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MPD 5750 Design for Disability Jonathan Weaver. * Development History This material was prepared by Cohort 3 students: Jennifer Aittama, Gary Crane, Joshua.

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Presentation on theme: "MPD 5750 Design for Disability Jonathan Weaver. * Development History This material was prepared by Cohort 3 students: Jennifer Aittama, Gary Crane, Joshua."— Presentation transcript:

1 MPD 5750 Design for Disability Jonathan Weaver

2 * Development History This material was prepared by Cohort 3 students: Jennifer Aittama, Gary Crane, Joshua Halliburton, Michael Hunt, Jennifer Margherita Edits by Beatriz Dhruna, Joe Torres

3 MPD575 Weaver Development History Latest updates by many of the following students in winter of 2014: M. Freeman, H. Gasahl, R. Glaser, A. Kammerzell, J. Lambrecht, D. Mincock, J. Murphy, M. Rockwell, P. Roncier, J. Salinas, G. Scalcucci, D. Slater

4 * Design For Disability Introduction Legislation / Standards Universal Design Principles Public Facilities Residential Facilities Automotive Mobility Universal Web Design Social and Emotional Considerations References

5 * Design For Disability Introduction People with disabilities represent a large and growing sector of the population. Over 54 million Americans have been identified as being disabled. At some point, almost everyone experiences a disability as they age.

6 * Design For Disability Introduction The concept of designing all products and fabricated environments (I.e. buildings, houses) to be aesthetic and usable by the largest population possible, regardless of their age, ability, or status in life. When applied to environments, it ensures that facilities, products, and services are usable by all people.

7 * Design For Disability Introduction Everyone, regardless of ability, benefits from a universal design. Knowledge of existing codes and standards serves as a starting point in meeting accessibility guidelines.

8 * Design For Disability Who are the Recipients? Design for disability includes: –Mobility –Vision –Hearing –Speech –Cognitive Within the public and private sectors including telecommunications

9 * Design For Disability Globalization Consumer businesses must recognize the opportunities and challenges inherent in global competition. The diversity of the consumer base is expanding to include differences in language and culture, customs, experiences, and historical design precedents. Increases in the consumer market base must account for a design that is sensitive to individual abilities and preferences. Since reasonable cost is a fundamental issue in any design and production process, universal design has become a very marketable approach.

10 * Design For Disability Social Climate Along with the growth in the disabled population, the quest for independence and equal rights has grown Buyers insist that products be designed with a positive image and still remain functional for the user Devices are expected to be functional regardless of where they are used including the corporate, public, or private uses Many consumers have begun to see the usefulness of products conceived for people with limitations Products that offer the semi disabled a high level of mobility can be important to other users

11 * Design For Disability Purpose Purpose of universal design is to reduce the physical and attitudinal barriers between people with and without disabilities Strives to integrate people with disabilities into the mainstream Expertise is needed in creating products and environments that are functional, safe, attractive, and marketable for a wide diversity of users

12 * Design For Disability Introduction Legislation / Standards Universal Design Principles Public Facilities Residential Facilities Automotive Mobility Universal Web Design Social and Emotional Considerations References

13 * Design For Disability Federal Legislation The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) incorporated into Uniform Federal Accessibility Standard (UFAS) –First standard published for the disabled: A — Making Buildings Accessible to and Usable by the Physically Handicapped Architectural Barriers Act of 1968 –All buildings designed, constructed, altered, or leased with federal funds to be made accessible

14 * Design For Disability Federal Legislation Rehabilitation Act of 1973 –Section 504 requires that any program or service receiving federal financial assistance, either directly or indirectly, be accessible to everyone Education for Handicapped Children Act of 1975 –Guarantees a free, appropriate education for all children with disabilities Fair Housing Amendments Act of 1988 –Accessible units be created in all new multi-family housing with four or more units, both public and private

15 * Design For Disability Federal Legislation The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) –Discrimination in employment, access to places of public accommodation, services, programs, public transportation, and telecommunications is prohibited The Telecommunications Act of 1996 –Telecommunications services and equipment and customer premises equipment be designed, developed, and fabricated to be accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities, if readily achievable

16 * Design For Disability Introduction Legislation / Standards Universal Design Principles Public Facilities Residential Facilities Automotive Mobility Universal Web Design Social and Emotional Considerations References

17 * Design For Disability Universal Design The principles of universal design guide a wide range of design disciplines including environments, products, and communications. Seven principles can be applied to evaluate existing designs, to guide the design process, and to educate both designers and consumers about the characteristics of more usable products and environments.

18 * Design For Disability Universal Design Principle I: Equitable Use – Design is useful and marketable to people with diverse abilities. –Provide the same means of use for all users: identical whenever possible; equivalent when not –Avoid segregating or stigmatizing any users –Provisions for privacy, security, and safety should be equally available to all users –Make the design appealing to all users

19 * Design For Disability Universal Design Principle II: Flexibility in Use - Design accommodates a wide range of individual preferences and abilities. –Provide choice in methods of use –Accommodate right- or left-handed access and use –Facilitate the user's accuracy and precision –Provide adaptability to the user's pace

20 * Design For Disability Universal Design Principle III: Simple and Intuitive Use - Use of the design is easy to understand, regardless of the user's experience, knowledge, language skills, or current concentration level. –Eliminate unnecessary complexity –Be consistent with user expectations and intuition –Accommodate a wide range of literacy and language skills –Arrange information consistent with its importance –Provide effective prompting and feedback during and after task completion

21 * Design For Disability Universal Design Principle IV: Perceptible Information - Design communicates necessary information effectively to the user regardless of ambient conditions or the user's sensory abilities. –Use different modes (i.e., pictorial, verbal, tactile) for redundant presentation of essential information –Provide adequate contrast between essential information and its surroundings –Maximize "legibility" of essential information –Differentiate elements in ways that can be described (i.e., make it easy to give instructions or directions) –Provide compatibility with a variety of techniques or devices used by people with sensory limitations

22 * Design For Disability Universal Design Principle V: Tolerance for Error - Design minimizes hazards and the adverse consequences of accidental or unintended actions. –Arrange elements to minimize hazards and errors: most used elements are made most accessible; hazardous elements eliminated, isolated, or shielded –Provide warnings of hazards and errors –Provide fail safe features –Discourage unconscious action in tasks that require vigilance

23 * Design For Disability Universal Design Principle VI: Low Physical Effort - Design can be used efficiently, and comfortably, and with a minimum of fatigue. –Allow user to maintain a neutral body position –Use reasonable operating forces –Minimize repetitive actions

24 * Design For Disability Universal Design Principle VII: Size and Space for Approach and Use - Appropriate size and space is provided for approach, reach, manipulation, and use regardless of user's body size, posture, or mobility. –Provide a clear line of sight to important elements for any seated or standing user –Make reach to all components comfortable for any seated or standing user –Accommodate variations in hand and grip size –Provide adequate space for the use of assistive devices or personal assistance

25 * Design For Disability Introduction Legislation / Standards Universal Design Principles Public Facilities Residential Facilities Automotive Mobility Universal Web Design Social and Emotional Considerations References

26 * Public Facilities When designing a new public facility, there are several areas in and around the facility to apply design for disabilities. The following are some examples: –Parking Lots –Entrances and Exits –Travel Routes –Public Restrooms –Restaurants –Emergency Notifications

27 * Parking Lots An existing parking area without accessible parking spaces

28 * Parking Lots Parking lots need to be designed to accommodate vans equipped with wheelchair lifts and need to have spaces wide enough to maneuver a wheelchair or other type of assisting equipment

29 * Parking Lots

30 * Entrances and Exits Ramps at the entrances and exits of buildings

31 * Entrances and Exits Turnstiles are not accessible to most people with disabilities. Not only are they not wide enough, they are not practical for someone in a wheelchair.

32 * Entrances and Exits Providing a gate adjacent to a turnstile makes this type of entranceway more accessible

33 * Entrances and Exits Examples of door handles that are not accessible This type of handle requires the user to tightly grasp the handle to pull it open This type of handle requires the user to pinch down on the thumb latch while grasping the handle

34 * Entrances and Exits Examples of door handles that are accessible Both of these handles are accessible because they can be operated without tightly grasping, pinching or twisting

35 * Entrances and Exits Door openings Minimum doorway clearance opening Maximum doorway width

36 * Travel Routes Hallways 90 o Turn Turning around an obstruction

37 * Travel Routes Objects that protrude into the hallways must be taken into consideration. The example below shows a blind person identifying objects in a hallway.

38 * Travel Routes –Signs have specifications that include: Character proportion and height Raised and brailed characters Pictorial symbol signs Finish and contrast Mounting location and height –International symbols of accessibility Accessibility Text Telephones Access for Hearing Loss

39 * Travel Routes Drinking fountains have specifications to make them more accessible. Some include: Maximum spout height Knee clearance Control that is operable with one hand and does not require tight grasping, pinching, or twisting of the wrist The force required to operate the control cannot exceed 5 lbs

40 * Travel Routes Elevators Must operate automatically Must have self-leveling feature Hall call buttons have a specific height Lanterns have visual and audio signals Door reopening device Specific chimes for hall and car calls Specific floor area Interior control dimensions Emergency communications

41 * Public Restrooms Designing an accessible public restroom includes taking into account: Size and arrangement Doors Grab bars Toilet height Flushing device Paper dispensers

42 * Public Restrooms Must also consider: Urinals Mirrors Exposed pipes and surfaces Faucets Soap dispensers Sink height and depth Handrails Grab bars This type of sink handle is easy to reach and can be easily operated with only one hand

43 * Restaurants Public restaurants must accommodate people with disabilities: Counters and bar dimensions Accessible isles Dining areas Tableware and condiment areas

44 * Restaurants

45 *

46 * Emergency Notifications Alarms Audible alarms –Must exceed sound level in the room by at least 15 dbA or exceed any maximum sound level with a duration of 60 seconds by 5 dbA, whichever is louder –Signals shall not exceed 120 dbA Visual alarm specification include: –Lamp type –Lamp color –Duration of pulse –Intensity –Flash rate –Placement height

47 * Design For Disability Introduction Legislation / Standards Universal Design Principles Public Facilities Residential Facilities Automotive Mobility Universal Web Design Social and Emotional Considerations References

48 * Design for Disability Residential Facilities An adaptable home is one which is built or renovated to allow low cost and easy adaptation to the changing needs of the residents. For disabled people and elderly, this means that devices assisting the activities of daily living can easily be installed. A prerequisite in order to achieve the benefits of a smart home is a barrier-free physical environment that supports the residents.

49 * Design for Disability Residential Facilities Layout of the house: –Layout of the home should be clear. –Oblique walls will easily give a wrong-direction impression. –Big areas should preferably have a clear conceptual layout, like a rectangular or square area. –Pillars, etc. should not be of same colour as background. –Living room, toilet/shower, and bed-space on ground floor in 2 story buildings. –Bedroom should preferably be next to a bathroom. –Provisions for stair lift and space for through floor lift should be considered. –When there are indented areas, the straight, imagined continuation of the wall should be free for walking. –Walking can be supported by clear contrast of the floor material to the surrounding walls

50 * Design for Disability Residential Facilities Basic Requirements: Ramps ➢ 1:12 maximum slope ➢ 30" maximum rise ➢ 36" minimum clear width ➢ Level landings at top and bottom at least as wide as the ramp and 60" clear length. (60" x 60" if ramp changes direction)

51 * Design for Disability Residential Facilities Handrails ➢ Ramps with a rise greater than 6" or a horizontal projection greater than 72" must have handrails on both sides ➢ 12" extension parallel to ground top and bottom ➢ 1¼" - 1½" diameter of gripping surface ➢ 1½" clear space between rail and wall ➢ Top of gripping surfaces mounted 34" - 38" above ramp ➢ Ends of rails rounded or returned smoothly to floor, wall, or post.

52 * Design for Disability Residential Facilities Stairs ➢ 11" minimum wide treads, uniform riser heights and tread widths ➢ 1½" maximum nosing projection, undersides to be sloped with a minimum angle of 60° from the horizontal ➢ Complying handrails on both sides ➢ 12" horizontal projection of handrail at top; handrail to continue to slope width of one tread plus have 12" horizontal extension at bottom. ➢ A riser height difference of only ⅛” is enough to cause someone to trip

53 * Design for Disability Residential Facilities Elevators ➢ Hall call buttons - 42" to centerline ➢ Hall lantern fixtures - 72" minimum to centerline ➢ Door reopening device - 5" and 29" ➢ Car control floor buttons - 54" maximum (side approach) and 48" maximum (front approach) ➢ Raised letters & Braille ➢ Car emergency controls - 35" minimum to centerline ➢ Emergency communication system - 48" maximum to highest operable part ➢ Car size - 54" deep by 80" wide minimum (68" wide alternate) ➢ Illumination levels - not less than 5 foot-candles

54 * Design for Disability Residential Facilities Doors ➢ 32" minimum clear width ➢ ½" maximum threshold height ➢ 48" plus width of door swinging into space clear width for two doors in a series ➢ 48" maximum height for door handles, pulls, latches, locks, and other operating devices - operable with closed fist ➢ 3 seconds minimum sweep (closing) period ➢ 5 lbs maximum opening force for interior hinged, sliding, or folding doors ➢ 8.5 lbs maximum opening force for exterior doors

55 * Design for Disability Residential Facilities Showers ➢ Clear floor space varies by configuration ➢ Walk-in shower with ½” maximum curb ➢ Grab bars required - 36" rear grab bar, 42" side grab bar ➢ Controls maximum 44", mounted on the wide side of shower area

56 * Design for Disability Residential Facilities Toilets ➢ Clear floor space varies by configuration ➢ 17" - 19" high to top of toilet seat ➢ Grab bars required - 36" rear grab bar, 42" side grab bar ➢ Flush controls maximum 44", mounted on the wide side of toilet areas

57 * Design for Disability Residential Facilities Sinks ➢ 34" maximum to rim or counter surface ➢ 29" minimum clear knee space to bottom of apron ➢ 27" minimum clear to bottom of sink bowl ➢ Clear space 30" wide by 19" deep underneath sinks ➢ 6½" maximum sink bowl depth ➢ 30" wide by 48" deep clear floor space for forward approach ➢ Faucets operable with closed fist

58 * Design for Disability Residential Facilities Fixed storage (i.e., cabinets, shelves, closets, drawers, etc.) ➢ Clear floor space of 30" x 48" for forward or parallel approach ➢ Reach ranges apply to accessible storage spaces ➢ Clothes rods or shelves 54" maximum for side approach, 48" maximum for forward approach

59 * Design for Disability Residential Facilities Controls and operating mechanisms ➢ 30" x 48" clear floor space for wheelchair approach ➢ 48" - 54" maximum height to highest operable part for forward or parallel approach ➢ 15" minimum for electrical and communications system receptacles on walls ➢ All controls and mechanisms to be operable with one hand and not require tight grasping, pinching, or twisting of the wrist, with maximum force of 5 lbs for activation

60 * Design for Disability Residential Facilities I. Kitchen ➢ Raised dishwasher to provide toe space for wheelchairs, less bending during loading, as well as a raised counter top for working while standing. ➢ Pullout cabinets under sinks and cooktops ➢ Drawers for storing bulk items ➢ Tambour cabinets for lowered storage and easy access to items ➢ Full height pantry units with lazy susans and door storage ➢ Lowered upper cabinets with glass fronts ➢ Open storage racks for often used items ➢ Larger toe-kick for wheelchair access

61 * Design for Disability Residential Facilities Ideal kitchen layouts

62 * Design for Disability Residential Facilities Cabinets ➢ Pull down adjustable shelf unit that can be installed in new or existing cabinets in order to make reaching items on the upper shelves easier ➢ Counterbalanced and easy to operate ➢ Includes rails to keep items from sliding off during operation ➢ Device greatly enhances the usability of kitchen storage for everyone who has difficulty with upper cabinets.

63 * Design for Disability Residential Facilities Pull-out drawers ➢ Pull-out drawer shelves equipped with full extension ball bearing hardware ➢ Accommodates different sizes of canned and packaged goods, cooking utensils, glassware, etc. ➢ Can be used efficiently and comfortably and with minimum fatigue, due to full- extension ball-bearing hardware ➢ Space is provided for approach, reach, manipulation, and use regardless of the user's body size, posture, or mobility

64 * Design for Disability Residential Facilities Kitchen sinks & Cooktops (adjustable) ➢ Touch of a button raises and lowers sink height from inches ➢ At lower positions, the height is ideal for seated use or wheelchair heights ➢ Raised to 36 inches matches the counter height of standard base cabinets

65 * Design for Disability Residential Facilities Kitchen sinks & Cooktops (adjustable) Adjustable Cook top Adjustable Sink

66 * Design for Disability Residential Facilities Cabinets (adjustable) ➢ Approach for the Cabinet provides a 20” range of adjustment ➢ Cabinets can be moved up to meet a standard- height counter

67 * Design for Disability Residential Facilities II. Bathroom ➢ Grab bars make maneuvering easier for the individual in a wheelchair ➢ Towel bars will not support the weight of a person so use grab bars as an alternative ➢ Sinks with an opening underneath ➢ Bathroom mirrors and medicine cabinets installed for a seated user ➢ Adjustable-height shower head is adjusted to suit different users ➢ Single lever faucet handles are universal for all individuals ➢ In-tub showers are inaccessible to wheelchair users. Provide a tub transfer seat and properly located grab bars ➢ Stall shower allows wheelchair users easy access

68 * Design for Disability Residential Facilities Ideal Bathroom Layout

69 * Design for Disability Residential Facilities Recessed Wall Mount Toilet ➢ Wall recessed tank saving up to 9" of legroom ➢ Large flush actuator is accessible from either side and is also the service panel ➢ Can be mounted at varying heights

70 * Design for Disability Residential Facilities Elevated toilet ➢ 3 to 4” higher than standard heights ➢ Elongated front makes it easier to transfer from a wheelchair ➢ Adjustable bars make for easy maneuverability

71 * Design for Disability Residential Facilities Faucets ➢ Infrared faucet incorporates state-of-the-art microelectronic technology ➢ No need to touch any part of the infrared faucet ➢ Water flow is provided when hand movement is detected by infrared sensor under spout

72 * Design for Disability Residential Facilities Sinks ➢ Similar to kitchen sinks but doesn’t have to be as elaborate ➢ Hinged doors open fully allowing legs to fit under sink comfortably

73 * Design for Disability Residential Facilities Showers ➢ Easy way to help minimize the difficulty of transfers ➢ Slight decline of the shower's floor assists the water to drain properly

74 * Design for Disability Residential Facilities Anti-Scalding device ➢ Prevent scalding by making sure the water stays at the temperature preset ➢ Recommended between 98° and 115° F

75 * Design for Disability Residential Facilities Grab Bars ➢ Helps assist you getting in and out of the tub or shower ➢ Reduces risk of falls ➢ Falls are the most common household accident

76 * Design for Disability Residential Facilities III. Miscellaneous ➢ Storage & Closets Walk-in closets Pull-down or swing-down rods Clothing carousel ➢ Doors & Doorways Use keyless locking systems Lever door handles ➢ Exterior to The Home Automatic garage doors Barrier free entrances Intercom doorbells Ramps

77 * Design For Disability Introduction Legislation / Standards Universal Design Principles Public Facilities Residential Facilities Automotive Mobility Universal Web Design Social and Emotional Considerations References

78 * Automotive Mobility Background Traditional automotive design does not account for people with physical handicaps (as demonstrated by SAE 95 th percentile mannequin used for occupant package engineering) Disabled population is increasing Personal transportation is important to the independence of individuals with disabilities Most of the OEMs provide programs to customize their vehicles to suit the needs of the disabled Automotive manufacturers and private organizations provide funding aid to offset the cost required to adapt a vehicle to the needs of its user Aftermarket firms have modification and licensing agreements with the OEM’s to ensure that vehicle quality and warranties are not sacrificed

79 * Automotive Mobility Each individual’s level of disability is unique. There are numerous adaptive mobility solutions available for people with disabilities In order to assess the correct equipment to suit an individual’s vehicle mobility, a complete evaluation is performed. A complete evaluation includes vision screening and, in general, assesses: –Muscle strength, flexibility, and range of motion –Coordination and reaction time –Judgment and decision making abilities –Ability to drive with adaptive equipment After completion of the evaluation, a list of recommended solutions can be developed

80 * Automotive Mobility Adaptive Equipment - The term "adaptive equipment" describes devices that make it easier for people with physical disabilities or impairments to drive or be transported in a vehicle. Examples include: Carriers Door Openers Hand Controls Lifts Lowered Floors Miscellaneous Driving Aids Parking Brake Extensions Steering Wheelchair Restraints

81 * Automotive Mobility Carriers Bumper-Mounted Carrier - for manual wheelchairs and is mounted on the bumper. Most of the bumper-mounted carriers can be removed to allow access to the trunk. Car-Top Carrier - an electric motor-driven hoist operated by switches. It works by a steel pin, which lowers and picks up a manual wheelchair. The chair folds as it rises to the carrier. Hitch-Mounted Carrier - tilts down when loading the wheelchair and then easily tilts up and locks into place. Pickup Truck Carrier - stores the wheelchair in the bed of the truck after the wheelchair has been folded and picked up by an electric-driven motor. Certain manufacturers' carriers will pick up the rigid chair, power wheelchair, or a scooter not folded.

82 * Automotive Mobility Door Openers Chain Door Opener - slide door that travels in a track located at the top of the van. Pivot Arm and Push/Pull Gear Door Opener - used to open double-outdoors outward. Parking Brake Extensions Electric Parking Brake - motorized and can be set and released by a switch located within easy reach of the driver. This is ideal for those with limited foot and leg strength. The use of electric parking brakes have been used for customers without disabilities as a upgrade to the manual parking brake and also for weight reduction.. Manual Parking Brake - for those with limited foot and leg strength. It is a handle attached to the parking brake and is long enough to operate by hand.

83 * Automotive Mobility Parking Brake Extension

84 * Automotive Mobility Hand Controls ELECTRICAL Push/Pull Control - brakes the vehicle when pushed toward the floor and accelerates the vehicle when pulled upward. Push-Right-Angle/Pull Hand Control - accelerates and brakes the vehicle. To accelerate, the handle is pulled down. To brake, the handle is pushed toward the floor. Push/Twist Control - similar to accelerating on a motorcycle. The handle is twisted to accelerate and pushed toward the floor to brake. Quad Hand Controls - consist of extra L-shaped bracket attached to the hand controls. MECHANICAL Push/Rotary Control - operates by pushing forward to apply the brakes and rotating backward to apply the gas.

85 * Automotive Mobility Hand Controls:

86 * Automotive Mobility Lifts An Automatic lift will fold, unfold, lower, and rise by operating a switch on either the side of the lift, on the dash, or outside the van. The Semi-Automatic lift operates similar to the automatic lift, but requires manual folding and unfolding of the platform. Electrical/Mechanical Lift - operates by chain or screw rod and depends upon the power provided by the battery. Hydraulic Lift - uses a pump and cylinder to raise and lower the lift in conjunction with the van's battery. Outside Lift - requires installing a trailer hitch as the scooter is carried on the outside of the vehicle. Pickup Truck Lift - picks up the scooter and stores it in the bed of the truck. It can lift a rigid chair (manual), an electric scooter, or a power wheelchair.

87 * Automotive Mobility Lifts Platform Lift - requires either two side doors, or one sliding door on a van and is stored either on the side, the rear or under the floor of the van. Rotary (Swing) Lift - beneficial because of the parking conveniences, due to less room needed to enter and to exit the van. This device swings into the van, and the lift platform sits on the floor in the middle of the van. Trunk Lift - puts the scooter into the trunk, provided the scooter measures less than the trunk. Under-the-Floor Lift - only pump and motor are located inside.

88 * Automotive Mobility Lifts

89 * Automotive Mobility Lowered Floors Cargo Lowered Floor - the floor area behind the driver and passenger through to the rear wheels is lowered allowing wheelchair passengers to transfer to the driver's seat. Driver's Lowered Floor - not only is the floor area behind the driver and the passenger seats lowered but the area under the steering wheel is lowered as well. Power Pan - is a motor that moves a section of the floor up and down in the driver's area large enough for a wheelchair, which operates this device. Wheel Wells - are convenient for drivers who cannot transfer to the driver’s seat. It consists of two channels for the wheels of the wheelchair.

90 * Automotive Mobility Miscellaneous Driving Aids Adapted Key Holder - for those with limited muscle control, the key holder is made in various shapes and from plastic and metal materials. Cross Over Gear and Turn Signals - for those who have limited use of their left hand. The turn signal is crossed over to the right side of the steering wheel. The same is true for the right lever. Dual Battery System - not required, but recommended to assist in the event of primary battery failure. With the additional battery, the added power equipment will not cause an overdrain on the OEM battery. Left Foot Accelerator - used by those with limited or no use of their right foot. The left foot accelerator allows the driver to both accelerate and brake with their left foot. Transfer Handles and/or Bars - made of a metal that body acids will not corrode to assist someone who cannot transfer to a car or van seat.

91 * Automotive Mobility Miscellaneous Driving Aids Pedal Extensions - for persons dwarf or midget with shorter legs. The removable extensions attach to the existing pedals and make it easier for the driver to reach the pedals. Power Seat Base - installed as either a 4-way power seat or a 6-way seat. The 4-way power seat adjusts back and forth as well as up and down. The 6-way seat moves back and forth, up and down, and swivels for those with limited muscle control in their upper extremities. Ramp - most useful when assistance is available. Expertise and help is needed to measure for the proper length of the ramp. Many ramps are available: aluminum, expanded metal, foldable, and telescoping. They may be portable or installed on the vehicle - which requires the floor to be lowered. Removable Driver Seat Base - allows the seat base to be mounted on wheels or casters, able to be easily removed and stored in the rear of the van.

92 * Automotive Mobility Steering DEVICES Amputee Ring - designed best for those with prosthesis. The hook of the prosthesis will fit into the ring and remain in place while driving. "Para" Spinner Knob - consists of a base, which is adjustable, and a detachable knob that can be comfortably gripped with one hand. Palm Grip - ideal for someone who has control of the wrist but is limited in grip strength. The hand is always held flat to the steering wheel while driving. Quad Grip with Pin - a 3/8" steel shaft from a stiff leather cuff that inserts into the spinner base. A stable wrist is required. The pin may be attached on a horizontal or a vertical position.

93 * Automotive Mobility Steering DEVICES (cont.) Quad Steering Cuff or Splint - a wrist cock up splint with a post attached in a vertical or horizontal position. It is ideal for persons either lacking hand and wrist function or those unable to use the above steering devices. Spinner Cuff - operates as the hand is held in place by a cuff and fastened with Velcro. A lockable short rod is placed in the base of the steering wheel near the palm of the hand to allow the person to steer. Tri-Post or Tri-Pin Spinner Knob - designed primarily for quadriplegics, this device stabilizes and secures the hand and wrist while driving. V-Grip or U-Grip - keeps the hand in an upright position and in place while driving. It is used primarily by quadriplegics who have adequate use of wrist movements.

94 * Automotive Mobility Steering MODIFICATIONS Deep Dish Steering Wheel - used for those who have limited reach to be able to turn the wheel safely due to its smaller size. Foot Steering Controls - for drivers who need to maneuver the vehicle totally by their feet. Horizontal Steering - the steering column is easily adjusted by motorization for those drivers with limited reach. Steering Column Extension - the steering column is extended by 2-6 inches allowing room to steer for individuals who drive from their wheelchairs.

95 * Automotive Mobility Steering SENSITIZED STEERING Joystick - very similar to the joystick on a wheelchair, is made on a larger scale and allows the driver to maneuver the vehicle. Low Effort Steering - reduces the effort needed to steer a vehicle by approximately 40 percent. Reduced Effort Steering - can assist drivers who have limited use of their upper extremities. Servo Controls - unlike the other hand controls, are operated by an auxiliary motor of some type, rather than the pressure of an individual's hand. It reduces the amount of strength needed by the driver. Zero Effort Steering - reduces the effort needed to steer a vehicle by approximately 70 percent.

96 * Automotive Mobility Wheelchair Restraints Electric Restraint System - consists of a device on the bottom of the chair and another device on the floor of the van. When the two devices are properly aligned, a lock will sound and the wheelchair will not move. Manual Restraints or Tie-Downs System - requires an attendant because it cannot be operated from the wheelchair. Four straps are snugly placed around the four wheelchair wheels to help prevent rolling during vehicle movement. Upper Torso Restraint - used in addition to the wheelchair restraints for those with weak muscles in the upper trunk area and poor balance.

97 * Automotive Mobility Examples Hand Operated Drivers Controls

98 * Automotive Mobility Examples Joystick Steering – Automated Wheelchair lift

99 * Design For Disability Introduction Legislation / Standards Universal Design Principles Public Facilities Residential Facilities Automotive Mobility Universal Web Design Social and Emotional Considerations References

100 * Web Accessibility and Usability Design According to U.S. Census Bureau figures, 1 in 5 Americans have some kind of disability, and 1 in 10 Americans have a severe disability The Challenge: -It is ironic that while people with disabilities would benefit the most from the web, the majority of web initiatives ignore their needs -Not only do most web sites ignore accessibility issues, they also ignore usability factors, thus making web site navigation a challenging task for anyone with or without disabilities

101 * Disabilities Impacted by Web Usage People with complete loss of sight Others with vision impairments Total or partial hearing loss Color Blindness Dyslexia Cognitive and Physical Impairments

102 * Web Page Design: Consider Disabilities of Potential User Accessing the Web with a disability is certainly possible Using assist devices and specialized computer software allows the user to have data from the web transformed into usable signals –e.g. - People with low vision can use screen magnifying software to increase the visible size of type and images –e.g. - People with no vision can use screen reading software or Braille-readers

103 * Specialized Computer Software Screen reading software transforms text to speech, actually speaking the contents of a web page to the user Braille readers transform the text from a web site onto a moving Braille keypad The problem that exists is that both of these methods are extremely linear, moving along a web page from left-to-right, or top-to-bottom, and dependent upon proper design and construction of the web page

104 * The Solution Execute a great web site and web applications that are easier for everyone to navigate Account for the many different types of users visiting web sites –The users will consist of different cultural backgrounds with varying levels of ability Web sites and applications must be designed with the user in mind This approach produces solutions that: –Enhances the users’ experience –Eliminates Human Error

105 * Web Page Design As you visit your favorite sites, take a few moments to imagine navigating through that content if you were unable to see, or unable to hear How might you use a Web site if you had difficulty controlling your arm and leg movement?

106 * Web Page Design Ensuring that a web site is accessible to people with disabilities should not be viewed as a burden Accessible sites are beneficial to more than just the disabled Accessible sites require the site owner to think more logically about how content is organized and presented

107 * Website Accessibility To determine if your web site is accessible, you can utilize a highly-valued tool called Bobby Bobby was developed, and maintained by the Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST) The tool allows any user to enter a web address and Bobby will run an accessibility report

108 * Website Accessibility Not every site which passes the automated Bobby tests should be labeled as accessible Site Owners should become familiar with web accessibility guidelines and the Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) When developing a site, site owners should identify web design and programming companies which have experience not only creating basic accessible web sites, but also web applications which pay attention to accessibility standards

109 * Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) WAI is important and essential for the following reasons: –People with disabilities have the right to access any available information just as easily as those without disabilities –While all federal agencies are required to make public information systems accessible for people with disabilities, it is a matter of time before all commercial web sites must comply with new federal requirements

110 * Design For Disability Introduction Legislation / Standards Universal Design Principles Public Facilities Residential Facilities Automotive Mobility Universal Web Design Social and Emotional Considerations References

111 * Social and Emotional Considerations When designing products for the disabled, it is important to keep in mind the emotions and feelings that using this product might cause for a person with disabilities. A device may feel institutional and ‘not cool’, which can lead to additional problems.

112 * Social and Emotional Considerations An assistive device may make a person stand out more than a conventional device, causing the user to: -Look Different -Become Embarrassed -Become Self Conscious -Do that particular activity less

113 * Social and Emotional Considerations Although a device may improve an activity for someone, if it leads to the person doing the activity less it may be leading to more harm than good.

114 * Social and Emotional Considerations Example: Many assistive eating utensils cause individuals to eat less, especially in social environments because they feel embarrassed. This can lead to additional issues such as malnourishment and retraction from public environments, both of which can lead to more serious concerns.

115 * Social and Emotional Considerations Many times people no longer do activities in public and social environments when they have to use assistive devices. This can cause additional concerns. When designing for disability it is important to consider the emotional states the design will cause and what impact they may have.

116 * Law Requirements Accessibility for the disability is not an elective, it is required by law The Americans with Disabilities (ADA) calls for all parts of educational programs to be accessible to people with disabilities Web pages can be considered part of an educational program, according to a recent case law

117 * Designing For Ease of Access Maintaining a Standard page layout –Once a layout design is determined, stick with it –A consistent interface for web pages makes it easier for anyone contacting a site to find information –Buttons and navigational links should always appear in the same place on a page, and headers should follow a consistent format Who Benefits –Everyone, particularly people with learning and vision impairments

118 * Designing For Ease of Access Use universally recognized HTML tags –Don’t use formatting tags, such as, which makes text flash on and off that are only supported by one Web browser –In order to facilitate scanning it is recommended to emphasize the structure of the page by proper HTML markups: –Use for the highest level heading –Use for the main parts of the information –Use for lower levels for even finer details of information Who Benefits –All potential Website visitors, but especially the blind user

119 * Designing For Ease of Access Test your pages with a variety of browsers and computers –Test pages on different Web browsers, including a text-based program such as Lynx –Examine pages using various computer platforms, such as Macintosh and PC Who Benefits –All Potential Website visitors

120 * Designing For Ease of Access Provide alternate text for browsers that can not display images –Many people can not see pictures or drawings This may be due to a disability or as a result of using a text-based browser –Alternative text tag with a graphic allows for a written description of the image to be conveyed –Add utility descriptions that verbalize the meaning or role of the image in the dialogue What is the image intended to communicate and what will happen if it is clicked? Who Benefits –Users who can not see images

121 * Designing For Ease of Access Use Tables Judiciously –Text format tables are not supported by all browsers and can be confusing to read for people using voice output –Screen reading software can not differentiate between columns, so text is read from left to right –Use a de-columnized version of the information Who Benefits –Anyone using a browser that doesn’t support tables, and anyone using voice output to read text

122 * Designing For Ease of Access Avoid using a single mode of information other than text –If information is to be conveyed using audio or video files, provide text-based alternatives Ex. If an audio file contains dialogue or lyrics, a transcript of the file will enable someone with a hearing impairment to access it –Video may contain information that can be provided in descriptive text form Who Benefits –Visitors who are blind or deaf

123 * Designing For Ease of Access Provide alternatives to Image-maps –Image-maps are graphics with multiple areas that, when selected with a mouse or other pointer, take you to another web page or section –Providing text as an alternate to the image-map will ensure accessibility by a wider audience Who Benefits –Those who can not see images, anyone using a browser without graphics capability, and users who have turned off loading of graphics

124 * Designing For Ease of Access Avoid complicated backgrounds –Many backgrounds do not provide enough contrast for easy viewing –Users with visual impairments often invert their screen colors due to light sensitivity or other needs –Backgrounds and other formatting that changes the color of the text can make a page inaccessible to someone with a visual or reading impairment –If a custom background is required, select something that provides good contrast with the text Who Benefits –People with visual impairments and anyone accessing via slower connections

125 DF Disability Checklist From *

126 *

127 * In Summary Universal Web Design improves web access for everyone Universal Web Design is best initiated early in the web development process Universal Web Design costs little to implement if completed early in the development phase

128 * References –http://concretechange.home.mindspring.comhttp://concretechange.home.mindspring.com –http://eleanors.home.mindspring.comhttp://eleanors.home.mindspring.com –http://evolution.skf.comhttp://evolution.skf.com –http://msucares.comhttp://msucares.com –http://natri.uky.edu/resources/viewer/moblaid/vehicle/mobilcar.htmhttp://natri.uky.edu/resources/viewer/moblaid/vehicle/mobilcar.htm –http://trace.wisc.eduhttp://trace.wisc.edu –http://udhomes.comhttp://udhomes.com –http://www.aarp.orghttp://www.aarp.org –http://www.aarp.orghttp://www.aarp.org –http://www.accessboard.gov/adaag/html/adaag.htm#4.27.4http://www.accessboard.gov/adaag/html/adaag.htm# –http://www.access-by-design.comhttp://www.access-by-design.com –http://www.accessiblesociety.orghttp://www.accessiblesociety.org –http://www.ap.buffalo.eduhttp://www.ap.buffalo.edu –http://www.atnet.orghttp://www.atnet.org –http://www.ddmc.org.ukhttp://www.ddmc.org.uk

129 * References –http://www.design.ncsu.eduhttp://www.design.ncsu.edu –http://www.extension.iastate.eduhttp://www.extension.iastate.edu –http://www.isdesignet.com/Magazine/Junhttp://www.isdesignet.com/Mag azine/Jun’95/DesignDisab.htmlhttp://www.isdesignet.com/Magazine/Jun’95/DesignDisab.html –http://www.ksu.eduhttp://www.ksu.edu –http://www.makoa.org/web-design.htmlhttp://www.makoa.org/web-design.html –http://www.mobilitymotoringprogram.com/http://www.mobilitymotoringprogram.com/ –http://www.ncosh.comhttp://www.ncosh.com –http://www.netlogix.nethttp://www.netlogix.net –http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/cars/rules/adaptive/brochure/brochure.htmlhttp://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/cars/rules/adaptive/brochure/brochure.html –http://www.optionsil.comhttp://www.optionsil.com –http://www.rlis.ford.com/ftj/publication/2001/06/ftj /ftj pdfhttp://www.rlis.ford.com/ftj/publication/2001/06/ftj /ftj pdf –http://www.si.eduhttp://www.si.edu –http://www.toolbase.orghttp://www.toolbase.org

130 * References –http://www.trace.wisc.eduhttp://www.trace.wisc.edu –http://www.udhomes.comhttp://www.udhomes.com –http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/adata1.pdfhttp://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/adata1.pdf –http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/smbusgd.pdfhttp://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/smbusgd.pdf –http://www.useit.comhttp://www.useit.com –http://www.washington.eduhttp://www.washington.edu –http://www.xoc.nethttp://www.xoc.net


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