An Educator’s Power I’ve come to a frightening conclusion. I am the decisive element in the classroom. It’s my personal approach that creates the climate. It’s my daily mood that makes the weather. As a teacher, I possess a tremendous power to make a child’s life miserable or joyous. I can be a tool of torture or an instrument of inspiration. I can humiliate or humor, hurt or heal. In all situations, it is my response that decides whether a crisis will be escalated or de- escalated and a child humanized or de- humanized. Between Teacher and Child, Haim Ginott
Myers Mission Statement Kid Friendly Version Ward L. Myers Elementary, working for people who live in the Muncy School District, will give all students a safe and helpful place to learn where leaders will help to improve and develop each person’s talents and offer chances for lessons that fit each age. This will help students meet high goals, become learners forever, and grow into peace-building people.
What we Realized at the 2008 Governor’s Institute We were blessed to have a supportive administration and to work with a group of teachers that strive for success in our students. We were already ahead of many schools in academics, technology, and school climate.
One of our Primary Goals in Education is to Motivate Students In order to motivate students we need to: *Make every student feel wanted *Make every student feel that he or she can succeed *Make every student feel safe “People often say that motivation doesn’t last. Well, neither does bathing. That’s why we recommend doing both daily.”
Small Sampling of Some of the Baggage That May Hinder Student Motivation Risk Factor Chart Alienation/Rebelliousness Friends who engage in problem behavior Favorable attitudes toward problem behavior Family conflicts Early academic failure Early conduct problems Availability of drugs and/or weapons Severe economic deprivation
Historical Perspective Historically, behavior management has typically consisted of trying to make students behave. –Let’s call this approach the “reactive/punitive strategy.” –The problem is that although this systems works with the “universal” students, it doesn’t work with most of today’s challenging, targeted, and intensive students. The more you punish, the less effective the punishment is.
No “Simple” Solutions When students are frustrating, teachers can easily fall into the pattern of relying on others to manage student behavior. Thinking the principal and/or counselors have the power to make students behave (“fix the kid”) or get rid of the kid. Blaming the parents for not doing their job. “I hear he is moving.” “I hear they live out of our district.” “I hope he is absent today.”
“So how’s that working for you?” “What were you thinkin’?”
“I must do something” will always solve more problems than… “Something must be done” Although there aren’t always "simple“ solutions, research has clearly shown there are techniques and strategies that improve student behavior, attitude and motivation in the CLASSROOM. We must look at strategies and procedures that will encourage more responsible student behavior.
First Step is to “Norm” (be consistent with) Behavior in Various Areas of the Building. These practices and procedures are known and used by all staff to positively “norm” both student and adult actions.
Teaching Philosophy Behind “Norming” “If a child doesn’t know how to read, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to swim, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to multiply, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to drive, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to behave, we… …punish? …teach?” “Why can’t we finish the last sentence as automatically as we do the others?” (Herner, 1998)
More Ways to Enhance Student Motivation and Improve the Classroom Climate Non-contingent attention (“reach outs”) Positive feedback Intermittent celebrations (“Sleboda Slide”) Class-wide motivation systems “Students may forget what you said but they will never forget how you made them feel.”
Be e Prepared to Learn Be e in Control Be e Respectful Be e a Problem Solver Myers Manners Behavior Expectation Plan
“Norming” Hallway Process We brainstormed behaviors the staff expected to see/hear in the hallway. 20 items were listed that needed narrowed down to 5-7. The biggest debate…noise level (silent, quiet, what was quiet?). After 2 hours and a few minor roadblocks, we came to consensus. (See script handout) Script was read every morning on the announcements for the first 2 weeks of school and every Monday morning after that. After a long break, the script would be read again every morning for one week.
Bathroom “Norming” Hallway “norming” went great, why not tackle the bathroom? Process was the same as hallway…brainstormed what bathroom behavior should look/sound like. Went a little smoother since we had already done the “norming” process before. (See script handout) Biggest discussion was how we were going to train our students if we (the teachers) were of the opposite gender and how we were going to hold the kids accountable when they were in the restroom. Quarterly MVP assembly included more reinforcing of SSC through music. We introduced the new song…”Taking Care of Business” for bathroom “norming”.
Cafeteria “Norming” Climate in the cafeteria needed to be changed (how students and cafeteria staff interacted). “Café Team” met every Wed. for 4 months. Ideas were presented to the faculty and the norming process began for cafeteria. Consensus was reached. We needed to incorporate rewards and positive reinforcement into the daily cafeteria routine. (See script handout). Reward choices
Introducing… MVP’s…Myers Very Positive Students
How MVP’s Work Create a positive atmosphere where the kids are motivated to be respectful, in control, prepared to learn, and a positive problem solver. Students can receive a wooden nickel when caught following Myers Manners. End of the day he/she goes down to the office, fills out a postcard that gets sent home, and adds his/her name to the lotto board. Every morning, the student names from the day before are read over the announcements. When a row on the lotto board is filled, the students in that row are announced in the morning and are permitted to pick a small prize out of our “MVP – Muncy Indian Treasure Chest” (handmade by one of our faculty).
Obstacles! Attempted to reach too many goals Needed more reinforcement for students and faculty Needed to re-norm bathroom more frequently Challenge of cafeteria monitors implementing cafeteria incentive plan Differing philosophies on the norm for cafeteria atmosphere
What’s in Your Backpack? What motivators will you use to reinforce Single School Culture at your school?
Now It’s Your Turn! Group Activity: Help us teach Myers Manners Using a Popular Song With Audience Participation
School Climate is what happens when grown-ups are not around. Preble and Taylor, 2009 What is School Climate?
"Let us not be content to wait and see what will happen, but give us the determination to make things happen." --Horace Mann
School-Wide PBS Based on the work of Drs. Sugai & Horner
Classroom Non-classroom Family Student School- wide Community Relationship Between School and Community
Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS™) Isn’t about changing individuals- it’s about changing the environment Putting proactive systems in place for a continuum of support in the behavioral and academic realm
Develop positive expectations for behavior Tell kids what to do instead of what not to do Teach, Model, Practice, Praise & Encourage Expected Behavior Monitoring & evaluation Give booster shots (Oct., Dec., Jan., Mar., May) Continuum of Support for ALL students Components of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS)™
School Wide Behavior Systems - Universal Targets 100% of Students Clear Expectations All Settings -Teach Behaviors Rules, Routines, and Physical Arrangements Effective Instruction Policy of Consistent Administrator and Staff Implementation Targeted Interventions for At-Risk Students Increased cues and prompts Intensified instruction Small group Some individual interventions Intensive: Chronic Behavior Problems FBA, BIP, Interagency Support Tier 3 1-5% of Students Tier % of students Tier % of students SWPBS™ Framework
>80% of students can tell you what is expected of them and give behavioral example Positive adult-to-student interactions exceed negative (should be 4 to 1) Function based behavior support is foundation for addressing problem behavior Data and team-based action planning and implementation are operating Administrators are active participants Full continuum of behavior support is available to all students What Does SWPBS™ Look Like at Tier 1?
Students receive at least 4 positive comments for every correction. Students greet adults who enter the building. Hallways are quieter. Lunchrooms are less noisy. Teachers are talking about academics instead of behaviors. What does a SWPBS™ school sound like at Tier 1?
What does a SWPBS™ school feel like at Tier 1? Students report feeling safer Teacher’s report higher morale and less turnover rate. Administrative staff report having more time to deal with students on a personal level and not on a behavioral level. Parents report feeling more positive about the school. People look forward to Mondays, and Tuesdays, and….
If many students are making the same mistake it typically is the system that needs to change not the students. Teach, monitor, and reward before relying on punishment.
SWPBS and the ABCF’s of Behavior Antecedent: What happens before the behavior Behavior: The target behavior as defined in the behavior matrix Consequence: What happens as a result of engaging in the behavior Function: Why we engage in behavior
School Wide Information System™ (SWIS*) Web-based software system Collects & Summarizing Discipline Data collected used for: –Internal decision making –Plan design with individual students (Tier 2) –Collect aggregated data over time *www.swis.org
School Wide Information System™ (SWIS) cont’d… SWIS™ generates individual and group reports in the following categories: –Number of discipline referrals per month –Type of problem behaviors –Locations of problem behavior events –Problem behavior events by time of day –Students grouped by problem behaviors
What Are Cool Tools? Cool Tools are behavioral lesson plans that structure how staff teach the expected behaviors from the school-wide behavioral matrix.
Designing a Cool Tool STEP ONE: Select the skill to be taught 1.Skills are taken directly from the behavioral matrix 2.Select skills based on the trends in your data STEP TWO: Write the lesson plan 1.Name the skill & align to Standard and school-wide expectation RESPECT: Say My Name, Please 2.Introduce the rule/skill 3.Demonstrate the rule/skill 4.Provide acknowledgment and feedback
Consider this… Until we have defined, taught, modeled, practiced, reinforced and re-taught, it is unethical for adults to punish……… Rob Horner
Based on the work of Sugai & Horner Pyramid by Laura Riffel School-Wide Systems for Student Success: A Response to Instruction and Intervention (RtII) Framework
What happens if we do not intervene? Three years after leaving school, 70% of antisocial youth have been arrested (Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey, 1995) 82% of crimes are committed by people who have dropped out of school (APA Commission on Youth Violence, 1993)
What does work? These same research reviews indicate that the MOST effective response to school violence is a comprehensive approach that includes: × social skills training × academic restructuring × behavioral interventions
Resources Levine, David A. Building Classroom Communities. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree, Lerner, Mark D. It’s OK Not to be OK…Right Now. New York: Mark Lerner Associates Press, Sprick, Randy, Mickey Garrison, Lisa M. Howard. CHAMPs: A Proactive and Positive Approach to Classroom Management. Eugene, OR: Pacific Northwest Publishing, Sprick, Randy and Lisa M. Howard. The Teacher’s Encyclopedia of Behavior Management: 100 Problems/500 Plans. Eugene, OR: Pacific Northwest Publishing, Websites: –http://www.behaviordoctor.org/http://www.behaviordoctor.org/ –http://www.pbis.org/http://www.pbis.org/ –http://www.swis.org/http://www.swis.org/