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NSS Enriching Knowledge for the Tourism and Hospitality Studies Curriculum Series (10): Compulsory Part II Introduction to Hospitality - Food and Beverage.

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Presentation on theme: "NSS Enriching Knowledge for the Tourism and Hospitality Studies Curriculum Series (10): Compulsory Part II Introduction to Hospitality - Food and Beverage."— Presentation transcript:

1 NSS Enriching Knowledge for the Tourism and Hospitality Studies Curriculum Series (10): Compulsory Part II Introduction to Hospitality - Food and Beverage Sector (New)

2 Food and beverage service principles –Ambience of an establishment –Kitchen layouts –Menu planning and design

3 Design refers to overall space planning; it defines the size, shape, style and decoration of space and equipment in the restaurant. Attractive and suitable surroundings seem to make a meal better > better meal experience. Good design: –Set a restaurant apart from its competition, bringing the theme and concept to life. –Enhance energy efficiency, conserve natural resources (most effective use of available space). –Increase profitability (guest experience is enhanced and better in quality). Physical surrounding & decorative details create its atmosphere, the overall mood (Ambience). Aims to make people feel secure and comfort..

4 Humans like to have their own special space, sufficient for privacy. When given the choice, most people would rather sit at a booth than out in the middle of the room at a table. (A sense of privacy or openness) Good dining-space design: find the right balance between security and the guests’ tolerance for stimulation. Related to the type of establishment, layout of restaurant, approximate capacity of dining room and aisle dimension etc.

5 Approximate capacity of Dining room Fine dining seating14 - 16 square feet per person Popular restaurant and cafeteria12 – 14 square feet per person Banquet 1010-12 square feet per person Suggested table sizes Banquet institutionalPopular restaurant/ Cafeteria Fine dining 2 persons2 x 2ft2 x 2.5ft2.5 x 3ft 4persons2.5 x 2.5ft 3 x 3ft 6persons3 x 6ft3 x 3ft4ft diameter 8persons3 x 8ft or 5ft diameter3 x 3ft5-6ft diameter 10persons6ft diameter3 x 3ft8ft diameter

6 Service AislesCustomer Access AislesMain Aisles Institutional Banquet 2ft1.5ft4ft Lunchroom Cafeteria 2.5ft1.5ft4ft Fine Dining3ft1.5ft4.5ft For diagonally spaced tables, allow 9” more between corners of tables than needed for the type of aisle needed (e.g. for 36” service aisle, allow 45”)

7 Tables: comes in three accepted shapes: round/oval, square and rectangular. Customer Access Aisles Main Aisles Service Aisles

8 Often you’ll hear the word “comfort’ associated with atmosphere. Dimensions of comfort: –Temperature of the room –Ventilation system –The style or padding of the chairs –Lighting –Sound –Ability to separate diners with small children –………

9 Exterior signage; high or low light levels; bright or subdued colors; use of mirrors or partitions to expand or reduce space; height of ceilings; menu design; artwork on walls; window covering; positioning of tables Vision Floors of marble, tile, carpet, or wood; chairs of wood, metal, leather; seats cushioned or not cushioned; basket or plastic plates, earthenware or fine china, paper on which the menu is printed Touch Type and loudness of music, live or on the sound system; kitchen or bar noise; cash registers. Sound Taste. A cool drink; a crisp onion ring, well seasoned dishes; a hot curried dish. Taste The thermostat setting of a room, heat from the kitchen or coffee station; direct sunlight or use of window coverings; hot food served hot; cold food served cold. Temperature The effort it takes to get a table or chair; traffic flow of the aisles; the way servers negotiate the dining room with trays; Motion

10 The choice of furniture and its layout and of the linen, tableware, small equipment and glassware will be determined by considering various factors such as: a) The type of clientele expected b) The site or location of the establishment c) The layout of the food and beverage service area d) The type of service offered e) The fund available

11 1.Dining area 2.Restroom facilities 3.Bar area 4.Sideboard

12 When designing the dining area, a well- planned scheme carefully shapes the customer’s perception with these components: –Table shape, sizes, and positions –Number of seats at each table –Multiple floors, steps or elevated areas of seating –Paintings, posters or murals –Type and intensity of lighting –Partitions –Placement of service areas

13 The single most critical public perception of a restaurant is that if the restroom is clean, so is the kitchen. A study published in restaurant hospitality magazine reported 78% of respondents agree that a clean restroom is a “strong indication” of a clean kitchen. 94% believe that cleanliness is the most important for rating a restaurant. Golden rule; guest should never have to walk through the kitchen to use the restroom. Health ordinances may require a specific number of toilets and urinals, depending on your square footage or total seating capacity.


15 Every bar, no matter where it’s located, how big it is, or how it is shaped, has three interrelated parts: 1. Front bar 2. Back bar 3. Under bar

16 The front bar is where customers’ drinks are served. The space is 16-18 inches wide, topped by a waterproof surface. The back bar is the wall area behind the bar structure. It serves a dual function, providing both decorative display and storage space. The central point of the under bar is the pouring station, where you’ll find the automatic dispensing system for carbonated beverages and juices. Also in the pouring station are bottle wells and a speed rail- both places to store the most frequently used liquors and mixers.


18 The heart of any foodservice business and kitchen design affect: 1. quality of food; 2. the business capacity/ performance; 3. the roles and workloads of worker; 4. utility & other costs; 5. atmosphere of the dining area. Aimed to manage the possible environment and tools with which to accomplish three critical cost controls: a) Labor (increased productivity) b) Utilities (increased energy efficiency) c) Food (menu flexibility, quality and planning) Smaller and more efficient kitchen are the trends in kitchen layout. Three result for this trend: a) a shortage of qualified labor b) battle for space in general for business uses c) budget constraints

19 The layout of food premises should be designed in such a manner that work flow is in one direction as far as possible (i.e. receiving → storage → preparation → serving → cleaning) –Systematically design with designated working zone –Adequate spaces are provided for food preparation, food storage, storage of equipment / utensils and installation of sanitary facilities –Minimize the likelihood of cross contamination and the design is from low risk to high risk –To avoid congestion in each zone –Facilitate easy cleaning, sanitizing and maintenance 19

20 20 Designed, constructed and equipped to minimize the risk of contamination The best materials for the structure of food premises are: 1. durable 2. impervious (waterproof) 3. smooth 4. easy to clean 5. resistant to cracking/ chipping

21 A work center is an area in which workers perform a specific task, such as tossing salads or garnishing plates. When several work centers are grouped together by the nature of the work being done, the whole area is referred to as a work station: cooking station, baking station and so on. Here are some of the typical stations: –Broiler station –Griddle station –Sauté station –Roast station –Holding station

22 Determine the placement of equipment based on the cooking methods. There are two major ways to cook food: 1. dry-heat methods 2. moist heat methods The difference is, of course, the use of liquid/moisture in the cooking process.


24 Stainless steel tables for plating food Combi oven/steamer Cook-and-hold oven Hot food holding boxes SalamanderSteam tableMixerTilting kettle braising oven or tilting braiser

25 Range topReach-in and walk-in refrigeration Sink, with hot and cold water Braising oven or tilting braiser Ice bin or ice machine Dishwashing machine Fryer, griddle

26 Service areas and wait stations (around 15%) Preparation areas, Production areas and assembly areas (around 50%) Dishwashing area (around 15%) Receiving area and Storage area: dry, refrigerated, cleaning supplies, dishes and utensils (around 20%) Office (around 5%) Employee locker rooms, toilets

27 MethodDescription ConventionalTerm used to describe production utilizing mainly fresh foods and traditional cooking methods ConvenienceMethod of production utilizing mainly convenience foods CentralizedProduction not directly linked to service. Food are ‘held’ and distributed to separate service area Cook-chillFood production storage and regeneration method utilizing principle of low temperature control to preserve qualities of processed foods Cook-freezeProduction, storage and regeneration method utilizing principle of sealed vacuum to control and preserve the quality of processed foods Sous-videMethod of production, storage and regeneration utilizing principle of sealed vacuum to control and preserve the quality of processed foods

28 MethodExplanation BakingCooked in dry heat, in the oven BlanchingDipping the food in to boiling water or oil for a short time BoilingCooked in a boiling or rapidly simmering liquid BraisingBrowned in small amount of fat, then cooked slowly in a small amount BoilingCooked by direct heat from above or below FriedCooked in fat or oil Deep friedCooked in enough fat to cover the food GrilledCooked grill, over direct heat PoachingCooked in a liquid, just below boiling point (simmering) RoastingCooked uncovered, usually by in oven by dry heat SautéingBrowned or cooked in a small amount hot fat or oil SteamingCooked in steam with or without pressure StewingSimmering slowly in enough liquid to cover the food

29 The menu is central to a food and beverage operation. It is the ‘first impression’ of your establishment It communicates everything about your type of operation It dictates your staffing, organisation, production and service methods It drives your image, theme, concept, quality and overall mission It is the main ‘sales tool’ for your product It differentiates you from your competition It can make or break you!

30 The menu is primarily a selling aid. Originally the bill of fare (English) or menu (French) was not presented at the table. The menu or bill of fare was very large and was placed at the end of the table for everyone to read. As time progressed the menu became smaller and increased in quantity allowing a number of copies per table.

31 This act as bridge between the establishment and the customer. This provide all necessary in formations regarding dishes available, their price range and other rules and regulations. This authenticates and gives guarantees to the customer for billing purpose. Due to Accent problem, the server may not pronounce some dishes names correctly and may create confusion. But menu lessens this type of human error. The server cannot recite the dishes available at the restaurant several times. But this problem is solved because of the menu as guest can refer it as necessary. We can group different type of dishes in different category in a menu card and hence, making easier for guest to select his favourite by referring the section of his/her choice.

32 Menu may be divided into two classes, traditionally called á la carte (from the card) and table d’hôte (table of the host). The key difference: –á la carte menu has dishes separately priced –table d’hôte menu has an inclusive price either for the whole meal or for a specified number of courses, for example, any two or any four courses. Sometimes the term ‘menu du jour’ is used instead of the term ‘table d’hôte menu’. Another menu term used is ‘carte du jour’ (literally ‘card of the day’) or ‘menu of the day’, which can also be a fixed meal with one or more courses for a set price. A ‘Tasting menu’ (“menu degustation’) is a set meal with a range of courses (often between 6 and 10). These tasting menus are offered in restaurants where the chef provides a sample of the range of dishes available on the main menu.

33 Table d’hôte menuÀ la carte menu The key characteristics of the table d’hôte menu are: The menu has a fixed number of courses There is a limited choice within each course The selling price is fixed The food is usually available at a set time The key characteristics of the á la carte menu are: The choice is generally more extensive Each dish is priced separately There may be longer waiting times as some dishes are cooked or finished to order. All menus, no matter how simple or complex, are based on one of the two basic menu classes: table d’hôte or á la carte. Some menus combine the features of these two classes, offering a number of menu items together at a set price while other menu items are priced separately.

34 The advantages of this menu: ∙ These are simple and very easy to choose, as choices are limited. ∙ The prices are set and hence, guest can choose accordingly. ∙ This is easier to control and operate. ∙ This is giving less wastage of food. The disadvantages are: ∙ The choices are limited and hence, may not satisfy to all type of clientele. ∙ One has to pay set price for the menu, irrespective of their consumption of all dishes available. These are useful for: ∙ The restaurant, serving business lunch for business people, who like well designed and combinations of various dishes, as it will save time. ∙ State banquets, and wedding ceremonies. ∙ Fast food outlets.

35 The advantages of this menu: ∙ The guest will be satisfied as they can choose their own appetite without any limitation. ∙ As the portions are not predefined, the guest can choose his/her size. ∙ This type of menu is generally having varieties, dishes from two or more cuisine or region and hence guest can customize their combinations. ∙ The dishes can be changed according to the season or current trend. The disadvantages are: ∙ As all guests are not expert in menu combination and selection and hence cannot choose appropriate combination of dishes. ∙ The wastage can be more, as the availability of items need to be maintained more. This is useful for: ∙ The multi ‐ cuisine restaurant, serving more than one cuisine or regional dishes. ∙ The coffee shop styled restaurant.

36 Menu considerations

37 Attracting and retaining customers is important. The underpinning goal is to provide a menu that your consumers will want. Market research Customer’s expectation

38 Trends Organic foodConsumers increasingly demand food that is healthy, organic and produced without any artificial addictives. VegetarianismMore customer be vegetarian. ExoticConsumers increasingly enjoy more exotic food from areas such as Japan, Thailand and Australia. Healthier optionsIncreasing obesity level and chronic disease are leading consumers to be more health conscious.

39 Customers are more demanding and with more specific requirements HalalCaters for members of the Muslim faith; in the food production process the animal or poultry has to be slaughtered in a ritual way known as Zibah. KosherKosher food is food that meets Jewish dietary laws, or the laws of Kashrut. Similar to Halal, it has strict rules in the preparation and production stages, where food is supervised by a rabbi. Members of the Jewish faith would not consume items such as pork or seafood and would not mix diary and fruits. VegetarianVegetarians would not eat meat, poultry and fish. They eat primarily vegetables, pulses and fruits. VeganVegans do not eat meat, eggs, diary products and all other animal- derived ingredients. They eat beans, grains, legumes, vegetables and fruits.

40 Business considerations when planning and creating menus: –The establishment’s target food cost –The cost of ingredients –Food seasonality –The quantity of food used for each dish (portion) –Food wastage during production –Food production methods

41 Operational considerations when planning and creating menus: a) Skill requirement of chefs b) Size of food production c) Food service facilities d) Service method e) Competition

42 Truth-in-menu laws exist in some localities, cannot mislabel a product  “Butter” must use butter not margarine  “Fresh” must be fresh, cannot be canned, frozen or fresh-frozen)  “Homemade” not purchased “ready-to-heat”  Grading (foods are graded by size, quality, in line with official standards)  Geographical origin (cannot make false claims about the origin of a product)

43 Menu cover needs to: –Be attractive –Be eye catching –Set the scene –Communicate the theme –Be cleanable –Be replaceable

44 Change AgentImpact/ Action Ingredient prices change due to political and economic factors Menu prices need to be amended Food scares such as bird flu and mad cow disease Consumers will not purchase Remove from menu Replace Items wanted due to social changes – red meat, fat Consumers will not purchase Remove from menu Replace Items wanted due to social changes – organic, healthier options, exotic food Create dishes Add to menu Advertise Internal; restructuring – change in budget, staffing, leadership, theme Menu changes Supplier problemsIngredients not available or too expensive, remove form menu

45 It is important to remember that your menu is an important communication tool. Complex terminology should be avoided. If customers do not understand the menu it may deter them from entering the restaurant/ Terminology is used it is important to ensure that the service staff can explain meaning to customers.

46 Are all descriptions accurate? Are sections clear with the right food in each section Are dishes easy to read? Is the font the correct size? Could I use different colours, bold or underline particular dishes to make them stand out? Have I fully utilised all the paper space well? Have we communicated the brand well? If prices change, can we amend the prices easily? Is the menu easy to clean? Do we have the address, e-mail and reservations number on the menu? Do we have service charge information communicated well? Is the spelling and grammar correct? Have we highlighted any potential allergies( eg:nuts)? Do we need to consider getting menus translated into another language?

47 Three basic types of menu page and fold formats. 1. Single-page format: the entire menu is contained on a single page or card. The area of sales concentration is in the top half of the page 2. Two-page/single-fold menus. Menu size and shape will vary considerably 3. A three-panel, two-fold menu


49 The graphic “Eye Movement Pattern” shows the typical eye movement over a three-panel, two- fold menu. The pattern of eye movement is not fixed and can be altered and directed by “menu design psychology.”

50 Visual element techniques to increase the effectiveness of the menu The first visual element is the font size and style. Words, numbers, or graphic symbols can be increased in size to attract the reader’s eye or decreased in size to de-emphasize attention to a particular item. This technique is most effective when the entire menu is limited to three different font styles. The change from a light type to a bold type can also increase awareness and can actually direct the eye along a prescribed path. Thus, color and brightness can be used along with font size and style to direct the reader to certain parts or sections of the menu.

51 Oversized menus are difficult to hold Knock over wine glasses with the menu Scorched by candles Obstructing customer’s view of their dining partner Too large to be placed on the table

52 A variety of colors is used in each meal. Color combinations do not clash. Colorless or one- color meals are avoided. Attractive garnishes are used. It helps to merchandise the food. Color and eye appeal Refers to the structure of food and is experienced by mouth-feel. A contrast of soft, creamy, crisp, chewy, and firm-textured foods is included in each meal, as much as possible, for clientele served. Texture and consistency In addition to the basic flavors of sweet, sour, bitter and salty. Foods with compatible, varied flavors should be offered. A variety of flavors in the meal is more enjoyable than duplication of any one flavor. Two or more foods with strong flavors are avoided in the same meal. For example, tomato juice and tomato-base casserole, are not served together. Flavor combinations Light to heavy, then heavy to light Vary the sequences of preparation of each course. Change the seasoning, flavouring and presentation Ensure that garnishes are in harmony with the main dishes. Balance

53 Important to make your dishes sound exciting. It is key to fully explain and communicate the main features of the dish creating a visual picture in the mind of the potential consumer. Examples of words to encourage purchases: Tasty Juicy Traditional Fresh Authentic Homemade Crunchy Creamy

54 When compiling menus it is important to ensure that dishes are produced as nutritiously as possible The ingredient and methods of preparation a foodservice operation uses have a vast effect on the food’s nutrient content. Fresh local product usually with more nutritional Maximize the amount of vitamins, minerals, and fiber and to minimize calories, fat, cholesterol, sodium, and sugar. Frozen fruits and vegetables are generally higher in vitamins may be lost, as time deterioration affects product quality.


56 Bread cereal, rice and pasta group: –1 slice of bread –1 ounce of ready to eat cereal Fruit group: –1 medium apple, banana or orange –Half cup chopped, cooked or canned fruit Vegetable group: –1 cup of raw leafy vegetables –Half cup of any other vegetables (cooked or raw) Dairy group: –1 cup of milk or yogurt –45gm of cheese Meat, poultry, fish, eggs group: –60gm of cooked lean meat –2 eggs

57 Source: MyPyramid from

58 The overall menu and dishes should use a good variety of different ingredients to include: Vegetables Fruits Red meats White meats Fish Pulses Herbs Spices

59 Your menu is as good as the quality of the ingredients used. Are there suppliers that can deliver the menu items required? Are the suppliers able to consistently meet food specifications? Am I using the best supplier to provide food in relation to quality, consistency of delivery and price? Is there a back-up supplier should there be any problems?

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