Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Sociological Research. A Public Restroom? Common Sense vs. Scientific Evidence “Poor people are far more likely than rich people to break the law.” “Poor.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Sociological Research. A Public Restroom? Common Sense vs. Scientific Evidence “Poor people are far more likely than rich people to break the law.” “Poor."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sociological Research

2 A Public Restroom?

3 Common Sense vs. Scientific Evidence “Poor people are far more likely than rich people to break the law.” “Poor people are far more likely than rich people to break the law.” “The United States is a middle-class society in which most people are more or less equal.” “The United States is a middle-class society in which most people are more or less equal.” “Most poor people don’t want to work.” “Most poor people don’t want to work.” “Differences in the behavior of females and males are just ‘human nature.’ ” “Differences in the behavior of females and males are just ‘human nature.’ ” “People change as they grow old, losing many interests as they focus on their health.” “People change as they grow old, losing many interests as they focus on their health.” “Most people marry because they are in love.” “Most people marry because they are in love.”

4 Question Mindset …There is a marked increase in the number of divorces in the United States. : The number of divorces as a % have gone up sig. in the past 25 years Factual : The number of divorces as a % have gone up sig. in the past 25 years Comparison : Is this a phenomenon of just American society and culture? Comparison : Is this a phenomenon of just American society and culture? Developmental : Have there been other periods in American history where divorces have gone up or at least marriage rates fallen. Developmental : Have there been other periods in American history where divorces have gone up or at least marriage rates fallen. Theoretical : What else has happened within the same timeframe that can be exacerbating the problem? Theoretical : What else has happened within the same timeframe that can be exacerbating the problem?

5 Sociological Research Methods Sociologists, in order to study issues collect Empirical Research. Sociologists, in order to study issues collect Empirical Research. Empirical Research = research based on experiences, observations, and experiments Empirical Research = research based on experiences, observations, and experiments

6 Sociological Research Methods Sociologists in collecting this data strictly follow the Scientific Research Method Sociologists in collecting this data strictly follow the Scientific Research Method This method allows researches to develop an understanding of Cause and Effect This method allows researches to develop an understanding of Cause and Effect or causation.

7

8 Ten Steps In Sociological Investigation 1. Select and define topic 2. Review the literature 3. Develop key questions to ask 4. Assess requirements for study 5. Consider ethical issues 6. Select a research methodology 7. Collect the data 8. Interpret the findings 9. State conclusions 10. Publish the findings

9

10 Sociological Research Methods A Systematic Plan for Conducting Research Hawthorne effect–A change in a subject's behavior caused by the awareness of being studied Hawthorne effect–A change in a subject's behavior caused by the awareness of being studied

11 Steps in the Ideal Experiment Specify the dependent and independent variables. Specify the dependent and independent variables. Measure the dependent variable. Measure the dependent variable. Expose dependent variable to independent variable. Expose dependent variable to independent variable. Re-measure dependent variable to see if predicted change took place. Re-measure dependent variable to see if predicted change took place. If no change, modify hypothesis & re-test If no change, modify hypothesis & re-test

12

13 A causal relationship….when homeless shelters are closed in a city there are less beds for the homeless to use. Cause = Effect  Rarely when studying or dealing with human beings do researchers find clear causal relationships! Causation Is Not Correlation!

14 Causation Cause and effect Cause and effect A relationship in which change in one variable causes change in another A relationship in which change in one variable causes change in another Types of variables Types of variables Independent: The variable that causes the change Independent: The variable that causes the change Dependent: The variable that changes (its value depends upon the independent variable) Dependent: The variable that changes (its value depends upon the independent variable) Correlation Correlation A relationship by which two or more variables change together A relationship by which two or more variables change together Spurious correlation Spurious correlation An apparent, though false, relationship between two or more variables caused by some other variable An apparent, though false, relationship between two or more variables caused by some other variable

15 … You are studying the relationship between spousal abuse and credit card debt. The independent variable is… The dependent variable is… : one that produces an effect on another variable Independent variable: one that produces an effect on another variable : the variable affected in the relationship is the dependent. Dependent variable: the variable affected in the relationship is the dependent. Independent and Dependent Variables

16 …another scenario…. You are studying healthy lifestyles in the U.S. (specifically people who walk daily). Advocates say walking (30 minutes) a day will help cut down on a persons yearly healthcare costs. The Independent variable is… The dependent variable is… Independent and Dependent Variables

17 … … There is a strong correlation between the unemployment rate going up and the number of people utilizing soup kitchens in a given area. Two variables or occurrences seem to have a strong link between each other.   There is always an effort by sociologists to separate causal from correlational; however correlation can involve causation (ex: educational experience v. success / family income&involvement Causation Is Not Correlation!

18 Correlational Research Interpreting Correlations Interpreting Correlations Scores range from -1 to +1 Scores range from -1 to +1 -1, negative relationship example of a negative : drinking in college and GPA -1, negative relationship example of a negative : drinking in college and GPA 0, no relationship example of a near zero : hair length and GPA 0, no relationship example of a near zero : hair length and GPA +1, positive relationship example of a positive : GPA and scores on SAT +1, positive relationship example of a positive : GPA and scores on SAT

19

20 CORRELATION Perfect positive correlation coefficient Perfect positive correlation coefficient means that an increase in one event is always matched by an equal increase in a second event means that an increase in one event is always matched by an equal increase in a second event Positive correlation coefficient Positive correlation coefficient indicates that as one event tends to increase, the second event tends to, but does not always, increase indicates that as one event tends to increase, the second event tends to, but does not always, increase increases from to indicate a strengthening of the relationship between the occurrence of two events increases from to indicate a strengthening of the relationship between the occurrence of two events

21

22 Research Methods

23 Ethnography

24 Ethnography Firsthand studies of people using actual observations or interviewing. From this research and researchers can get clear first person accounts and evidence of how a specific group functions within a larger society Downsides are that only small populations can be studied and results cannot be applied to diff. groups even if they hold the same title Another loss is if the researcher becomes to comfortable they stop being the researcher

25 Ethnography:Observation Observation = observing people in actual social settings An Observation can be done with the participant being aware of the study or with them completely unaware of the researcher An Observation can be done with the participant being aware of the study or with them completely unaware of the researcher Ethnography

26 Sociological Research Methods 2. Survey’s Survey = Research method using questionnaires or interviews to gather data from individuals. Interview = Asking people directly specific questions and recording their answers Questionnaire = Asking people to respond to questions in writing. Could be in person, through the mail etc.

27 … surveys tend to be more impersonal and anonymous therefore they can assess more sensitive information. … another aspect that has to be watched is how the questions are worded and the responses a population can respond with. Surveys

28 Survey Research A research method in which subjects respond to a series of statements or questions in a questionnaire or interview Population Population The people who are the focus of the research The people who are the focus of the research Sample Sample The part of the population that represents the whole The part of the population that represents the whole Random Sample Random Sample Drawing a sample from a population so that every element of the population has an equal chance of being selected Drawing a sample from a population so that every element of the population has an equal chance of being selected

29 When conducting research sociologists (or any social scientist) often use representative samples of the population they are studying. When conducting research sociologists (or any social scientist) often use representative samples of the population they are studying. Sampling

30 3. Experiments

31 … For sociology, experiments can allow researchers to control and accurately study specific social behaviors. Experiments

32 4.Review past and previous Documents By analyzing past research, or materials (e.g. newspapers, records, arrests) a sociologists might be able to develop a theory or support an existing one. By analyzing past research, or materials (e.g. newspapers, records, arrests) a sociologists might be able to develop a theory or support an existing one.Also…….. Sociological Research Methods

33 By analyzing current sources of electronic communication (e.g. news reports, music) researchers may once again be able to support or develop theories of study. By analyzing current sources of electronic communication (e.g. news reports, music) researchers may once again be able to support or develop theories of study. Ex: Are nightly news programs more likely to report and visualize minority crimes than white Caucasian crimes?

34 Scientific Sociology Terminology Reliability–Consistency in measurement Reliability–Consistency in measurement Does an instrument provide for a consistent measure of the subject matter? Does an instrument provide for a consistent measure of the subject matter? Validity–Precision in measuring exactly what one intends to measure Validity–Precision in measuring exactly what one intends to measure Does an instrument actually measure what it sets out to measure? Does an instrument actually measure what it sets out to measure?

35 Controversy and Debate (cont.)

36

37

38 Ethical Guidelines for Research Must strive to be technically competent & fair-minded Must strive to be technically competent & fair-minded Must disclose findings in full without omitting significant data & be willing to share their data Must disclose findings in full without omitting significant data & be willing to share their data Must protect the safety, rights, and privacy of subjects Must protect the safety, rights, and privacy of subjects Must obtain informed consent; subjects are aware of of risks and responsibilities and agree Must obtain informed consent; subjects are aware of of risks and responsibilities and agree Must disclose all sources of funding & avoid conflicts of interest Must disclose all sources of funding & avoid conflicts of interest Must demonstrate cultural sensitivity Must demonstrate cultural sensitivity

39 …for the researcher in any social science, the first question is anyone being exposed to any type of physical, psychological, or social harm?..we shall look at another the infamous Stanley Milgram experiment. Ethics

40 …what did Stanley Milgram do wrong (ethically). Ethics


Download ppt "Sociological Research. A Public Restroom? Common Sense vs. Scientific Evidence “Poor people are far more likely than rich people to break the law.” “Poor."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google