Presentation on theme: "*Some policies and procedures may be facility specific."— Presentation transcript:
1*Some policies and procedures may be facility specific. Infection Control*Some policies and procedures may be facility specific.
2Healthcare - Associated Infections Healthcare-Associated Infections are infections that patients aquire during the course of receiving treatment for other conditions within a healthcare setting.Healthcare-Associated infections are one of the top ten leading causes of death in the United States.1.7 million patients develop Healthcare-Associated infections and 99,000 dieHealthcare-Associated infections cost up to $45 billion annuallyAt least 60% of Healthcare-associated Infections are caused by Drug Resistant Organisms20% of these are preventable.
3Chain of EventsThree Elements must be present for an infection to spread to hospital patients:Source of Pathogen – Causative AgentSusceptible Host – Patients and/or Care ProvidersMode of Transmission - Transmission route for microorganisms from person to person or object to person
5Breaking The ChainInfection control policies exist to help break the chain of events that leads to the spread of infection.Infection Control Activities Include:HandwashingIsolation TechniquesUse of Personnel Protective EquipmentOccupational Exposure Plan
6HANDWASHINGHandwashing is the most important activity you can do to prevent the spread of infection.15-20 seconds of frictionRinse from wrist to fingertipsTurn faucet off with paper towelWash before and after each patient contact or contact with patient room environment.Wash after removing glovesWash after using the restroomWash before eatingAlcohol handrinse should be used if hands are not visibly soiled
8Artificial NailsCDC advisory – do not wear artificial nails, tips, overlays or decorations on nails for healthcare workers who have direct contact with patientsDo not wear old or chipped nail polishKeep nails short.Scientific studies indicate increased fungal and bacterial colonization in healthcare workers with artificial nails
9Isolation Precautions Currently there are two types of Isolation Precautions:Standard Precautions: Used when caring for all patients, also known as Universal PrecautionsTransmission Based Precautions: Used in addition to standard precautions for specific disease processes.ContactDropletAirborneProtective
10Standard or Universal Precautions The Key PrincipleTreat all Blood, Body Fluid, Secretions and Excretions as if potentially infectious for HIV (the virus that causes AIDS), Hepatitis B,Hepatitis C, or other blood borne pathogens
11BloodBorne PathogensHepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are the most commonly known bloodborne pathogens.The main ways to become infected with these pathogens is through sexual contact and contact with blood and other body fluids.Since we can’t look at a person and tell if they have HIV or HBV, we have to treat everyone as if they are infected, and follow standard precautions at all times.The average risk of infection after accidental exposure is:HIV –0.3%HBV-5-30% - There is a HBV vaccine series that is available to reduce healthcare workers risk of infection.HCV- 3%
12Standard Precautions Wash hands between patient contact Use Alcohol hand gel when hands are not visibly soiledUse proper Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)Clean up spills with proper technique and disinfectantsNever re-cap needles using two handsDiscard Sharps in approved puncture resistant containers onlyKeep food away from possible infectious materialsNever pick up glass with bare handsIdentify places in your work area for eye and face washing if contamination occurs
13Personal Protective Equipment PPE PPE is specialized clothing or equipment used to prevent exposure to health and safety hazardsGloves should be worn anytime you could potentially come in contact with blood, body fluids or other potentially infectious materialsGowns, Masks, Face Shield / Eyewear should be worn anytime a splash of body fluids is possibleAny contaminated PPE should be disposed of properly in biohazard waste containersPPE is supplied by the hospitalsPPE should be in the correct sizeYou should know where PPE is locatedGloves - latex free and powder free are available
15Handling of Needles Never recap needles using 2 hands Never bend or break needlesDispose of all needles in nearest sharp’s disposal containerReplace sharps containers when 2/3 – 3/4 fullMust use safety devices when available
16Cleaning BloodspillsPPE – Wear gloves. Also gown and eye goggles if a large spillContain spill with paper towels or cover; clean with 1:10 fresh bleach / water solution, or EPA approved germicidal cleaner then place in red bagDisinfect by applying 1:10 bleach / water solution ; let air dry
17All used linens are to be put in soiled linen containers / bags without separating
18The biohazard symbol should be used to identify anything or any area The biohazard symbol should be used to identify anything or any areathat may present possible exposure to Blood and Body Fluids
19Transmission Based Isolation Precautions Contact Precautions – Used to reduce transmission of microorganisms via the contact route. Examples include Antibiotic Resistant OrganismsDroplet Precautions – Used to reduce transmission of microorganisms by coughing, sneezing and talking. Examples include Bacterial Meningitis, Flu, Mumps and Rubella.Airborne Precautions – Used to reduce transmission via the airborne route. Examples include TB, Smallpox, SARS and Chicken Pox – Do not allow non-immune to go in this roomProtective Precautions – For immune-compromised patients with less than 1000 white blood cells.
20Contact Precautions Follow Standard Precautions . Follow instructions posted on the door.Always wear gloves when entering the room.A gown should be worn if you anticipate that your clothing will come into contact with the patient or room environment.Patients with MRSA, VRE, and C.Difficile are examples of patients who should be placed in Contact Isolation.Students must be supervised by their preceptor the first time they enter a Contact Precautions room.
21MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staph Aureus) MRSA is transmitted via direct contact between people or contaminated objects.S. aureus produces an ENZYME, betalactamase, which allows it to become RESISTANT to penicillinsIn 1960, Methicillin became available for treating penicillin resistant S. aureusS. aureus developed strains resistant to Methicillin and by the mid 1970’s MRSA became a problemMRSA are resistant to many antibiotics, but can be treated with Vancomycin, some VRSA (Vancomycin Resistant Staph Aureus) are now being reported.75-78% of S. aureus isolated from lab cultures are resistant to methicillin.
22ENTEROCOCCUSLocated in normal flora of the GI and female reproductive tract, also transmitted via the contact route.Third most common cause of hospital acquired infections.Infection occurs in: urinary tract, wounds, central linesVRE – Enterococcus has acquired vancomycin resistanceVRE – 70% from urinary site – nursing home residentsVRE – Reportable to state from sterile body sites
23Risk Factors for Developing Antibiotic Resistance ICU PatientsPatients with extended length of stayPatients with previous admissionsOveruse and misuse of antibioticsNursing home residents
24Preventing The Spread of Drug Resistant Organisms Wash hands between each patient contactPlace patient in Contact Isolation PrecautionsUse and dispose of PPE correctlyFollow strict isolation techniqueUse antibiotics appropriately
25Droplet Precautions Follow Standard Precautions. Follow Instructions Posted on the Door.Wear an Isolation Mask if coming within 3-6 feet of the patient.Some hospitals may require a mask upon entering the patient room.Patients with the flu should be placed in Droplet Precautions.Students must be supervised by their preceptor the first time they enter a Droplet Precautions room.
26Influenza 10% to 20% of U.S. population will get the flu annually. 36,000 will die, 114,000 will be hospitalizedMost who die will be over 65, but children younger than 2 will be as likely as elderly to be hospitalizedHealthcare employee vaccination rate has been about 65%, CDC goal is to vaccinate all HCW (who have no contraindications to flu vaccine).CDC recommends vaccination against seasonal flu and 2009 H1N1 flu.*Per CDC current data
27Airborne Precautions Standard Precautions should be followed Place patient in a negative pressure roomDoor remains closedPersonnel entering room must wear an N95 Particulate Respirator*Employees must be medically screened and fit tested to wear the respirator.Due to the fit test requirement, students are not to enter the room of patients in TB isolation.Visitors/Family are encouraged to refrain from entry to the TB patient’s room. If entry is elected these individuals are strongly encouraged to wear an approved dust-mist mask, supplied by the hospital.*Students have not been screened and fit tested and will not be allowed to care for patients in Airborne Precautions.
30TB Mycobacterium tuberculosis One third of the world has been infected with TBTB Infection: Body holds the germ in check, but PPD is positiveTB Disease: 10% of persons infected will develop active disease, half within 2 years of exposureActive disease is defined as having the bacteria, being contagious, and symptomatic. A person can be infected with TB but not be symptomatic or contagious.40-50% of TB patients have a delayed diagnosis an average of 6 days resulting in exposure of workers for each undiagnosed patientHealth Care Workers should have annual PPD testing done
31QUESTIONS to detect TB Have you been coughing for over 3 weeks? Have you been coughing at all and have any of the following:a. Coughing up blood?b. Sweats at night?c. Loss of weight without trying?d. Persistent fever?
32Exposure Control PlanOSHA requires that all hospitals develop an Exposure Control Plan designed to:Reduce your risk of exposure to blood and body fluidsProvide the use of PPE (Personal Protective Equipment)Provide the use of Engineering Controls – ex. Negative pressure rooms for TB patients, sharps disposal containersProvide a Hepatitis B vaccine programThe plan is located in the Epidemiology Manual (Infection Control) in your area
33Needlestick or Blood Exposure “Actions to Take if Exposure Occurs” First Aid – thoroughly wash areaIf your eyes get splashed, flush them with waterNotify supervisor immediatelyNotify Occupational/Employee HealthComplete Needlestick/Exposure forms- this will allow for testing of the source patientCounselingHIV source - begin post -exposure prophylaxis within 2 hours