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 Who am I, and why am I doing this? How am I? 1-10? One frustration I have with this issue… Anything else you might need to know…  While I am doing.

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Presentation on theme: " Who am I, and why am I doing this? How am I? 1-10? One frustration I have with this issue… Anything else you might need to know…  While I am doing."— Presentation transcript:

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2  Who am I, and why am I doing this? How am I? 1-10? One frustration I have with this issue… Anything else you might need to know…  While I am doing this, Tell us your name, position, school where you are based  Name one frustration with helping students you know who are suffering from trauma, neglect, and abuse…

3  Take five minutes to write your name, position, school where you are based, and on the note card provided  Describe one frustration with helping students you know who are suffering from trauma, neglect, and abuse…

4  Who are you?  Tell us your name, position, school where you are based  On a scale of 1-10 how are you today?  Tell us anything else we need to know…  Turn in your note card

5  Review the ways trauma affects students  Discover greatest issues you and the district have with helping traumatized children learn.  Discuss ways to assist teachers to help and understand traumatized children.  Provide you with resources to continue your work.  Anything else?

6  12:30-2:00 ◦ Introductions, housekeeping, etc. ◦ Wyoming state statistics ◦ Dropout Prevention Statistics and Information ◦ Identification of the wounded child ◦ Wounded by School  2:00-2:10 ◦ Break-Restroom, phone calls, snacks, etc. ◦ Back in seat at 2:10 when lights flicker

7  2:10-3:20 ◦ How external trauma affects academics, relationships and behavior in children ◦ Power point and activities  3:20-3:30-Finish up, answer questions, etc.

8  3:20-3:30- ◦ Draw the winner of the free registration ◦ Finish up, answer questions, etc. ◦ Provide resources

9  Rules of Engagement ◦ Put name tent on its side when you want to share ◦ Put phones on vibrate ◦ Leave to use restroom when needed ◦ Participate fully-be in the moment ◦ Use parking garage when as appropriate ◦ Anything else?

10  My needs ◦ A timer ◦ A hander-outer/collector of stuff ◦ A mood-monitor ◦ Everything you see/hear will be available for you to access on a flash drive or on the school web site

11 786 Number of children victims of abuse & neglect 1,304 Number of children in foster care 13% Percent of children living in poverty 7.4% Percent of year olds not in school Taken from the most recent Children’s Defense Fund Information November, 2008

12 6 th th th 54.7 Percentage of middle school students who had ever been in a physical fight. Males: 66.4% Females: 39.7%

13 9 th th th th 21.9 Percentage of high school students who had ever been in a physical fight in the last 12 months. Males: 39.7% Females: 21.6%

14 6 th th th 50.2 Percentage of middle school students who had ever been bullied on school property. Males: 54.1% Females: 52.3%

15 9 th th th th 17.2 Percentage of high school students who had ever been bullied on school property in the past 12 months. Males: 23.5% Females: 25.5%

16 6 th th th 23.0 Percentage of middle school students who had ever seriously thought about committing suicide. Males: 16.8% Females: 25.7%

17 9th th 18 11th th 14.4 Percentage of high school students who had ever seriously thought about committing suicide in the last 12 months. Male: 13.6% Female: 21.2%

18 6 th 5.8 7th 7.8 8th 8.4 Percentage of middle school students who had ever tried to kill themselves. Males: 6.2% Females: 9.5%

19 9th th 11 11th th 7.8 Percentage of high school students who had ever tried to commit suicide in the last 12 months. Male: 7.9% Female: 10.9%

20 9th th th th 28.4 Percentage of high school students who felt so sad or hopeless almost every day for two weeks or more in a row that they stopped doing some usual activities during the past 12 months. Not asked of middle schoolers Male: 19.2% Female: 35.3%

21 9th th th th 14.7 Percentage of high school students who had ever been physically forced to have sexual intercourse when they did not want to. Not asked of middle schoolers Male: 8.6% Female: 18.0%

22 9th th th th 3.2 Percentage of high school students who had sexual intercourse for the first time before the age of 13. Not asked of middle schoolers Male: 8.8% Female: 3.0%

23 Am. Indian AsianBlackHispanicWhiteMaleFemaleTotal th 8 th 9 th 10 th 11 th 12 th Total Number of dropouts disaggregated by grades Number of dropouts disaggregated by race/ethnicity in grades 9-12

24 Completion Rate (Reported rates are comparisons of completers to all exiters (dropouts + completers) from a four-year cohort of students. Completers receive any type of diploma or certificate. Am. Indian AsianBlackHispanicWhiteMaleFemaleTotal 46.64%91.03%77.65%73.52%84.85%79.72%84.98%1000 Am. Indian AsianBlackHispanicWhiteMaleFemaleTotal 45.94% Graduation Rate (Graduates are regular diploma recipient.)

25 School YearOverall Graduation Rates Number of Overall Graduates Graduation Rates for Students with Disabilities Number of Graduating Students with Disabilities , %5, %474 School YearOverall Dropout Rate Overall number of dropouts Dropout Rates for Students with Disabilities Number of Dropouts for Students with Disabilities %1, % %1, %228

26 Dist. Grad Rate High School Dropout Rate CohortGraduatedDifference 77.1Triumph28.42% Central3.50% East4.93%

27 High Expectations: We believe students with disabilities can meet or exceed district expectations. Shared Responsibility: We believe the measure of success must be based on the learning of all students. We believe everybody who interacts with students has the shared responsibility to positively impact their lives.

28 M aximizing Learning Opportunities: We believe in results- oriented instruction focused on continuous learning for all students and staff. We believe the learning of all students will be maximized by making data driven decisions. Human Connection: We believe in modeling what we expect from others. We believe in treating everyone with dignity and mutual respect. We believe in developing positive relationships with every student, parent. staff and member of the community.

29 How do you know stakeholders are fulfilling the following: We believe everybody who interacts with students has the shared responsibility to positively impact their lives. What data do you use to make data driven decisions? How do you measure whether or not “We believe in treating everyone with dignity and mutual respect.” is truly happening?

30 You are caring humans who have a passion for the students in your schools who are wounded, traumatized, unable to cope, unable to learn, unable to form relationships, unable to thrive in the classroom. You are the experts in therapy, identification, and counseling. The teachers are the experts in instruction, curriculum, assessment, and classroom management. The dilemma

31 Yet, you are not teachers, you can’t be in every classroom. And these young people MUST go to school, this school, or else… The dilemma

32  Outward appearance shows no wounds  Internal wounds are identified by behaviors, not physically.

33  Outward appearances (usually) show no definite characteristics-teachers don’t know which students have been traumatized and which ones haven’t been. They only see the inappropriate behavior or the inability to thrive.

34  When are you brought in to the picture to assist in the identification of possible trauma that is causing learning and behavior difficulties?  Describe the process in your school and your satisfaction level.

35  Small Group Discussion (10 minutes) ◦ List the ways your expertise is used (in the context of identification of a child who has been wounded, neglected, traumatized, and/or abused). ◦ Share with large group-record on flip chart paper ◦ Before break, place a red dot on the most effective

36  Frequently moved from school to school with poor transitions for new students  Labeled as “less than” academically (especially students with IEPs)  Have experienced humiliation in a variety of ways and for many reasons-academics, physical characteristics, popularity, social class-in the school setting

37  Have been bullied by those in authority  Have frequently been singled out as being “less than,” “wrong,” or not “capable”  Have not been protected by those who should protect them

38  Loss of pleasure in learning  Belief that they are not smart-especially LD  Re-live the painful, burning memories of shaming experiences  Exhibit chronic, habitual anger toward teachers and those in authority  Low appetite for risk-taking academically and in other areas (“I don’t care”)  Over-attachment for the “right” answers

39 What can you do to help teachers and principals?

40  Report the bullies! ◦ Help me understand why a counselor, who is aware of serious bullying on the part of a teacher, feels it’s not his/her obligation to take it to the next level?

41 What can you do to help teachers and principals?  Bring pleasure back into learning ◦ Assist in finding ways to celebrate all student achievements

42 What can you do to help teachers and principals?  Avoid labeling ◦ Provide teachers with alternatives to “sending them to the resource room” as a way to exclude them ◦ Insist on confidentiality-reinforce with whatever it takes ◦ Ensure that teachers/principals understand the seriousness of the behavior plan and that it is followed

43 What can you do to help teachers and principals?  Help students regain the belief they can learn ◦ Are teachers allowing students to have some choice in their topics, their method of learning, their method of showing what they have learned?

44 What can you do to help teachers and principals?  Understand the deep wounds of shame ◦ Raise your hand if you remember a shameful incident from school. ◦ Can you even tell a colleague sitting next to you about a “shameful” incident that happened in your early schooling?

45 What can you do to help teachers and principals?  Understand the deep wounds of shame ◦ Might “fear of shame” prevent a student from sharing, reciting, participating, risking making a mistake? ◦ Might “fear of shame” cause a rise in a student’s anxiety level triggering negative behaviors?

46 What can do to you help teachers and principals?  Understand hostility and anger is directed towards the system, not at them ◦ How often do you witness teachers reducing themselves to the maturity level of their traumatized student by “engaging” in a power struggle? ◦ Remind them that one of them is an adult, the other is an adolescent. Do you all know a “moody b^&*(“?

47 What can you do to help teachers and principals?  Take small steps when involving risk ◦ Encourage teachers to break down large assignments into small “bites” ◦ Allow students to choose their own “due dates” within certain parameters ◦ Allow students to “opt out” in certain circumstances-providing them with an alternative to the risky behavior

48 What can you do to help teachers and principals?  Less emphasis on “correctness” more on “learning” As a new teacher I thought the more I wrote all over the paper (in red), the better teacher I was–I’m so embarrassed

49  It’s best for teacher to understand that they CAN’T understand where many students are coming from. ◦ Often teachers will view the students through their own histories and tell students they know how they feel.  Wounded children are very sensitive to feelings of judgment by others. ◦ Serious reluctance to turn in homework allowing another to “judge” them.

50  Wounded children have low self-esteem and poor relationships. ◦ Inappropriate discipline will reinforce those beliefs.  As a school, concentrate on delivering meaningful, consistent, and clear consequences that make sense. ◦ Sometimes the “canned” programs do make sense.

51  Remember, being bad, is ALWAYS preferable to being stupid.  As professionals, are you ever asked for advice regarding appropriate discipline?

52  Teachers need help understanding how their own communication style brings on behavior that hinders learning (disruption, passivity, anxiety). ◦ How can you help?  Wounds need to be brought to the surface-this takes time-and is not the teacher’s responsibility-it is up to you, the professional. ◦ What can you do when a teacher wants to be the “therapist?” ◦ What do you do when a teacher pushes for confidential information about a student? ◦ When might it be appropriate to share some information about a student with a teacher?

53  How can you help a teacher understand the triggers (transitions, interruptions, etc.) that bring on behavior that hinders learning (disruption, passivity, anxiety).  What can you do when a teacher wants to be the “therapist?”  What do you do when a teacher (or principal) pushes for confidential information about a student?  When might it be appropriate to share some information about a student with a teacher?

54  Assign a recorder  List possible solutions  Be prepared to describe-give examples

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57  Language and Communication Skills

58  failing to understand directions  overreacting to comments from teachers and peers  misreading context  failing to connect cause and effect, and other forms of miscommunication

59  Language and Communication Skills ◦ Organizing Narrative Material  Student may have been raised in households in which rules and routines are subject to the whim of the parent.  Students respond well to classrooms in which there are orderly transitions and clear rules and that offer them assistance with organizing their tasks.

60  Language and Communication Skills ◦ Cause and Effect Relationships  Traumatized children sometimes have difficulty internalizing a sense that they can influence what happens to them.  They can be left wary of the future, which feels to them both unpredictable and out of their control. This may cause some children to become extremely passive.

61  Language and Communication Skills ◦ Cause-and-Effect Relationships  Break down events into very clear cause and effect logical sequences. Make no assumptions that students always understand what will come next.  Create opportunities for students to make choices, to predict aloud the possibilities of future events and why.

62  Attentiveness to Classroom Tasks ◦ anxiety and fears for their own and others’ safety chronically occupy their thoughts.

63  Attentiveness to Classroom Tasks ◦ anxiety and fears for their own and others’ safety chronically occupy their thoughts. ◦ focused on “interpreting the teacher’s mood.”

64  Attentiveness to Classroom Tasks ◦ anxiety and fears for their own and others’ safety chronically occupy their thoughts. ◦ Focus is on “interpreting the teacher’s mood.” ◦ disassociates from the immediate environment

65 Scanning the room all the time for danger. Sights, smells and sounds can trigger desperate feelings of panic as reminders of past trauma. Danger may come from behind Life feels safer that way It feels too dangerous to ‘get it wrong’ Too much anxiety to be able to listen Panic sets in when in crowds

66 It feels chaotic inside so it feels safer if its around outside as well I was left helpless – I’ll never be helpless again. Life may feel like a lie – I am not sure who I am or what the truth is. I don’t know the difference between fantasy and reality It is clear when math and spelling is ‘wrong’ and being wrong may lead to rejection AGAIN The child has no words to describe his/ her feelings - looking sulky is a cover up

67  Regulating Emotions ◦ The lack of capacity for emotional self-regulation so critical to school functioning is probably the most striking feature of these chronically traumatized children.

68 Hyper-vigilance… ◦ Cannot shift away from distressing cues in the service of maintaining emotional regulation. ◦ Reassure students about the distraction, prepare for it, explain the consequences of it

69 ◦ Regulating Emotions  Ability to identify and express feelings is often underdeveloped and poorly regulated.  Expresses emotions without restraint and seem impulsive, under-controlled, unable to reflect, edgy, oversensitive, or aggressive.  Overreacts to perceived provocation in the classroom and on the playground.

70 ◦ Regulating Emotions  Help teachers understand the need to practice using words that describe emotions-new words: depressed, anxious, peeved, irate, concerned-and give student opportunities to describe their own feelings.  Help teachers understand the importance of providing opportunities for students to predict how they are going to feel and find alternative ways to deal with those feelings.

71 ◦ Regulating Emotions  May appear disinterested, disconnected, or aloof.  Disassociating—completely disconnecting emotions from the events with which they are associated.

72 ◦ Regulating Emotions/Misdiagnosis  Many traumatized children who exhibit the symptoms of anxiety, hyper-vigilance to danger, and language- processing problems are diagnosed as having attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

73 ◦ Regulating Emotions/Misdiagnosis  Many traumatized children who exhibit the symptoms of anxiety, hyper-vigilance to danger, and language- processing problems are diagnosed as having attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).  Research shows that ADHD and trauma often coexist, but because both disorders have similar symptoms, trauma may be overlooked when a diagnosis of ADHD is made.

74 Regulating Emotions  If a child is suffering from both ADHD and trauma, appropriate treatment can be provided that responds to both sets of problems.  Thus, it is important to assess whether a single diagnosis is masking the need to evaluate for trauma.

75  Executive Functions ◦ Executive functions are very important for achieving academic and social success and for establishing vocational goals. ◦ A bleak perspective, expectations of failure, a low sense of self- worth, and a foreshortened view of the future, all disrupt this ability to plan, anticipate, and hope. ◦ No “internal maps to guide them” and that, consequently, they “act instead of plan.”

76  Executive Functions ◦ Boys with severe abuse histories had particular difficulty with executive-function tasks that required them to refrain from taking actions that would lead to adverse consequences.

77  Reactivity and Impulsivity ◦ It is helpful for teachers to know what triggers might cause a traumatized child to become hyper- aroused or to re-experience a traumatic event in the classroom. ◦ Behaviorists may be able, through careful observation, to identify some of the child’s triggers. Often, however, the help of a mental health expert is needed to be sure of what may be triggering a particular behavior.

78 In the brain of someone who has experienced a variety of emotional, behavioral and cognitive stimuli, a “top heavy” ratio develops. In this ratio, the brain matures to moderate the more primitive instincts of the midbrain/brain stem.

79 When the developing brain is both deprived of sensory stimuli and experiences traumatic stress, the brainstem/ midbrain to cortical/limbic ratio is profoundly altered.

80  Offer your services ◦ Invite teachers who have difficult students in their classrooms to observe them in a different teacher’s classroom. ◦ Offer to observe students in their classroom- looking for triggering events for specific behavior.

81  Aggression  Defiance  Withdrawal  Perfectionism

82 Relationships with School Personnel  Traumatized children often vie for power with classroom teachers, since they know that they are safe only when they control the environment.

83  Relationships with School Personnel ◦ Intense dislike of surprises or spontaneous events, which are perceived as dangerous or out of their control. ◦ Particular difficulty with transitions during the school day.

84 Positive role models who assist students when dealing with peers can play a major role in the healing process and lead to strong academic, social, and behavioral outcomes. Researchers point out that it is important for traumatized children to form meaningful relationships with caring adults.

85 In cases where trauma is known, an understanding of its effects on learning and behavior will help educators plan the most effective responses and support.

86  Most suitable for a student who has been wounded by school  Most suitable for a child victim of external trauma

87  Calm, yet industrious  Transitions are predictable and planned  Room is orderly  Work is challenging, yet not overwhelming  Each child knows his/her role in certain situations (fire drill, etc.)  Students have choice and voice  Teacher is consistently predictable, calm, hopeful, and kind  Homework is reasonable and valuable

88  Lessons are broken down into small tasks  Teacher begins where students are, not where they should be  Bullying and sarcasm do not exist  Emphasis is on learning, not test scores  Few surprises or interruption in routine without advance notice  Children trust their teacher to protect them  More?

89  Administrator  Teacher  Special ed teacher/paraprofessional  School Nurse  Parents  Case Worker  SRO  Counselor  Social Worker  School Psychologist

90  BIT meetings  MOU’s  Confidentiality  Suspicion of lack of discretion  Discuss level of “need to know basis”  Plan is put in place  Monitoring is taking place

91 Helping Traumatized Children Learn Massachusetts Advocates for Children: Trauma and Learning Policy Initiative Wounded by School-Recapturing the Joy in Learning and Standing Up to Old School Culture  Kirsten Olson Reaching the Wounded Student  Joe Hendershott

92 Scars of Love, Tears of Hope Deborah Goforth, with Mark Graham The School Leaders’ Guide to Student Learning Supports Howard S. Adelman and Linda Taylor The Implementation Guide to Student Learning Supports Howard S. Adelman and Linda Taylor The Classroom of Choice Jonathan C. Erwin

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