the volume down until you just hear the signal Turn the volume down until you just hear the signal Don’t key the radio’s transmitter with the antenna removed! Don’t key the radio’s transmitter with the antenna removed! Move to the other aircraft’s ELT antenna Move to the other aircraft’s ELT antenna If the signal is stronger you probably have it; if weaker, its probably the other aircraft If the signal is stronger you probably have it; if weaker, its probably the other aircraft May also put an aluminum foil ‘sleeve’ over the antenna May also put an aluminum foil ‘sleeve’ over the antenna Can also combine this with the signal-offset method Can also combine this with the signal-offset method Which of these planes is it in? (Continued)

215 Use Little L-Per or… Use Body Shielding With any hand held aviation band radio, you can locate an ELT A Jetstream radio also works great Same concept as wing null method, you are just using your body to block the signal to the antenna When you get very close, there will be too much signal to get a null Use Frequency Offset Method—try instead of As you home in, tune in 121.6—you can tune further away the closer you get Which of these planes is it in? (Continued)

216 How to Body Shield - The Null NULL! ELT No Signal To Your Receiver The Sound Gets Softer! The ELT Is Directly To Your Back Throw your thumb over your shoulder to point to the ELT SIGNAL

217 Once you’ve narrowed the suspects down to one or two aircraft (usually side-by-side), remove the radio’s antenna and hold it next to one of the ELT antennas Once you’ve narrowed the suspects down to one or two aircraft (usually side-by-side), remove the radio’s antenna and hold it next to one of the ELT antennas Turn the volume down until you just hear the signal Turn the volume down until you just hear the signal Don’t key the radio’s transmitter with the antenna removed Don’t key the radio’s transmitter with the antenna removed Move to the other aircraft’s ELT antenna Move to the other aircraft’s ELT antenna If the signal is stronger you probably have it; if weaker, its probably the other aircraft If the signal is stronger you probably have it; if weaker, its probably the other aircraft May also put an aluminum foil ‘sleeve’ over the antenna May also put an aluminum foil ‘sleeve’ over the antenna Can also combine this with the frequency-offset method Can also combine this with the frequency-offset method Airmobile UDF Team 101

218 218 ELTs are usually located in or near the rear of the aircraft. Also look for remote switches. ELTs are usually located in or near the rear of the aircraft. Also look for remote switches. Single-engine Cessna: right side of the upper baggage area immediately aft of the baggage door Single-engine Cessna: right side of the upper baggage area immediately aft of the baggage door Multi-engine Cessna: left side of the fuselage just forward of the horizontal stabilizer. Accessed through a small push-plate on the side of the fuselage. Multi-engine Cessna: left side of the fuselage just forward of the horizontal stabilizer. Accessed through a small push-plate on the side of the fuselage. Single- and multi-engine Piper: in the aft fuselage. Accessed through a small access plate on the right side of the fuselage. Single- and multi-engine Piper: in the aft fuselage. Accessed through a small access plate on the right side of the fuselage. Single- and multi-engine Bonanza: in the aft fuselage. Accessed through a small access plate on the right side of the fuselage. Single- and multi-engine Bonanza: in the aft fuselage. Accessed through a small access plate on the right side of the fuselage. Large piston twins (e.g., King Air) and small jets: if installed its probably in the rear section. No visible antenna. May have a small round push-plate that lets you manipulate the ELT switch. Large piston twins (e.g., King Air) and small jets: if installed its probably in the rear section. No visible antenna. May have a small round push-plate that lets you manipulate the ELT switch. Where is the thing?

219 219 The preferred method is to have the owner (or someone designated by the owner) turn it off and disconnect the battery The preferred method is to have the owner (or someone designated by the owner) turn it off and disconnect the battery Second best is to just turn it off Second best is to just turn it off The owner may take the switch to ‘Off’ and then back to ‘Armed’ The owner may take the switch to ‘Off’ and then back to ‘Armed’ If this is done, stick around and monitor to ensure it doesn’t go off again If this is done, stick around and monitor to ensure it doesn’t go off again If you can ’ t find the owner, you may have to build a foil ‘ tent ’ (refer to CAPP-2) If you can ’ t find the owner, you may have to build a foil ‘ tent ’ (refer to CAPP-2) Silencing the ELT

220 220 Silencing the ELT (Continued) Foil Tent Foil Tent 1’ x 5’ 1’ x 5’ Encloses antenna Encloses antenna Flaps at least 18” beyond antenna on fuselage Flaps at least 18” beyond antenna on fuselage Securely taped (masking tape preferred) Securely taped (masking tape preferred)

221 221 Ensure that the owner is notified that the ELT was disabled Ensure that the owner is notified that the ELT was disabled If you can ’ t get a phone number, you can place a note on the aircraft (not the window) If you can ’ t get a phone number, you can place a note on the aircraft (not the window) Silencing the ELT (Continued)

222 222 Per CAPR 60-1 Chapter 1, CAP members will not enter private property and should not do anything that could cause harm or damage to the distress beacon or aircraft/boat Per CAPR 60-1 Chapter 1, CAP members will not enter private property and should not do anything that could cause harm or damage to the distress beacon or aircraft/boat Entry to the ELT should be made by the owner or operator or law enforcement Entry to the ELT should be made by the owner or operator or law enforcement A transmitting ELT is under the legal authority of the FCC, and federal law requires that it be deactivated ASAP (a crashed aircraft is under the authority of the NTSB) A transmitting ELT is under the legal authority of the FCC, and federal law requires that it be deactivated ASAP (a crashed aircraft is under the authority of the NTSB) CAP members do not have the authority to trespass onto private property, either to gain access to the aircraft or to enter the aircraft to gain access to the ELT CAP members do not have the authority to trespass onto private property, either to gain access to the aircraft or to enter the aircraft to gain access to the ELT Besides the owner/operator, some owners give FBO personnel permission to enter their aircraft Besides the owner/operator, some owners give FBO personnel permission to enter their aircraft Legal Issues

223 223 While entry upon private property may be justified if such an act is for the purpose of saving life, every effort should be made to obtain the controlling agency's and/or the property owner's consent While entry upon private property may be justified if such an act is for the purpose of saving life, every effort should be made to obtain the controlling agency's and/or the property owner's consent If you need entry onto private property in order to search for an ELT, law enforcement authorities such as local police, the county sheriff's office or game wardens may be contacted for assistance. If you need entry onto private property in order to search for an ELT, law enforcement authorities such as local police, the county sheriff's office or game wardens may be contacted for assistance. Legal Issues (Continued)

224 224 Normally, local law enforcement officials are happy to assist you; if they are not familiar with CAP and your responsibilities, a simple explanation often suffices Normally, local law enforcement officials are happy to assist you; if they are not familiar with CAP and your responsibilities, a simple explanation often suffices If this doesn't work, try calling AFRCC and have them explain the situation If this doesn't work, try calling AFRCC and have them explain the situation The most important aspect is the manner in which you approach the matter The most important aspect is the manner in which you approach the matter The local civil authorities are in charge, if they tell you go home, then phone the IC and/or AFRCC and close the mission The local civil authorities are in charge, if they tell you go home, then phone the IC and/or AFRCC and close the mission Legal Issues (Continued)

225 225 Visual Search Patterns and Procedures

226 226 Plan and describe how to fly the following search patterns: Plan and describe how to fly the following search patterns: Route (track crawl) (O) Route (track crawl) (O) Parallel track (sweep) (O) Parallel track (sweep) (O) Creeping line (O) Creeping line (O) Point-based (expanding square and sector) (O) Point-based (expanding square and sector) (O) Discuss how to plan and fly a Contour Search Pattern (O) Discuss how to plan and fly a Contour Search Pattern (O) Objectives

227 227 “ Hey! Wait a minute. This is stupid. ” “ Hey! Wait a minute. This is stupid. ” Do my headings, waypoints, lat/long coordinates, and distances look sensible Do my headings, waypoints, lat/long coordinates, and distances look sensible Perform: Perform: After planning After planning When you start your pattern When you start your pattern Periodically thereafter Periodically thereafter The “Stupid Check”

228 228 The following examples and worksheets are covered to aid in pre-planning a search pattern The following examples and worksheets are covered to aid in pre-planning a search pattern Designed for non-moving map GPS, but include all the information you need to set up the GX55 Designed for non-moving map GPS, but include all the information you need to set up the GX55 Advantages of pre-planning: Advantages of pre-planning: Sets the details of the sortie in your mind Sets the details of the sortie in your mind Makes entering data (correctly) into your GPS easier Makes entering data (correctly) into your GPS easier Allows pilot and observer to concentrate on their primary task by minimizing navaid setup time and reducing confusion Allows pilot and observer to concentrate on their primary task by minimizing navaid setup time and reducing confusion Examples

229 229 One minute latitude = nm One minute latitude = nm Fly one minute north or south, cover one nautical mile (a 1-nm leg width) Fly one minute north or south, cover one nautical mile (a 1-nm leg width) One minute longitude = anywhere from to nm in the continental U.S. One minute longitude = anywhere from to nm in the continental U.S. Means you ’ ll have to fly anywhere from 1.1 – 1.4 minutes of longitude (east or west) to cover one nautical mile Means you ’ ll have to fly anywhere from 1.1 – 1.4 minutes of longitude (east or west) to cover one nautical mile Not hard to do, but for training we will use one minute = one mile, even though we ’ ll be flying less than 1-nm leg widths Not hard to do, but for training we will use one minute = one mile, even though we ’ ll be flying less than 1-nm leg widths To get the relationship in your area, go to To get the relationship in your area, go to Latitude, Longitude And Distance (And The GPS)

230 230 Route Search Track of missing aircraft 1/2 S Track of search aircraft

231 231 Assume we ’ re searching for an aircraft along Highway 46, between Columbus and Greensburg: Assume we ’ re searching for an aircraft along Highway 46, between Columbus and Greensburg: Draw the route on the worksheet Draw the route on the worksheet Include significant turns in the highway and other identifiers such as towns, airports and major intersections Include significant turns in the highway and other identifiers such as towns, airports and major intersections Search two miles either side of the highway Search two miles either side of the highway Route Search Example

232 232 Route Search Worksheet Example

233 233 Parallel Track Search

234 234 Assume we ’ re searching STL #104-D for a missing aircraft: Assume we ’ re searching STL #104-D for a missing aircraft: Quarter-grid, 7.5' x 7.5' Quarter-grid, 7.5' x 7.5' Enter the northeast corner Enter the northeast corner One nm track spacing One nm track spacing North/South legs North/South legs No aircraft assigned to adjacent grids No aircraft assigned to adjacent grids Grid Search Example

235 235 Grid Search Worksheet Example m GX55 Data m Type Grid & Sectional: US, STL m Pattern: Parallel Line m Grid: 104D2 m Spacing: 1 nm m Direction of Travel: N/S

236 236 Creeping Line Search sssss Direction of Search

237 237 Assume we ’ re searching for an aircraft along Highway 31: Assume we ’ re searching for an aircraft along Highway 31: Draw the route on the worksheet Draw the route on the worksheet Start at the intersection of Hwy 31/9 (southeast of Columbus) Start at the intersection of Hwy 31/9 (southeast of Columbus) Stop at the intersection of Hwy 31/50 (east of Seymour) Stop at the intersection of Hwy 31/50 (east of Seymour) Search three miles either side of Hwy 31 Search three miles either side of Hwy 31 1-nm track spacing 1-nm track spacing Creeping Line Search Example

238 238 Creeping Line Search Worksheet Example

239 239 Assume we ’ re searching for an aircraft along the extended runway centerline of BMG runway 06: Assume we ’ re searching for an aircraft along the extended runway centerline of BMG runway 06: Draw the route on the worksheet Draw the route on the worksheet Search 10 nm beyond the end of runway 06 (southwest) Search 10 nm beyond the end of runway 06 (southwest) Search three miles either side of the extended centerline Search three miles either side of the extended centerline 1-nm track spacing 1-nm track spacing Creeping Line Search Example (CDI Method)

240 240 Creeping Line Search Worksheet Example (CDI) m GX55 Data m Type Grid & Sectional: US, STL m Pattern: Creeping Line m Starting Waypoint: BMG m Spacing: 1 nm m Direction of Travel: 060º m Leg Length: 3 nm m Start Side: Right

241 241 Expanding Square Search (Second Pass Rotated 45°) 4SS 2S 3S5S 4S 2S 3S 5S

242 242 Assume we ’ re searching for a missing ultra-light: Assume we ’ re searching for a missing ultra-light: Draw the route on the worksheet Draw the route on the worksheet Center is a 483 AGL tower approximately 8 nm west of Seymour Center is a 483 AGL tower approximately 8 nm west of Seymour Use cardinal headings, starting to the north Use cardinal headings, starting to the north Expanding Square Search Example

243 243 Expanding Square Search Worksheet Example m GX55 Data m Type Grid & Sectional: US, STL m Pattern: Expanding Square m Starting Waypoint: N 38º 59´ W 86º 10´ m Spacing: 1 nm m Direction of Travel: 000º

244 244 Sector Search Sector search is easier to fly than expanding square The pattern provides concentrated coverage near the center of the area This pattern is used when an electronic search has led the crew to a general area to find the exact location visually The pattern and headings are planned in advance S max S mean

245 245 Contour Search This is a difficult and dangerous pattern to fly. Requires special training such as the Mountain Flying course.

246 246 Stepping Through a Typical Mission

247 247 Discuss the items you should check before leaving on a mission: (P) Discuss the items you should check before leaving on a mission: (P) Personal and aircraft items Personal and aircraft items CAPF 71 CAPF 71 State the flight time and crew duty limitations (per the current CAPR 60-1) State the flight time and crew duty limitations (per the current CAPR 60-1) State the three unique entries made by a CAP pilot on a FAA Flight Plan and where they go on the flight plan State the three unique entries made by a CAP pilot on a FAA Flight Plan and where they go on the flight plan “IMSAFE” and flight release “IMSAFE” and flight release Preflight & loading Preflight & loading Departure Departure Discuss the approach and your actions upon arrival at mission base, including the general briefing. (P) Discuss the approach and your actions upon arrival at mission base, including the general briefing. (P) Objectives

248 248 Discuss the six steps of ORM and the four principles involved. (P) Discuss the six steps of ORM and the four principles involved. (P) Discuss the aircrew briefing. (P) Discuss the aircrew briefing. (P) Describe the information contained in and how to fill out the front of the CAPF 104. (P) Describe the information contained in and how to fill out the front of the CAPF 104. (P) Discuss the items checked and actions taken before leaving on a sortie: (P) Discuss the items checked and actions taken before leaving on a sortie: (P) Release and preparation Release and preparation Preflight and Departure Preflight and Departure State when the ‘sterile cockpit’ rules starts and ends State when the ‘sterile cockpit’ rules starts and ends Discuss duties during the sortie, including: (P) Discuss duties during the sortie, including: (P) Preparations prior to entering the search area Preparations prior to entering the search area Required radio reports Required radio reports State when the ‘sterile cockpit’ rules starts and ends State when the ‘sterile cockpit’ rules starts and ends Objectives (Continued)

249 249 Discuss your actions upon arrival back at mission base. (P) Discuss your actions upon arrival back at mission base. (P) Describe the information contained in and how to fill out the back of the CAPF 104. (P) Describe the information contained in and how to fill out the back of the CAPF 104. (P) Discuss the aircrew debriefing. (P) Discuss the aircrew debriefing. (P) Discuss your actions upon arrival back home, including: (P) Discuss your actions upon arrival back home, including: (P) What to do with the aircraft What to do with the aircraft What to do if you observe signs of post-traumatic stress What to do if you observe signs of post-traumatic stress When the mission is officially over for you and your crew When the mission is officially over for you and your crew Objectives (Continued)

250 250 What’s the RUSH ? Why do we go to so much trouble to train mission aircrew members and encourage members to spend the time it takes to stay proficient? Why do we go to so much trouble to train mission aircrew members and encourage members to spend the time it takes to stay proficient? Time is such a critical factor in missing person or aircraft crash searches Time is such a critical factor in missing person or aircraft crash searches Treat every minute after you been alerted as critical to the survival chances of the victims Treat every minute after you been alerted as critical to the survival chances of the victims

251 251 Survival Rates Of the 29% who survive a crash, 60% will be injured: Of the 29% who survive a crash, 60% will be injured: 81% will die if not located within 24 hours 81% will die if not located within 24 hours 94% will die if not located within 48 hours 94% will die if not located within 48 hours Of those 40% uninjured in the crash: Of those 40% uninjured in the crash: 50% will die if not located within 72 hours 50% will die if not located within 72 hours Survival chances diminish rapidly after 72 hours Survival chances diminish rapidly after 72 hours

252 252 Response Times Average time from the aircraft being reported missing to AFRCC notification: Average time from the aircraft being reported missing to AFRCC notification: 15.6 hours if no flight plan was filed 15.6 hours if no flight plan was filed 3.9 hours if a VFR flight plan was filed 3.9 hours if a VFR flight plan was filed 1.1 hours if an IFR flight plan was filed 1.1 hours if an IFR flight plan was filed Average time from the aircraft being reported missing (LKP) to CAP locating and recovering: Average time from the aircraft being reported missing (LKP) to CAP locating and recovering: 62.6 hours if no flight plan was filed 62.6 hours if no flight plan was filed 18.2 hours if a VFR flight plan was filed 18.2 hours if a VFR flight plan was filed 11.5 hours if an IFR flight plan was filed 11.5 hours if an IFR flight plan was filed

253 253 The Rush? What do these statistics tell us? What do these statistics tell us? We must take each mission seriously! We must take each mission seriously! Strive to do everything better, smarter and faster! Strive to do everything better, smarter and faster! Training, practice and pre-planning help us accomplish these goals Training, practice and pre-planning help us accomplish these goals Also tells us, as pilots, to always file a flight plan Also tells us, as pilots, to always file a flight plan

254 254 Leaving Home Base Proper uniforms per CAPM 39-1 Proper uniforms per CAPM 39-1 Required credentials Required credentials Current charts for the entire trip (gridded, if you have them) Current charts for the entire trip (gridded, if you have them) Personal supplies and money Personal supplies and money Equipment such as cell phone and flashlights (including spare batteries) Equipment such as cell phone and flashlights (including spare batteries) Charts and maps Charts and maps

255 255 Leaving Home Base (Continued) Check the Weight and balance, CO monitor & Fire Extinguisher status, fuel reserve and management plan, Discrepancy Log Check the Weight and balance, CO monitor & Fire Extinguisher status, fuel reserve and management plan, Discrepancy Log Tie-downs, chocks, Pitot cover and engine plugs Tie-downs, chocks, Pitot cover and engine plugs Equipment such as fuel tester, survival kit, binoculars, sick sacks, and cleaning supplies Equipment such as fuel tester, survival kit, binoculars, sick sacks, and cleaning supplies

256 256 Leaving Home Base (Continued) Obtain briefing and file FAA Flight Plan Obtain briefing and file FAA Flight Plan Complete “Inbound” 104 and get released by FRO Complete “Inbound” 104 and get released by FRO

257 257 Leaving Home Base “IMSAFE” Illness Illness Medication Medication Stress Stress Alcohol Alcohol Fatigue Fatigue Emotion Emotion

258 258 FRO Checklist (60-1)

259 259 Pre-flight begins even before you even get to the aircraft!

260 260 Preflight Check the aircraft: Pre-flight (e.g., CAPF 71, CAP Aircraft Inspection Checklist) Check the aircraft: Pre-flight (e.g., CAPF 71, CAP Aircraft Inspection Checklist) Check the date and starting Tach & Hobbs times to ensure you won't exceed: Check the date and starting Tach & Hobbs times to ensure you won't exceed: mid-cycle oil change (40-60 hours, not to exceed four months) mid-cycle oil change (40-60 hours, not to exceed four months) 100-hour/Annual 100-hour/Annual 24-month Transponder inspection, Pitot-Static system inspection, Altimeter calibration, & ELT inspection/Battery replacement date 24-month Transponder inspection, Pitot-Static system inspection, Altimeter calibration, & ELT inspection/Battery replacement date 30-day VOR check for IFR flight 30-day VOR check for IFR flight Check the AD compliance list Check the AD compliance list Fill in the CAP flight log Fill in the CAP flight log

261 261 Preflight (Continued) Check the Discrepancy Log; ensure no discrepancy makes the aircraft unsafe for flight or reduces your ability to accomplish the mission Check the Discrepancy Log; ensure no discrepancy makes the aircraft unsafe for flight or reduces your ability to accomplish the mission Verify any outstanding discrepancies during your aircraft preflight. If new discrepancies are discovered, log them and ensure the aircraft is still airworthy and mission ready Verify any outstanding discrepancies during your aircraft preflight. If new discrepancies are discovered, log them and ensure the aircraft is still airworthy and mission ready During loading, ensure that all supplies and equipment correspond to what you used in your Weight & Balance During loading, ensure that all supplies and equipment correspond to what you used in your Weight & Balance Windshield and windows are clean, and that the chocks, tie- downs, and Pitot tube covers/engine plugs are stowed Windshield and windows are clean, and that the chocks, tie- downs, and Pitot tube covers/engine plugs are stowed Check and test special equipment Check and test special equipment

262 262 Preflight (Continued) Check parking area for obstacles, arrange for marshaller or wing-walker Check parking area for obstacles, arrange for marshaller or wing-walker The mission pilot will perform the passenger briefing and review the emergency egress procedure. The pilot should also brief the crew on the fuel management plan and assumptions, and assign responsibility for inquiring about fuel status once an hour. The mission pilot will perform the passenger briefing and review the emergency egress procedure. The pilot should also brief the crew on the fuel management plan and assumptions, and assign responsibility for inquiring about fuel status once an hour. The pilot will review the taxi plan and taxiway diagram, and assign crew responsibilities for taxi The pilot will review the taxi plan and taxiway diagram, and assign crew responsibilities for taxi Once everyone is settled in, organize the cockpit and review the "Engine Fire on Start" procedure Once everyone is settled in, organize the cockpit and review the "Engine Fire on Start" procedure

263 263 Departure Always use the checklists; use the challenge/response method Always use the checklists; use the challenge/response method Seat belts and shoulder harness (always <1000 AGL) Seat belts and shoulder harness (always <1000 AGL) Collision avoidance! An increasing number of taxi mishaps are the number one trend in CAP. Investigations reveal that pilots are: straying from designated taxi routes, not allowing adequate clearance, not considering the tail and wings during turns, taxiing too fast for conditions, taxiing with obscured visibility, distracted by cockpit duties, and not using other crewmembers to ensure clearance. Collision avoidance! An increasing number of taxi mishaps are the number one trend in CAP. Investigations reveal that pilots are: straying from designated taxi routes, not allowing adequate clearance, not considering the tail and wings during turns, taxiing too fast for conditions, taxiing with obscured visibility, distracted by cockpit duties, and not using other crewmembers to ensure clearance.

264 264 Departure (Continued) CAPR 60-1 taxi rules: CAPR 60-1 taxi rules: Taxi no faster than a slow walk when within 10 feet of obstacles Taxi no faster than a slow walk when within 10 feet of obstacles Maintain at least 50' behind light single-engine aircraft, 100' behind small multi-engine and jet aircraft, and 500' behind heavies and taxiing helicopters Maintain at least 50' behind light single-engine aircraft, 100' behind small multi-engine and jet aircraft, and 500' behind heavies and taxiing helicopters Go over the crew assignments for takeoff and departure and make sure each crewmember knows in which direction they should be looking during each. Go over the crew assignments for takeoff and departure and make sure each crewmember knows in which direction they should be looking during each. Remind the crew that midair collisions are most likely to occur in daylight VFR conditions within five miles of an airport at or below 3,000’ AGL! This means that most midair collisions occur in or near the traffic pattern. Since the pilot has only one set of eyes, this (and aircraft design) leaves several 'blind spots' that the observer and scanner must cover -- particularly between your 4 and 8 o'clock positions. Remind the crew that midair collisions are most likely to occur in daylight VFR conditions within five miles of an airport at or below 3,000’ AGL! This means that most midair collisions occur in or near the traffic pattern. Since the pilot has only one set of eyes, this (and aircraft design) leaves several 'blind spots' that the observer and scanner must cover -- particularly between your 4 and 8 o'clock positions.

265 265 Departure (Continued) Be sure and include the DF unit's Alarm light self-test in your scan during startup. The light should blink for several seconds; if it doesn't your unit may be inoperative. Be sure and include the DF unit's Alarm light self-test in your scan during startup. The light should blink for several seconds; if it doesn't your unit may be inoperative. Ensure that the DF, Audio Panel and FM radio are set up properly. If possible, perform an FM radio check. Select your initial VOR radial(s) and GPS setting (e.g., destination or flight plan). Ensure that the DF, Audio Panel and FM radio are set up properly. If possible, perform an FM radio check. Select your initial VOR radial(s) and GPS setting (e.g., destination or flight plan). Obtain ATIS and Clearance (read back all clearances and hold-short instructions). Then verify the crosswind limitation. Set up the navigational instruments (e.g., VOR radials and GPS destination, entry points and waypoints) Obtain ATIS and Clearance (read back all clearances and hold-short instructions). Then verify the crosswind limitation. Set up the navigational instruments (e.g., VOR radials and GPS destination, entry points and waypoints) Once you begin taxiing, check your brakes Once you begin taxiing, check your brakes

266 266 Departure (Continued) Sterile cockpit rules are now in effect! Sterile cockpit rules are now in effect! Keep the checklist close at hand, open to Emergency Procedures Keep the checklist close at hand, open to Emergency Procedures Check for landing aircraft before taking the active Check for landing aircraft before taking the active At takeoff, start the Observer Log with the time and Hobbs for "Wheels Up“ At takeoff, start the Observer Log with the time and Hobbs for "Wheels Up“ The FAA's "operation lights on" encourages pilots to keep aircraft lights on when operating within 10 miles of an airport, or wherever flocks of birds may be expected The FAA's "operation lights on" encourages pilots to keep aircraft lights on when operating within 10 miles of an airport, or wherever flocks of birds may be expected While departing the airport environs practice collision avoidance and maintain the sterile cockpit until well clear of traffic and obstacles. The pilot should use shallow S-turns and lift a wing before turns to check for traffic. The crew must keep each other appraised of conflicting aircraft and obstacles While departing the airport environs practice collision avoidance and maintain the sterile cockpit until well clear of traffic and obstacles. The pilot should use shallow S-turns and lift a wing before turns to check for traffic. The crew must keep each other appraised of conflicting aircraft and obstacles

267 267 Arrival at Mission Base Obtain ATIS (or AWOS) as soon as possible. May be able to contact mission base on FM radio. Obtain ATIS (or AWOS) as soon as possible. May be able to contact mission base on FM radio. Review taxi plan/airport taxi diagram and make crew assignments for approach, landing and taxi Review taxi plan/airport taxi diagram and make crew assignments for approach, landing and taxi Make sure each crewmember knows in which direction they should be looking during each. Remind the crew that midair collisions are most likely to occur in daylight VFR conditions within five miles of an airport at or below 3,000’ AGL! This means that most midair collisions occur in the traffic pattern, with over half occurring on final approach Make sure each crewmember knows in which direction they should be looking during each. Remind the crew that midair collisions are most likely to occur in daylight VFR conditions within five miles of an airport at or below 3,000’ AGL! This means that most midair collisions occur in the traffic pattern, with over half occurring on final approach Sterile cockpit rules are now in effect! Sterile cockpit rules are now in effect!

268 268 Return to Base Basic Pattern

269 269 Arrival at Mission Base Practice collision avoidance by turning the aircraft exterior lights on when within 10 miles of the airport. The pilot should use shallow S-turns and lift a wing before turns to check for traffic. Read back all clearances and hold-short instructions Practice collision avoidance by turning the aircraft exterior lights on when within 10 miles of the airport. The pilot should use shallow S-turns and lift a wing before turns to check for traffic. Read back all clearances and hold-short instructions Defer after-landing checks until clear Defer after-landing checks until clear Log and report "Wheels Down" Log and report "Wheels Down" Watch for Marshallers and follow their directions, signal Ignition Switch OFF (hold keys out the window) so they can chock Watch for Marshallers and follow their directions, signal Ignition Switch OFF (hold keys out the window) so they can chock

270 270 Arrival at Mission Base (Continued) Secure the aircraft: Secure the aircraft: Avionics/Control lock, Master Switch OFF Avionics/Control lock, Master Switch OFF Tie-downs, chocks, Pitot tube cover and engine plugs Tie-downs, chocks, Pitot tube cover and engine plugs Close windows, Fuel Selector Switch in 'Right' or 'Left,' and Parking Brake OFF; remove personal items and special equipment; lock the doors and baggage compartment. Close windows, Fuel Selector Switch in 'Right' or 'Left,' and Parking Brake OFF; remove personal items and special equipment; lock the doors and baggage compartment. Oil & fuel, clean windows and leading edges Oil & fuel, clean windows and leading edges Close FAA flight plan, call FRO Close FAA flight plan, call FRO Check aircrew and aircraft into the mission Check aircrew and aircraft into the mission Complete “Inbound” 104 Complete “Inbound” 104 Get sortie assignment Get sortie assignment Determine food and lodging Determine food and lodging

271 271 Arrival at Mission Base (In Style)

272 272 General Briefing Mission objective and status Mission objective and status Safety and hazards Safety and hazards Mission base procedures Mission base procedures Weather Weather Frequencies Frequencies Code words (Generally No Longer Used) Code words (Generally No Longer Used)

273 273 Operational Risk Management Accomplish the mission with the least possible risk. Accomplish the mission with the least possible risk. More than common sense, more than just a safety program. More than common sense, more than just a safety program. Educated (informed) risk versus taking a gamble. Educated (informed) risk versus taking a gamble. Part of the CAP culture. Part of the CAP culture.

274 274 ORM – Six Steps Identify the hazards Identify the hazards Assess the risks Assess the risks Analyze risk control measures Analyze risk control measures Make control decisions Make control decisions Implement risk controls Implement risk controls Supervise and review Supervise and review

275 275 ORM Principles Accept no unnecessary risks. Accept no unnecessary risks. Make risk decisions at the appropriate level. Make risk decisions at the appropriate level. Accept risk when the benefits outweigh the costs. Accept risk when the benefits outweigh the costs. Integrate ORM into CAP practices, procedures, and planning at all levels. Integrate ORM into CAP practices, procedures, and planning at all levels.

276 276 ORM and the Aircrew Acknowledge risks in order to deal with them. Acknowledge risks in order to deal with them. Each crewmember is responsible to look for risks. Each crewmember is responsible to look for risks. Don’t ignore risks; if you can’t eliminate or reduce the risk, tell someone. Don’t ignore risks; if you can’t eliminate or reduce the risk, tell someone. PIC has ultimate authority and responsibility to deal with risks during the sortie. PIC has ultimate authority and responsibility to deal with risks during the sortie. PIC has the responsibility to inform his or her crew of the risks involved, and to listen to and address their concerns. PIC has the responsibility to inform his or her crew of the risks involved, and to listen to and address their concerns.

277 277 Aircrew Briefing Sortie Objectives Sortie Objectives Weather Weather Altitudes Altitudes Duties Duties

278 278 CAPF 104 Page 1 of 4 - Flight Plan - Briefing form

279 279 Preparing to Leave on a Sortie Check in with briefing officer Check in with briefing officer Check in with air operations Check in with air operations Present 104 to flight line supervisor Present 104 to flight line supervisor Pilot pre-flights aircraft Pilot pre-flights aircraft Observer checks mission equipment and supplies Observer checks mission equipment and supplies Review flight time and duty limitations Review flight time and duty limitations Final restroom visit Final restroom visit

280 280 Preparing to Leave on a Sortie (Continued) Pilot’s briefing: Pilot’s briefing: Seat belts and shoulder harness, no smoking Seat belts and shoulder harness, no smoking Seat belts & shoulder harness, emergency egress procedure Seat belts & shoulder harness, emergency egress procedure Fuel management plan and assumptions Fuel management plan and assumptions Taxi plan/diagram, crew assignments Taxi plan/diagram, crew assignments Startup and Taxi emergency procedures Startup and Taxi emergency procedures When sterile cockpit rules are in effect When sterile cockpit rules are in effect When more than one flight is accomplished by the same crew during the day, subsequent briefings are not required to be so detailed but must, at a minimum, highlight differences and changes from the original briefing When more than one flight is accomplished by the same crew during the day, subsequent briefings are not required to be so detailed but must, at a minimum, highlight differences and changes from the original briefing

281 281 Preparing to Leave on a Sortie (Continued) If this is the first sortie of the day the observer will perform an FM radio check with mission base; you may also perform a DF functional check if this is an ELT search. Other special equipment should also be tested before the first sortie. If this is the first sortie of the day the observer will perform an FM radio check with mission base; you may also perform a DF functional check if this is an ELT search. Other special equipment should also be tested before the first sortie. Enter sortie settings into the GPS (destination or flight plan, entry points and waypoints) Enter sortie settings into the GPS (destination or flight plan, entry points and waypoints)

282 282 Taxi Mishaps Becoming a bigger problem each year (#1 trend in CAP) Becoming a bigger problem each year (#1 trend in CAP) Pilots are: Pilots are: straying from designated taxi routes straying from designated taxi routes not allowing adequate clearance and not considering the tail and wings during turns not allowing adequate clearance and not considering the tail and wings during turns taxiing too fast for conditions and taxiing with obscured visibility taxiing too fast for conditions and taxiing with obscured visibility distracted by cockpit duties distracted by cockpit duties not using other crewmembers to ensure clearance not using other crewmembers to ensure clearance Strategies: Strategies: Thorough planning and preparation eliminates distractions Thorough planning and preparation eliminates distractions Crew assignments for taxi Crew assignments for taxi Treat taxiing with the seriousness it deserves Treat taxiing with the seriousness it deserves Sterile cockpit rules! Sterile cockpit rules!

283 283 Taxi and Departure The sterile cockpit rules begin at this time The sterile cockpit rules begin at this time Startup, taxi and departure were covered earlier Startup, taxi and departure were covered earlier If there are flight line Marshallers, they will expect you to turn on your rotating beacon and signal the impending engine start before starting the engine. You are also expected to signal (e.g., turn on your pulse light or flash your taxi/landing light) before beginning to taxi. If there are flight line Marshallers, they will expect you to turn on your rotating beacon and signal the impending engine start before starting the engine. You are also expected to signal (e.g., turn on your pulse light or flash your taxi/landing light) before beginning to taxi. Observer begins Observer Log with time and Hobbs, reports “Wheels Up” Observer begins Observer Log with time and Hobbs, reports “Wheels Up” Takeoff, climb and departure were covered earlier Takeoff, climb and departure were covered earlier Once clear of the airport/controlled airspace environs the crew settles into the transit phase Once clear of the airport/controlled airspace environs the crew settles into the transit phase

284 284 During the Sortie Depending on circumstances (e.g., the airspace is still congested or multiple obstacles are present) the sterile cockpit rules are normally suspended at this time. The aircrew maintains situational awareness at all times during the flight Depending on circumstances (e.g., the airspace is still congested or multiple obstacles are present) the sterile cockpit rules are normally suspended at this time. The aircrew maintains situational awareness at all times during the flight Double-check navigational settings that will be used in the search area, review search area terrain and obstacles, review methods to reduce crew fatigue during the search or to combat high altitude effects. Double-check navigational settings that will be used in the search area, review search area terrain and obstacles, review methods to reduce crew fatigue during the search or to combat high altitude effects. Update in-flight weather, file PIREPs, periodically check navigational equipment against each other to detect abnormalities or failures Update in-flight weather, file PIREPs, periodically check navigational equipment against each other to detect abnormalities or failures

285 285 During the Sortie (Continued) The pilot should stabilize the aircraft at the assigned search heading, altitude and airspeed at least two miles before you enter the search area, and turn sufficient aircraft exterior lights on to maximize visibility (so others can "see and avoid") The pilot should stabilize the aircraft at the assigned search heading, altitude and airspeed at least two miles before you enter the search area, and turn sufficient aircraft exterior lights on to maximize visibility (so others can "see and avoid") Observer logs and reports “Entering the Search Area,” primary duty is now Scanner Observer logs and reports “Entering the Search Area,” primary duty is now Scanner Periodic “Ops Normal” reports, Observer asks about fuel status and altimeter setting at least hourly Periodic “Ops Normal” reports, Observer asks about fuel status and altimeter setting at least hourly Scanner and observer logs, sketches Scanner and observer logs, sketches

286 286 During the Sortie (Continued) During the actual search or assessment, the aircrew must be completely honest with each other concerning their own condition and other factors affecting search effectiveness. If you missed something, or think you saw something, say so. If you have a question, ask. During the actual search or assessment, the aircrew must be completely honest with each other concerning their own condition and other factors affecting search effectiveness. If you missed something, or think you saw something, say so. If you have a question, ask. If target spotted notify mission base immediately; begin recovery ASAP If target spotted notify mission base immediately; begin recovery ASAP Mission commander monitors for fatigue, ensures crew drinks enough fluids, schedules breaks Mission commander monitors for fatigue, ensures crew drinks enough fluids, schedules breaks

287 287 Return to Base - RTB When the aircraft completes its mission and leaves the search area, the observer notes the time and the Hobbs reading and reports "Leaving the Search Area“ When the aircraft completes its mission and leaves the search area, the observer notes the time and the Hobbs reading and reports "Leaving the Search Area“ Double-check heading and altitude with what was assigned for transit to the next search area or return to base. Double-check heading and altitude with what was assigned for transit to the next search area or return to base. Reorganize the cockpit in preparation for approach and landing. Reorganize the cockpit in preparation for approach and landing. Approach, landing and arrival were covered earlier Approach, landing and arrival were covered earlier

288 288 Return to Base – RTB (Continued) Check back in and take a break Check back in and take a break Drawings or markings made on charts or maps should be transferred onto the CAPF 104 or attached to it Drawings or markings made on charts or maps should be transferred onto the CAPF 104 or attached to it Make sure everything is clear and legible Make sure everything is clear and legible The two most common entries overlooked when completing the CAP flight plan (front side of the CAPF 104) are "ATD" (actual time of departure) and "Actual LDG Time." The two most common entries overlooked when completing the CAP flight plan (front side of the CAPF 104) are "ATD" (actual time of departure) and "Actual LDG Time."

289 289 CAPF 104 Page 2 of 4

290 290 CAPF 104 Page 3 of 4

291 291 CAPF 104 Page 4 of 4

292 292 Debriefing Note both Positive and Negative results Note both Positive and Negative results Use the reverse of CAPF 104 Use the reverse of CAPF 104 Used to determine how effective the search was: Used to determine how effective the search was: Weather — shadows, visibility, snow cover Weather — shadows, visibility, snow cover Terrain — open, flat, mountainous, rough Terrain — open, flat, mountainous, rough Ground Cover — barren, forest, scrub, sparse, dense Ground Cover — barren, forest, scrub, sparse, dense Other information — hazards, changes from plan Other information — hazards, changes from plan Used to calculate the “probability of detection” that is used for subsequent search planning Used to calculate the “probability of detection” that is used for subsequent search planning

293 293 Debriefing (Continued) Complete the reverse side of the CAPF 104 Complete the reverse side of the CAPF 104 Discuss items on the 104 Discuss items on the 104 Assemble attachments Assemble attachments Report to debriefer Report to debriefer Be TOTALLY HONEST during the debriefing Be TOTALLY HONEST during the debriefing

294 294 Debriefing (Continued) Crew comments about effectiveness Crew comments about effectiveness Crew remarks of SAR effectiveness Crew remarks of SAR effectiveness Times (and Hobbs readings) Times (and Hobbs readings) Sketches and attachments Sketches and attachments Be TOTALLY HONEST during the debriefing Be TOTALLY HONEST during the debriefing

295 295 The End of the Mission Turn in equipment and supplies Turn in equipment and supplies Settle fuel, food and lodging bills Settle fuel, food and lodging bills Plan the trip home Plan the trip home Fill out “Outbound” CAPF 104 Fill out “Outbound” CAPF 104 Check weather and file FAA Flight Plan Check weather and file FAA Flight Plan Check out with mission staff, obtain flight release Check out with mission staff, obtain flight release

296 296 The Trip Home Maintain crew discipline and continue to use mission procedures and checklists Maintain crew discipline and continue to use mission procedures and checklists SAR personnel can experience post-traumatic stress, so look for signs (refer to CAPR 60-5) SAR personnel can experience post-traumatic stress, so look for signs (refer to CAPR 60-5) Once on the ground, secure the aircraft and ready it for its next mission Once on the ground, secure the aircraft and ready it for its next mission Close FAA Flight Plan Close FAA Flight Plan Complete the “Outbound” 104 Complete the “Outbound” 104 Ensure ability to complete CAPF 108 Ensure ability to complete CAPF 108 Once everyone is at home, call mission base with Hobbs from the ‘Outbound’ 104 Once everyone is at home, call mission base with Hobbs from the ‘Outbound’ 104

297 297 Local Drills and Exercises Easy Easy Inexpensive Inexpensive Very Efficient Very Efficient Very Worthwhile Very Worthwhile Fun Fun

298 298 Crew Resource Management

299 299 Discuss failures and error chain. (O) Discuss failures and error chain. (O) Discuss situational awareness. (O) Discuss situational awareness. (O) Discuss how to regain SA once lost. (O) Discuss how to regain SA once lost. (O) Describe barriers to communications. (O) Describe barriers to communications. (O) Define/discuss task saturation. (O) Define/discuss task saturation. (O) Discuss assignments and coordination of duties. (O) Discuss assignments and coordination of duties. (O) Objectives

300 300 Why Crew Resource M? Why Crew Resource Management? Properly trained aircrew members can collectively perform complex tasks better and make more accurate decisions than the single best performer on the team Properly trained aircrew members can collectively perform complex tasks better and make more accurate decisions than the single best performer on the team An untrained team's overall performance can be significantly worse than the performance of its weakest single member An untrained team's overall performance can be significantly worse than the performance of its weakest single member We will cover behavior and attitudes of teamwork and communication among team members We will cover behavior and attitudes of teamwork and communication among team members

301 301 Why CRM? (Continued) CAP CAP Aircraft accidents95631 Aircraft accidents95631 Per 100,000 hours Per 100,000 hours A/C flight incidents A/C flight incidents A/C ground incidents78368 A/C ground incidents78368 Fatalities72320 Fatalities72320

302 302 Why CRM? (Continued) MISHAP MISHAP Taxi949 Taxi949 Ground463 Ground463 Landing8810 Landing8810 Other432 Other432

303 303 Failures Parts and equipment Parts and equipment Mechanical failures Mechanical failures People People Human failures Human failures

304 304 The Error Chain A series of event links that, when considered together, cause a mishap A series of event links that, when considered together, cause a mishap Should any one of the links be “broken,” then the mishap probably will not occur Should any one of the links be “broken,” then the mishap probably will not occur It is up to each crewmember to recognize a link and break the error chain It is up to each crewmember to recognize a link and break the error chain

305 305 Situational Awareness (SA) Know what is going on around you at all times Know what is going on around you at all times Requires: Requires: Good mental health Good mental health Good physical health Good physical health Attentiveness Attentiveness Inquisitiveness Inquisitiveness

306 306 Loss of SA Strength Of An Idea Strength Of An Idea Hidden Agenda Hidden Agenda Complacency Complacency Accommodation Accommodation Sudden Loss Of Judgment Sudden Loss Of Judgment

307 307 Symptoms of Loss of SA Fixation Fixation Ambiguity Ambiguity Complacency Complacency Euphoria Euphoria Confusion Confusion Distraction Distraction Overload Overload

308 308 Hazardous Attitudes Anti-Authority Anti-Authority Impulsiveness Impulsiveness Invulnerability Invulnerability Macho Macho Resignation Resignation Get There It-us Get There It-us

309 309 Regaining SA Reduce workload: Suspend the mission. Reduce workload: Suspend the mission. Reduce threats: Reduce threats: Get away from the ground and other obstacles (e.g., climb to a safe altitude). Get away from the ground and other obstacles (e.g., climb to a safe altitude). Establish a stable flight profile where you can safely analyze the situation. Establish a stable flight profile where you can safely analyze the situation. Remember: “Aviate, Navigate, Communicate” Remember: “Aviate, Navigate, Communicate”

310 310 How do we get it back? Trust your gut feelings Trust your gut feelings “Time Out,” “Abort,” or “This is Stupid.” “Time Out,” “Abort,” or “This is Stupid.” Pilot establishes aircraft in a safe and stable configuration, and then discuss the problem Pilot establishes aircraft in a safe and stable configuration, and then discuss the problem Sterile Cockpit Sterile Cockpit Limit talk to the minimum necessary for safety. Limit talk to the minimum necessary for safety. Taxi, takeoff, departure, low-level flying, approach, landing Taxi, takeoff, departure, low-level flying, approach, landing

311 311 Barriers to Communication Hearing Hearing The biological function of receiving sounds, converting them to electrical impulses, and having the brain interpret them The biological function of receiving sounds, converting them to electrical impulses, and having the brain interpret them Listening Listening Correctly identifying what the sender has sent in their message Correctly identifying what the sender has sent in their message

312 312 Barriers to Communication (Continued) Distracters Distracters Physical/Mental: Noise, static, simultaneous transmissions; fatigue and stress Physical/Mental: Noise, static, simultaneous transmissions; fatigue and stress Wording: Incomplete or ambiguous message, too complex or uses unfamiliar terminology Wording: Incomplete or ambiguous message, too complex or uses unfamiliar terminology Personal: Boring, lack of rapport or lack of credibility Personal: Boring, lack of rapport or lack of credibility

313 313 Task Saturation Too much information at one time Too much information at one time Too many tasks to accomplish in a given time Too many tasks to accomplish in a given time Usually occurs when an individual is confronted with a new or unexpected situation and loses SA Usually occurs when an individual is confronted with a new or unexpected situation and loses SA

314 314 Task Saturation (Continued) Keep your workload to an acceptable level Keep your workload to an acceptable level If you feel overwhelmed, tell the others before becoming saturated and losing you situational awareness If you feel overwhelmed, tell the others before becoming saturated and losing you situational awareness Watch your team members for signs of saturation Watch your team members for signs of saturation

315 315 Identification of Resources External and Internal External and Internal Identify your resources, know where to find them, and how to use them to accomplish the mission Identify your resources, know where to find them, and how to use them to accomplish the mission

316 316 Assignment of Duties CAPR 60-3 CAPR 60-3 Flight Related -- Aircraft Commander Flight Related -- Aircraft Commander Mission Related -- Incident Commander Mission Related -- Incident Commander

317 317 Crew Coordination Understand and execute your assignments Understand and execute your assignments Communicate Communicate Question Question

318 318 Summary Pay close attention to all briefings Pay close attention to all briefings Understand the “big picture” Understand the “big picture” Watch for task overload in yourself and other crewmembers Watch for task overload in yourself and other crewmembers 67% of air transport accidents occur during 17% of the flight time - taxi, takeoff, departure, approach and landing. Keep casual conversation and distractions to a minimum during these phases of flight. 67% of air transport accidents occur during 17% of the flight time - taxi, takeoff, departure, approach and landing. Keep casual conversation and distractions to a minimum during these phases of flight. Begin critical communications with instructions, then explain Begin critical communications with instructions, then explain

319 319 Summary (Continued) Successful missions hinge on each and every crewmember Successful missions hinge on each and every crewmember Learn how to use the procedures and tools available to you, and use them correctly Learn how to use the procedures and tools available to you, and use them correctly Never stop learning Never stop learning Don’t be afraid to ask questions Don’t be afraid to ask questions Never criticize someone for asking questions Never criticize someone for asking questions Anyone can call “Time Out”, “Abort”, or “This is Stupid” Anyone can call “Time Out”, “Abort”, or “This is Stupid” Remember that the Mission Pilot must make the final decision based on the crew’s input. Remember that the Mission Pilot must make the final decision based on the crew’s input.

320 320 Questions? Always Think Safety!


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