Discovery of the New World The Old World and the New World
Marco Polo A merchant Traveled east to China Wrote about the wonders he had seen Christopher Columbus, an Italian navigator, read and believed.
The New World In 1492 Columbus, secured funding from the King and Queen of Spain, and set sail for Asia but found the Americas instead, exploring several islands of the Caribbean Sea.
September 6, 1492 (3 ships) set off. October 12, 1492, Columbus landed on the island of San Salvador 圣萨尔瓦多. He thought he had reached India, a part of Asia, he referred to the people on the island as Indians. The islands he reached are called the West Indies. 西印度群岛 Columbus Day—2nd Monday in October
Amerigo Vespucci 阿美利哥 · 维斯普西 ( Italian navigator sent by Spain), confirmed that the continent was not India. He wrote a letter saying, “I have found a new world.” In 1507, a German mapmaker named the New World “America ”
Transformations resulting from the discovery: 1. New foods reshaped the diets of people in both hemispheres: Do they belong to the old world or the new world?
crops grown in the New World—including corn, potato, rice, tobacco and so on fed growing consumer markets in Europe Global patterns of trade were overturned. 美洲大陆的发现也开启了持续了几个世纪之久的 “ 三角贸易 ” 。载有非洲的黑人奴隶的船 只来到美洲，从美洲装上棉花、烟草和木材再返回欧洲。
2. Life style change The horse: encouraged many farming people to become hunters and herders 3. Negative impacts on the new land Ecology disturbed: =Europeans cleared vast tracks of forested land = grazing animals ate up many native plants and disrupted indigenous systems of agriculture
Death and disease : Diseases against which Indian peoples had no natural immunities, caused the greatest mass deaths in human history. Within a century of contact, smallpox, measles 麻疹, mumps 腮腺炎 and whooping cough had reduced indigenous population by 50 to 90 percent.
Colonial America (1492—1775) (discovery of the New World -- outbreak of War of Independence) Establishment of Colonies
The motivation behind the founding of colonies ： (1) commerce (land, 50 billion trees,60 million bison, gems, silver underground) (2) over-population in their own country (3) desire for freedom of religion
The first successful English colony. Jamestown was built in the middle of an Indian Empire. (barely 60/500 remained. …the Starving, Indian attacks) (The venture was financed and coordinated by the London Virginia Company, a joint stock company looking for gold.) 1. Jamestown Settlement (Virginia 1607 – Mother State)
In 1610 John Rolfe came and brought some South American tobacco seeds that would change America forever. He planted them, which flourished. Rolfe married the daughter of the King of the Indian Empire. Within 2 years Jamestown became America’s first boomtown. John Rolfe planting tabacco.Rolfe
1. Jamestown Settlement The colony survived, barely, by turning to tobacco as a cash crop. By the late 17th century, Virginia’s export economy was largely based on tobacco, New, richer settlers came in to build large plantations and import slaves. America is founded on tobacco. For the next century and half it’s the continent’s largest export.
2. Plymouth Settlement (In 1620 ) Massachusetts In 1620, in order to escape from religious persecution at home, a group of Puritans set sail for America on a ship called the Mayflower. The ship left England on September 16, and after a 66-day journey the ship dropped anchor inside the hook tip of Cape Cod 科德角 on November 21.
2.Plymouth Settlement (In 1620 ) Puritans During the early 1600’s, the Catholic Church split apart and many new Christian organizations called Protestants( 新教 徒 )were formed. a new protestant religion called Puritans evolved. The ruling Anglican( 英国国教会的 )church disapproved of Puritan beliefs and persecuted the Puritans.
2.Plymouth Settlement (In 1620 ) Massachusetts Barely half (50/102) survived the winter. The local Indians made peace with them. They taught them how to grow crops in sandy land using fish for fertilizer. Their friendship was celebrated in a feast…. Thanksgiving Day.
Mayflower Compact “ 五月花号 ” 公约 The 1 st impt. political document in U.S. Signed by the first White colonists from England Declared allegiance 效忠 to the British king Declared belief in God Declared desire to create a just society based on laws
More people arrived, coming together to create the 13 colonies. From Jamestown, agriculture spreads across the South, dirt farm transformed into plantations. Irish, German and Swedes pushed back the frontier. The Dutch brought commerce to a small island at the mouth of Hudson River, which in time is called New York. Thirteen colonies (1607-1732)
By 1770, more than 2 million people lived and worked in Great Britain ‘ s 13 North American colonies. At the time, the French controlled what is now Canada while the Spanish and the Portuguese seized the vast lands in South America. Video—8:15-18:008:15-18:00 Thirteen colonies (1607-1732)
The Thirteen Colonies Along this stretch of coast were thirteen British colonies. 1. New England Province of New Hampshire, later New Hampshire Province of Massachusetts Bay, later Massachusetts and Maine Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, later Rhode Island Connecticut Colony, later Connecticut.
Thirteen British Colonies 2.Middle Colonies Province of New York, later New York and Vermont Province of New Jersey, later New Jersey Province of Pennsylvania, later Pennsylvania Delaware Colony, later Delaware
Thirteen British Colonies 3.Southern Colonies Province of Maryland, later Maryland Colony and Dominion of Virginia, later Virginia, Kentucky and West Virginia Province of North Carolina, later North Carolina and Tennessee Province of South Carolina, later South Carolina Province of Georgia, later Georgia
Homework: 1. What are the first two English settlements in America? 2. Think about the transformations brought about by the discovery of the New world. 3. Read Unit2. 4.Watch the movie: Pursuit of Happiness (P21).What American characters you can find in Chris Gardner? What you can learn from him? (Writing task)
Which of the following is a Puritan belief? Puritans believed in predestination 1 All men were born sinners 2 They led pleasure-seeking lives 3 They valued austere 苦行的 and simple life 4 Puritans saw Bible as the infallible 绝对可靠的 guide to everything 5
Puritan Thoughts 1.The term "Puritan" refer to people who wished to "purify" th e Church of England in the 17 th century, as they believed that the Church of England was corrupt and should be reformed or even separated from true Christians. 2. Puritans believed in predestination, that is, only certain people could be saved and they were chosen at birth. They believed in that they were God’s chosen people, so they were devout 虔诚的 yet intolerant of other religions. 3. The Puritans exercised self-discipline to a fault. Laughter or entertainments can be evil. They stressed very har d-work and thrift. 4. Puritans believed all men were born sinners— original sin
The influence of the Puritanical values on the American culture These Puritan settlers valued hard work and commercial success. They also believed in the importance of education. The puritans also contributed to democracy in America. They held town meetings, where the adult males worked together to make laws. They believed that man existed for the glory of God; that his first concern in life was to do God's will and so to receive future happiness. The Puritans believed in a final judgment and lived accordingly. They sought joy in other ways: Reading, music, hard work, family life.
Virginia is called "Mother of States" because of its role in being carved into states like Kentucky, which became the 15th state in 1792, and for the numbers of American pioneers born in Virginia.[Kentucky American pioneers[