Reference Maps ● Day-to-day usage ● Not data intensitive ● May be produced in drawing programs ● Best with reliable basemap (not a derived basemap) ● Sometimes it is hard to get a basemap ● Case-by-case exceptions are ok.
Thematic Maps: Choropleth
Thematic Maps: Dasymetric
Thematic Maps: Dot Map Dr. John Snow's Cholera Map (1854) Dot rep. disease occurrence X rep water pump Above: Cropland harvested (1949) Below: Cell phone tower placement
Map Elements - Review ● Neatline/Frameline – same or separate? ● Title, Sub-title – Think about type placement. ● Legend/Key to symbols – when is it important? ● Scale – do you always need this? ● Orientation (North Arrow) ● Source of data (if needed) ● Accompanying text – do you need it? Time? ● Author, Date prepared
Map Element Hierarchy IVOther important map elements 5 IIIMap feature: water4 II-IIIExplanatory information 3-4 IIMain feature: land2 ITitle, legend, labels, symbols I IThematic SymbolsI Visual LevelObjectIntellectual Level
Map Symbols ● Pictographic (may be representative) – Medical Facilties – Restroom is shown by Man/Woman sign
Map Symbols ● Geometric Symbols – Circles, stars, other basic shapes – Not representational – May be varied in space (3D maps), location, size, spacing, shade, texture to express different ideas ● Symbols may be varied in size – City size/categories – Proportional symbol maps – built-in variation
Maps should have “harmony” within themselves. An ugly map might be accurate, but is less likely to inspire confidence. -- John K. Wright, a noted map critic “Harmony” Composition Clarity
Visual Elements Balance among elements - where is the center of the page Contrast among elements –Lines –Textures –Value –Color –Details Reader’s Eye-Movement (that’s not their eye! Right-to-left languages are NOT included) focus field fringe Arrange elements accordingly
See course web site ● Tips on type placement (as per last week) ● Tips on acheiving ● Tips on constrast (Illustrator how-to) ● Figure-ground relationship - huh?
Figure-Ground relationship ● FIGURE: The part of the map to which we pay attention. The subject matter, the features to which viewers must notice ● GROUND: What is not figure is ground.
Example: City blocks are the figure See examples provided earlier in the quarter (also available on the class site)
Colors Basic ideas: ● Representative colors ● Data type (e.g. binary) ● Sequential data (gradients) ● Relate trend to color if possible (numbers)
Other thoughts on color ● Colorblind users – Use tools (ColorBrewer, on class site) to help determine what colors are ok for colorblink users ● Elderly users ● Culturally sensitive colors (offensive, biased?)
Typefaces – Placement of lettering Try to achieve “harmony”: use minimal variation in type, clean appearance Focus on legibility
Type rules: point features
Type rules: line features ● Avoid upside-down type ● Avoid stretching out too much ● Place text from bottom-to-top, but first try to place horizontally to ease reading