2General Information River Civilizations The 1st civilizations arose near rivers.The people of the Indus Valley farmed along the Indus River.Subcontinent – a large landmass that is set apart from the rest of the continent by a physical featureIndian Subcontinent – separated from Asia by the Hindu Kush and the Himalayas ~ includes: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and BhutanRecord these notes after reading pg. 200Point put that the Subcontinent is about 2,000 miles from the North to the South
3Point out the countries that make up the subcontinent India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Bhutan
4Point out the Himalayas and the Hindu Kush and that they separate the Indian Subcontinent from the rest of Asia
5What physical feature was central to early civilizations? Questions 1 and 2What physical feature was central to early civilizations?Which river formed the basis of India’s first civilization?
6What countries make up the Indian Subcontinent? Question 3What countries make up the Indian Subcontinent?Identify at least 4
7Physical FeaturesFeatures on the landscape that were formed by natural processes. Ex. mountains, rivers, lakesHave students record this information on the characteristics of civilized societies page see notebook for exampleHave students write the underlined parts
8HimalayasThe planet's tallest mountain range, including the highest, Mount Everest. Provides a natural border for India.Have students record this information on the characteristics of civilized societies page see notebook for exampleHave students write the underlined parts
9Indus and Ganges Rivers Two of the most important geographic features in India, providing water sources and creating fertile land.Have students record this information on the characteristics of civilized societies page see notebook for exampleHave students write the underlined parts
10Question 4What natural barriers separate the Indian subcontinent from the rest of Asia?
11Question 5The continental United States is about 2,400 miles wide. How does this length compare to the Indian subcontinent?
12River Systems ~ Indus River part 1 envelope Flows across the Northwestern part of the subcontinentSnow and ice from the mountains melt and drain into the rivers, when the rivers flood it leaves behind siltRiver water allowed for irrigationRecord in the envelope foldable after reading pg. 201
13India’s 1st Civilization part 2 envelope Civilization grew around the Indus ValleyDeveloped in an area that is DRY most of the yearRecord in the envelope foldable after reading pg. 201
14River Systems ~ Ganges River part 3 envelope Flows across the Northern part of the subcontinentFloods create a HUGE, fertile plain good for farming – this is the Ganges PlainThe rich Ganges Plain was the CENTER of another civilizationRecord in the envelope foldable after reading pg. 201
15Why were river floods a welcome event for early Indus Valley people? Question 6Why were river floods a welcome event for early Indus Valley people?
16Question 7What fertile plain is located in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent?
17Climate part 4 envelopeMonsoons-seasonal wind patterns that cause wet and dry seasonsMuch of India has a Tropical climateWinter- dry blow from the landSummer-wet blow from the ocean
18What impact do monsoons have on agriculture in India? Question 8What impact do monsoons have on agriculture in India?
19Discuss that the two major cities Harappa and Mohenjo Daro are part of the 1st Indus Valley CivilizationPoint out that the River empties into the Arabian Sea
20Beginning of Indus River Valley below envelope The Indus River Valley Civilization started about 2500 B.C.E.Along the south-western part of the Indus River.The largest city was Mohenjo-Daro, in present day Pakistan.Settlements stretched all along the river.Record BELOW the foldable previously used
21Impact of Geography 3 tab NATURAL BORDERSBorders made of land or waterMountains- Himalayas, Hindu KushWater- Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, and Indian OceanPrevented invasion and diseaseFARMING / IRRIGATIONUsed the rivers and rain from the monsoons to wter cropsTRAVELLocation to rivers allowed for easy travel and tradeRecord on the three tab foldable
22Timeline 7000 B.C began growing crops around Indus River System With a steady food supply population grew3000 B.C cities began to develop on the Indus Valley plain2500 B.C cities were the center of civilization1700 B.C civilization disappeared1921 ruins were discovered for Harappa and Mohenjo-DaroRecord on timeline
23When did cities begin to develop in the Indus Valley? Question 9When did cities begin to develop in the Indus Valley?
24When did the Indus Valley civilization flourish? Question 10When did the Indus Valley civilization flourish?
25Technology 3 tab Cities were well planned Houses Math Wide straight streets built in a grid a patternBuilt thick walls around the cityBuilt huge raised mound of earth and brick-remained above water during floodsHouseshad bathrooms and toiletsTrash chutes in many houses led to a bin in the streetsWaste water flowed into brick-lined sewage channels-1st sewage systemMathAdvanced system of weights and measurement based on units of 10Record after reading pg
26Why do archaeologist say that Indus Valley cities were well planned? Question 11Why do archaeologist say that Indus Valley cities were well planned?
27Farming 2 tabIrrigation channelsthe monsoons were not predictableIrrigation channels and ditches brought water to the wheat and barley fieldsCrops and animals1st farmers to grow cotton for clothRaised cattle, sheep, goats, and chickensSurplus crops were stored in a GRANARY~ a special building to hold grainRecord after reading pg
28Trade ~The economy depended greatly on trade 3 tab Items made and soldMade jewelry from precious stonesCotton cloth was woven and soldTeak woodTradeMesopotamiaEgyptAdvancement in technology led to carts and early boats that were used as the main method of trade and travel.Record after reading pgSeals and WeightsTraders used seals to identify their goods.Seals were stamped on clay squares attached to their goods.Accurate weights and measures increased trade.
29What items were exported for trade? Question 12What items were exported for trade?
32Mohenjo-Daro 3 tab Design Laid out in 12 blocksBlocks measured 1260 feet north to south750 feet east to westA central block on the west was raised 20 to 40 feet above the other blocksThe raised block is believed to be the center for religionLarge buildings with verandasSupersized granaryTwo assembly hallsHouses had bathrooms and sanitation facilitiesRecord after reading pg
33Government 3 tabThese items suggest that there was a STRONG central government:Cities were well organized and show a high level of planningUsed a common system of weight and measurementsNo royal statues or tombs makes is unlikely that a king ruled.THERE IS NOT ENOUGH EVIDENCE TO DETERMINE THE TYPE OF GOVERNMENT THAT DID EXIST.Record after reading pg
34Religion 3 tab Little is known No temples and no clear signs of priestsThe statues that have been found resemble the Gods in the HinduismMany Indus Valley carvings look like people meditating – an important practice in Hinduismrd after reading pg
35WritingWe are still not sure how toread the Seals that havebeen found.
36Social Structure- Caste System Caste system with four main classesVerna- a caste groupingPeople were born into social classes that could not be changed. Brahmins (priests and the king) Kshatriyas (warriors and aristocrats - rulers) Vaishyas (cultivators, artisans, and merchants) Shudras (peasants and serfs)
37Twice Born Men in the TOP 3 varnas were “twice born” 1st physical birth2nd spiritual birth – this happened after the individual read the Vedas and mastered writing using Sanskirt
38Dalitsa caste grouping that was added later for people they others Castes are untouchablesThese pole completed the ‘dirty’ jobs: cleaning the toilets, butchering animals, etc
39Buildings and Structures All houses had access to water and were about the same sizeHouses had one or two storiesMost buildings were made of dry bricksNo large monuments or structuresIndividual buildings for bathing and using the restroom (had an early "sanitation" system)Citadels were used for defense
40Tools Weapons Technology Used Bronze, Copper, IronUsed Bronze to makeLarge Irrigation SystemClay Used for Art and ToolsNot as advance as Mesopotamia1st to create measurement and weighing equipmentMeasuring system and tools for measurement(1st and most accurrate)Arrows were craftedSwords were madeMost technology was used to help agricultureBecause of isolated geography there was no need for advanced weaponry.Boats and carts were used to help with trade
42Gender Roles Men worked within their designated caste social class Women were valued because of their ability to produce offspring and nurseWhen children were old enough, they adopted their parents' role