Presentation on theme: "All about the Indus River Valley. General Information River Civilizations The 1 st civilizations arose near rivers. The people of the Indus Valley farmed."— Presentation transcript:
All about the Indus River Valley
General Information River Civilizations The 1 st civilizations arose near rivers. The people of the Indus Valley farmed along the Indus River. Subcontinent – a large landmass that is set apart from the rest of the continent by a physical feature Indian Subcontinent – separated from Asia by the Hindu Kush and the Himalayas ~ includes: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Bhutan
Questions 1 and 2 What physical feature was central to early civilizations? Which river formed the basis of India’s first civilization?
Question 3 What countries make up the Indian Subcontinent? Identify at least 4
Physical Features Features on the landscape that were formed by natural processes. Ex. mountains, rivers, lakes
Himalayas The planet's tallest mountain range, including the highest, Mount Everest. Provides a natural border for India.
Indus and Ganges Rivers Two of the most important geographic features in India, providing water sources and creating fertile land.
Question 4 What natural barriers separate the Indian subcontinent from the rest of Asia?
Question 5 The continental United States is about 2,400 miles wide. How does this length compare to the Indian subcontinent?
River Systems ~ Indus River part 1 envelope Flows across the Northwestern part of the subcontinent Snow and ice from the mountains melt and drain into the rivers, when the rivers flood it leaves behind silt River water allowed for irrigation River water allowed for irrigation
part 2 envelope India’s 1 st Civilization part 2 envelope Civilization grew around the Indus Valley Developed in an area that is DRY most of the year Developed in an area that is DRY most of the year
River Systems ~ Ganges River part 3 envelope Flows across the Northern part of the subcontinent Floods create a HUGE, fertile plain good for farming – this is the Ganges Plain The rich Ganges Plain was the CENTER of another civilization
Question 6 Why were river floods a welcome event for early Indus Valley people?
Question 7 What fertile plain is located in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent?
part 4 envelope Climate part 4 envelope Monsoons-seasonal wind patterns that cause wet and dry seasons Much of India has a Tropical climate Winter- dry blow from the land Summer-wet blow from the ocean
Question 8 What impact do monsoons have on agriculture in India?
Beginning of Indus River Valley below envelope The Indus River Valley Civilization started about 2500 B.C.E. Along the south-western part of the Indus River. The largest city was Mohenjo-Daro, in present day Pakistan. Settlements stretched all along the river.
Impact of Geography 3 tab NATURAL BORDERS Borders made of land or water Mountains- Himalayas, Hindu Kush Water- Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, and Indian Ocean Prevented invasion and disease FARMING / IRRIGATION Used the rivers and rain from the monsoons to wter crops TRAVEL Location to rivers allowed for easy travel and trade
Timeline 7000 B.C began growing crops around Indus River System With a steady food supply population grew 3000 B.C cities began to develop on the Indus Valley plain 2500 B.C cities were the center of civilization 1700 B.C civilization disappeared 1921 ruins were discovered for Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
Question 9 When did cities begin to develop in the Indus Valley?
Question 10 When did the Indus Valley civilization flourish?
Technology 3 tab Cities Cities were well planned Wide straight streets built in a grid a pattern Built thick walls around the city Built huge raised mound of earth and brick-remained above water during floods Houses Houses had bathrooms and toilets Trash chutes in many houses led to a bin in the streets Waste water flowed into brick-lined sewage channels-1 st sewage system Math Math Advanced system of weights and measurement based on units of 10
Question 11 Why do archaeologist say that Indus Valley cities were well planned?
Farming 2 tab Irrigation channels Irrigation channels the monsoons were not predictable Irrigation channels and ditches brought water to the wheat and barley fields Crops and animals Crops and animals 1 st farmers to grow cotton for cloth Raised cattle, sheep, goats, and chickens GRANARY Surplus crops were stored in a GRANARY~ a special building to hold grain
Trade ~ The economy depended greatly on trade 3 tab Items made and sold Made jewelry from precious stones Cotton cloth was woven and sold Teak wood Trade Mesopotamia Egypt Advancement in technology led to carts and early boats that were used as the main method of trade and travel. Seals and Weights Traders used seals to identify their goods. Seals were stamped on clay squares attached to their goods. Accurate weights and measures increased trade.
Question 12 What items were exported for trade?
Question 13 What advancements aided trade?
3 tab Mohenjo-Daro 3 tab Design Laid out in 12 blocks Blocks measured 1260 feet north to south 750 feet east to west A central block on the west was raised 20 to 40 feet above the other blocks The raised block is believed to be the center for religion Large buildings with verandas Supersized granary Two assembly halls Houses had bathrooms and sanitation facilities
Government 3 tab These items suggest that there was a STRONG central government: Cities were well organized and show a high level of planning Used a common system of weight and measurements No royal statues or tombs makes is unlikely that a king ruled. THERE IS NOT ENOUGH EVIDENCE TO DETERMINE THE TYPE OF GOVERNMENT THAT DID EXIST.
Religion 3 tab Little is known No temples and no clear signs of priests The statues that have been found resemble the Gods in the Hinduism Many Indus Valley carvings look like people meditating – an important practice in Hinduism
Writing We are still not sure how to read the Seals that have been found.
Social Structure- Caste System Caste system with four main classes Verna- a caste grouping People were born into social classes that could not be changed. Brahmins (priests and the king) Kshatriyas (warriors and aristocrats - rulers) Vaishyas (cultivators, artisans, and merchants) Shudras (peasants and serfs)
Twice Born Men in the TOP 3 varnas were “twice born” 1 st physical birth 2 nd spiritual birth – this happened after the individual read the Vedas and mastered writing using Sanskirt
Dalits a caste grouping that was added later for people they others Castes are untouchables These pole completed the ‘dirty’ jobs: cleaning the toilets, butchering animals, etc
Buildings and Structures All houses had access to water and were about the same size Houses had one or two stories Most buildings were made of dry bricks No large monuments or structures Individual buildings for bathing and using the restroom (had an early "sanitation" system) Citadels were used for defense
ToolsWeaponsTechnology Used Bronze, Copper, IronUsed Bronze to makeLarge Irrigation System Clay Used for Art and ToolsNot as advance as Mesopotamia 1 st to create measurement and weighing equipment Measuring system and tools for measurement (1 st and most accurrate) Arrows were crafted Swords were made Most technology was used to help agriculture Because of isolated geography there was no need for advanced weaponry. Boats and carts were used to help with trade
Religion Hinduism B.C.E. Buddhism 365 B.C.E.
Gender Roles Men worked within their designated caste social class Women were valued because of their ability to produce offspring and nurse When children were old enough, they adopted their parents' role