5 Medulla Oblongata Located just above the spinal cord. Involved in control ofblood pressureheart ratebreathing.Medulla vs brainstem – cat severed above medulla – still breathe and live but can’t purposely do things; severed brain from body. Shot in the medulla – die immediately because regulate breathing. Brainstem is crossover point where nerves to and from each side of the brain connect with the body’s opposite side.
6 CerebellumFine muscle movements. Coordination of movements and balance
7 Controls arousal and ability to focus our attention. Reticular FormationControls arousal and ability to focus our attention.If stimulatedIf DestroyedPonsContributes to sleep and arousalReticular formation – nerve network in brainstem that controls arousal, sleep, and attention. Lesion it, cat lapse into a coma.
9 Thalamus Switchboard of the brain. Receives sensory signals from the spinal cord and sends them to other parts of the forebrain.Every sense except smell.Thalamus – act as a sensory switchboard relaying incoming signals to appropriate brain regions. Does not relay sensory signals dealing with smell.
10 The Limbic SystemLimbic system – amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus (reward center) and pituitary gland. Reward deficiency syndrome – genetically disposed deficiency in the natural brain systems for pleasure and well-being that leads people to crave whatever provides that missing pleasure and relieves negative feelings – leads to addictive disorders like alcoholism and food binging. Lesion amygdala in cat and becomes scared of mouse.
11 Hypothalamus Controls and regulates Body temperature Sexual Arousal HungerThirstEndocrine System (Fight or Flight)
12 HippocampusInvolved in the processing and storage of memories.
13 Amygdala Involved in how we process memory. More involved in volatile emotions like anger.The emotion of anger has not changed much throughout evolution.
14 Nucleus AccumbensA region in the frontal cortex that directs motivation to seek rewards.The nucleus accumbens is activated by anticipated or received awards (i.e., monetary, chocolate).
16 Frontal Lobes Abstract thought, personality, decision making Contains Motor Cortex: sends signals to our body controlling muscle movements.Contains Broca’s Area: responsible for controlling muscles that produce speech.Damage to Broca’s Area is called Broca’s Aphasia: unable to make movements to talk.
17 Parietal LobesContain Sensory Cortex: receives incoming touch sensations from rest of the body.Most of the Parietal Lobes are made up of Association Areas.
18 Functions of the Cortex The Motor Cortex is the area at the rear of the frontal lobes that control voluntary movements. The Sensory Cortex (parietal cortex) receives information from skin surface and sense organs.Preview Question 8: What are the functions of the cerebral cortex?
19 Association AreasMore intelligent animals have increased “uncommitted” or association areas of the cortex.
20 Occipital Lobes Deals with vision. Contains Visual Cortex: interprets messages from our eyes into images we can understand.
21 Temporal Lobes Process sound sensed by our ears. Interpreted in Auditory Cortex.Contains Wernike's Area: interprets written and spoken speech.Wernike's Aphasia: unable to understand language: the syntax and grammar jumbled.
23 Language PathwaysBroca's area and Wernicke's area are connected by a bundle of nerve fibers called the arcuate fasciculus. Damage to the arcuate fasciculus causes a disorder called conduction aphasia. People with conduction aphasia can understand language, but their speech does not make sense and they cannot repeat words
24 Speaking the Written Word To speak a word that is read, information must first get to the primary visual cortex. From the primary visual cortex, information is transmitted to the posterior speech area, including Wernicke's area. From Wernicke's area, information travels to Broca's area, then to the Primary Motor Cortex.
25 Speaking the Heard Word To speak a word that is heard, information must first get to the primary auditory cortex. From the primary auditory cortex, information is transmitted to the posterior speech area, including Wernicke's area. From Wernicke's area, information travels to Broca's area, then to the Primary Motor Cortex.
26 LanguageAphasia is an impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impaired speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impaired understanding).
27 Specialization & Integration Brain activity when hearing, seeing, and speaking words
28 Brain Activity when Hearing, Seeing, and Speaking Words
29 Memorize the Parts of the Brain: Episode 72 of Psych Files Cerebral Cortex: imagine a Texas cowboy hat on top of a brain. The cortex is the outer layer of the brain just under the hat where complex thinking occurs.Corpus Callosum: The corpus callosum is the fibers that connect the two halves of the brain. Thus, it adds the two parts together. Think of the corPLUS CalloSUM. Since the corpus callosum coordinates communication between the two hemispheres, think of corpus Call Someone.Thalamus: the thalamus takes sensations that come from the body and directs them to the appropriate part of the brain for processing. Thus, think of Hal and Amos – two traffic cops in the brain who direct these sensations to the right route.Hypothalamus: the hypothalamus regulates a number of things in the body such as body temperature, thirst, hunger, and sex drive. Think of “hypo the llamas”. Your llamas are hot, sweaty and thirsty and you use a hypo to spray water on them to cool them down and give them some water.Hippocampus: the hippocampus is the seat of memory. Think of a hippo with a compass. The hippo uses the compass to find his way back to the swamp because he can’t remember where it is.
30 Memorize the Parts of the Brain: Episode 72 of Psych Files Amygdala: the amygdala controls your sense of fear. Think of either a MIG coming right at you and, of course, making you afraid, or picture a scary wig with dollars in itPons: the pons helps you relax and sleep. Think of a relaxing pond.Cerebellum: the cerebellum helps in coordination and balance. Picture your favorite athlete with bells all over his/her body (hanging from his/her clothes, hands, feet, etc.).Reticular Formation: the reticular formation helps you to become alert and aroused when you need to be. Think of what would happen if you were napping and someone tickled you: your reticular formation would kick into gear to wake you up.Medulla: the medulla regulates the autonomic activity of your heart and lungs. Picture medals over your heart and lungs, or stick those medals into a heart.
31 Pg 174-176 Answer Key Reticular Formation – wakefulness and arousal Cerebellum – coordination and balanceFrontal lobe – decision makingHippocampus – memoryAmygdala – anger, emotionHypothalamus – regulating temperature, hunger, thirst, and sexMedulla – heart rate, blood pressure, breathingMotor cortex – voluntary movement (so doesn’t really apply to a reflex like in this example; bad example) Better answer may be sensory cortexSensory cortex – sense of touchTemporal lobe – hearingThalamus – sensory switchboard, except for sense of smellPituitary gland – produces hormones in charge of growth, thyroid activity, puberty (production of testosterone/estrogen)Occipital lobe - vision
32 (pgs Case #1)Anne the landscape artist is standing at her easel, painting with her right hand as she looks out the window at her garden. She’s listening to classical music as she paints.Anne’s motor cortex is operating because she is moving her arm to paint. Then ask the class whether the left or the right motor cortex is activated when Anne moves her right arm. Also, I can ask the class in which lobe the motor cortex I located.Left motor cortex in the left frontal lobe = controls right handVisual cortex in both occipital lobes = used for visionAuditory cortexes in both temporal lobes = used for hearing musicRight hemisphere = spatial ability for paintingThalamus = relays sensory information. Relays visual and auditory cues while painting to areas of the cerebrum.Frontal lobes = deciding what to paintLeft sensory cortex in the left parietal lobe = feeling the paintbrushCerebellum = coordinates moving arm
33 (pgs Case #2)Crazy Eddie, the professional wrestler, is in the ring wrestling. The crowd is yelling and his opponent is taunting him. Eddie yells back at his opponent. The two of them are out of breath and sweating profusely. They continue their well-orchestrated series of wrestling moves. Aceytlcholine is causing muscle contractions in Eddie and that endorphines are helping him to deal with the pain involved.Using his sensory cortex because he is relying on his sense of touch to wrestle his opponents. Ask whether he is using the sensory cortex in his right or his left hemisphere, both hemispheres are operating.Both motor cortexes in the frontal lobes = move musclesBoth sensory cortexes in parietal lobes = needed for sense of touchVisual cortexes in both occipital lobes = used for visionAuditory cortexes in both temporal lobes = processes soundsRight hemisphere = spatial ability for wrestlingWernicke’s area in left temporal lobe = understanding taunts and yellsBroca’s area in left frontal lobe = producing speech (yells)Thalamus = relays sensory information.Frontal lobes = decision making and attentionMedulla = regulates heart and breathingAmygdala = aggression and fear controls arousalCerebellum = balance and coordination. Coordinates wrestling moves.Hypothalamus = regulates temperatureHippocampus = memory for movesPons = assists in the coordination of wrestling moves and in alertness.Corpus Callosum = shares sensory and motor information from both hemispheres.
34 (pgs Case #3)Jill is a law student studying for her exam. She is reading about violent murder cases. She is snacking on popcorn and drinking coffee.Hippocampus = remembering and learningWernicke’s area in left temporal lobe = language comprehensionAmygdala = anger and fear about the casesFrontal lobes = decision making and attentionHypothalamus = regulate hunger and thirst. Makes us aware when we are too hot or cold (to adjust the temperature controls) or too hungry, thirsty, or in need of a restroom break.Angular gyrus = needed for reading. Converts words into auditory code.Reticular formation = regulates our alertness or drowsiness as we study (what action do you take to keep alert while studying? Play music, take caffeine)