1 Annual 4 Hour Food Safety Training FOOD SERVICE WORKERAnnual 4 HourFood Safety Training
2 Welcome! Instructor introduction Watch “Digital Health Department” video
3 Why? To provide you with the basic understanding of food safety. To maintain industry standards.Assist managers who are responsible for ensuring food safety.To reduce or eliminate the incidence of Foodborne Illness (FBI).
4 Terminal ObjectiveDescribe how, by proper personal hygiene, use of approved food sources, proper cooking and holding temperatures, cleaning and sanitizing, you as a food service worker may prepare meals without the occurrence of foodborne illness.
5 Chapter 1: Foodborne Illness Enabling ObjectivesDescribe foodborne illnessExplain the various symptoms of foodborne illnessDescribe the three types of foodborne illnessState the four types of microorganisms that may cause foodborne illnessExplain the acronym FATTOM
6 What Makes People Sick? Foodborne Illness People get sick when the food they eat contains harmful microorganisms called pathogens.Some pathogens affect you directly (infections).Some pathogens produce toxins that cause poisoning.
7 Potentially Hazardous Foods (PHF) Potentially Hazardous Foods are defined as foods that allow the rapid growth of harmful microorganisms.PHF contain moisturePHF contain nutrients such as proteins and carbohydrates
8 Potentially Hazardous Foods (PHF) Most PHFBeefPoultryFishLambPorkShellfishMilkEggsCooked VegetablesTofuGarlic and oil mixturesRaw sproutsSoy protein/ meat alternativesBaked potatoesSliced melons**Why sliced melons? They grow on the ‘dirty’ ground. They have a protective shell around them, once you cut into that you can contaminate the inside.
9 Riddle Me This: What ingredient in potato salad can make you sick? How many of you said mayonnaise?WRONG! Believe it or not - it’s potatoes!Where do you find mayo in the grocery store? On the shelf at room temp. Mayo has been “pH modified” to increase the acidity so these organisms cannot live in it. You really don’t have to store mayo in the refrigerator, however it will separate and look nasty but will not make you sick. However, once potatoes are cooked they become Potentially Hazardous Food!!This has been a common misconception for a very long time that Mayonnaise is what makes people sick. In years past this may have been true when the mayo was made from just eggs and oil or if the mayo was/is homemade. Modern food manufacturing processes have helped to do away with this. Really, by adding mayo to the potato salad makes it safer because it raises the pH of the whole product.
10 Microorganisms Bacteria Viruses Parasites Fungi Most common cause of FBISome produce toxins which cannot be destroyed by cookingVirusesMake you sick without knowingCan be passed easily on unwashed handsParasitesUsually tiny worms that live in fish and meatsCooking to proper temps will kill parasitesFungiCommonly spoil food more than making you illOne may product harmful toxins (Aflatoxin)
11 Contamination Food can become contaminated in many ways Biological – Bacteria, Viruses, ParasitesChemical – Any chemicals; pesticides, etcPhysical – Dirt, debris, glass, hair, etcWhat do you do if you KNOW food is contaminated? Do not take any chances notify your supervisor and discard it!!!
12 Types of Foodborne Illness Infection – caused by consuming food that contains living disease-causing microorganismsIntoxication – Illness caused by consuming food that contains a chemical or a toxinToxin-mediated Infection – Illness caused by consuming an organism that then produces a toxin while living inside your intestines (combination of infection & intoxication)All foodborne illness causing microorganisms fall into one of these 3 categories, either it is classified as an Infection or an Intoxication or a Toxin-mediated Infection.
13 F-A-T-T-O-MAcronym for all the elements microorganisms need to surviveF – FoodA – AcidityT – TemperatureT – TimeO – OxygenM - MoistureFOOD – Generally Potentially Hazardous Foods is what we are talking aboutACIDITY – All foods have some sort of acidity, microorganisms need a Neutral to just Slightly Acidic environment to live in (Lemons are very acidic, organisms generally wouldn’t be able to live on them however Milk is very Neutral and is a perfect environment for many different types of organisms).TEMPERATURE – The temperature range of 41°F to 140°F is the perfect environment for these organisms to live and grow.TIME – As a rule, 4 Hours at unsafe Temperatures (41-140°F) is enough time for the organisms to multiply/reproduce enough to make people sickOXYGEN – Some organisms NEED oxygen to grow, some organisms DO NOT NEED oxygen to grow, while others can grow WITH or WITHOUT oxygenMOISTURE – Very few organisms can grow without moisture, ALL Foodborne microorganisms need moisture to live and grow
14 Symptoms of Foodborne Illness Foodborne Illness symptoms may includeAbdominal pain/crampsVomitingDiarrheaFeverChillsHeadacheFatigue (tired)Neurological (dizziness, blurry vision)Death
15 High Risk PopulationsCertain groups of people are at higher risk for contracting foodborne illnessChildrenElderlyPregnant womenPeople taking certain medicationsPeople with certain medical conditionsCHILDREN – Children are at higher risk of foodborne illness because they have not been exposed to a lot of diseases and their immune system is not as developed as a normal adults isELDERLY – Elderly people are at higher risk of foodborne illness because with age our immune system does not work as wellPREGNANT WOMEN – Pregnant women are at higher risk for foodborne illness because their body and immune system is being taxed by taking care of and protecting the fetusMEDICATIONS – Certain medications can temporarily or permanently damage the body’s immune system (Chemotherapy, Steroids, Antibiotics)MEDICAL CONDITIONS – Certain medical conditions can make one more susceptible to foodborne illness, for instance many organ transplant recipients have to have their immune system “destroyed” to prevent their body from rejecting the new organ. Also there are many people out there who have been born without an immune system or one that never developed.
16 Your Are The Most Important Aspect of Food Safety! Good practicesProper hand washing (most important!)Good personal hygieneDO NOT come to work if you are illPrevent cross-contaminationCook to proper temperaturesHold foods at proper temperaturesProperly thaw foodsProperly clean and sanitize equipment
18 Approved SourcesApproved sources are listed in the Army Veterinary Services “DoD Directory of Sanitarily Approved Food Establishments for Armed Forces Procurement”But what does this mean? This means that only facilities that have been inspected by federal, state or local health authorities and that maintain compliance with the guidelines are allowed to provide food to military installations.
19 Approved SourcesAnyone can become an Approved Source, however there is a application process and you will be subject to routine inspections and reviews.Organizations that are not on the list are not allowed to prepare, serve or sell food or food products aboard any base.DO NOT use food purchased from roadside vendors, private farmers, your garden or any home canned foods in your facilities.
20 Approved Sources Prime Vendor Army Veterinary Inspectors (AVI) Serves numerous areasBased on best value criteriaArmy Veterinary Inspectors (AVI)Inspect at delivery pointInspect for wholesomenessAcceptance AuthorityPerson authorized and trainedMust be in writingOnly PMA, Army Vet, USDA & USDC Inspectors
21 Chapter 3: Personal Hygiene and Employee Illness Enabling ObjectivesDescribe the components which make up good personal hygieneWhy jewelry must not be worn in food preparation areasDescribe when hands should be washedExplain the symptoms that a manager must be aware ofExplain why the food worker cannot handle food with an infected boil, cut, burn or sore on their fingers, hand, wrist or arms.
22 Personal HygieneGood personal hygiene involves more than just bathing regularly. It also includes such things as:Clean clothingProper hand washingAvoiding unsanitary habitsReporting any illnessesProper hair restraintsRemove jewelry (a simple wedding band may be worn)
23 Hand WashingStep 1 – Wet your hands with water as hot as you can comfortably stand (110°F – or as hot as the faucet should get)Step 2 – Apply soap and scrub for 15 secondsStep 3 – Rinse thoroughlyStep 4 – Dry hands with a single use paper towel or warm air dryerYou should also use the paper towel to turn off the faucet and to open the door!
24 Hand Washing Boring statistics: Did you know 65 out of 100 people (that’s 65%) do NOT wash their hands after using the restroom? Don’t believe me? Watch closely the next time you’re in a public restroom!Almost 80% of common illnesses are spread by touch
25 Your turn: Let’s see how well you wash your hands! Using the “Glitterbug Potion” apply a small amount to your hands just like you would with lotionImagine that you just cut up raw chicken and there is now nasty raw chicken juice on your hands. (YUCK!)Go to the restroom and wash your hands – when you THINK they are clean come back & look at them under the Ultraviolet Light.
26 Your Turn: Surprised by what you saw? Anything that was glowing is still chicken juice not washed off your hands!Most common places missed – cuticles, under fingernails, wrist and between fingers.Use of a nail brush increases effectiveness
27 When to Wash Before During After Starting work Putting on gloves Food preparation as necessaryAfterBreaksUsing restroom (before & after)Coughing, sneezing or blowing your noseSmoking, eating or drinkingTouching raw foodsUsing chemicalsTaking out the trashTouching hair, mouth, eyes and open wounds & sores
28 Gloves Gloves are a double edged sword Used properly they are an excellent toolHowever they give a false sense of securityHow many times have you seen someone wearing gloves scratch themselves & then touch food?Gloves are NOT required – but are highly encouraged to prevent “bare hand contact” of foods that are ready to eat.
29 They’re Everywhere! Microorganisms grow everywhere Most are not harmfulSince most are spread by touch its better not to touch food directly. Instead use:TongsGlovesForksOther utensils
30 Employee IllnessTo prevent foodborne illness from occurring, food service employees with illness and infections are restricted from handling food and utensils.It doesn’t make much sense for someone with a foodborne illness to work with food now does it?
31 Employee Illness Do not work if you have a fever & sore throat Do not work if you have diarrheaDo not work if you are throwing upDo not work if you have jaundice (a yellow coloring in the eyes or skin)Jaundice is a sign of Hepatitis AEnsure that you cover any cuts, boils or open sores on your hands & arms.
32 Employee IllnessEmployees are required to report to their supervisor when they are ill with:Hepatitis ASalmonellaShigellaE. coliNorwalk/NorovirusSupervisors are also require to report these illness directly to us.
33 Chapter 4: Temperature Control Enabling ObjectivesIdentify potentially hazardous foodsIdentify the “Temperature Danger Zone”Explain why food that is being cooled or heated must be moved through the TDZ as quickly as possibleState the proper temperature for hot holdingState the proper temperature for cold holdingExplain when food is considered unsafe to eat
34 Potentially Hazardous Foods PHF are moist nutrient-rich foods that have a neutral or slightly acidic pHDue to the methods used to process these foods, they have a potential for contaminationThey have a history of being involved with or the cause of foodborne illness outbreaks
35 Temperature Danger Zone The TDZ is between 41°F to 140°FPHF should not be held between these 2 temperatures for greater than 4 hoursIf it has been greater than 4 hours DISCARD IT, because it is UNSAFE!
36 Temperatures How do you take proper temps? With a thermometer! Insert the thermometer into the thickest portion of the foodMost common types:Which thermometer you use is going to be determined by your work environment and situation. One would not use a laser thermometer to measure the temperature of a Pot Roast or very large Turkey, since it only measures surface temperature. In this situation the Stem Thermometer or Thermocouple would be more accurate.ThermocoupleBimetallic StemLaser
37 TemperaturesWhen is cooked food safe? No matter how you cook it (bake, fry, broil, etc):Certain foods have to reach certain temperatures in order to be considered safeEnsure that each food is cooked to it’s proper temperature for an adequate amount of time
38 Temperatures Cold Holding Cold foods must be held at 41°F or below Not only will this slow down organism growth, it keeps the food fresh longerHot HoldingAfter food has been cooked, it may be a while before it is served use of hot holding ensures the food stays at safe temperaturesHot foods must be held at 140°F or higherIn either case food must:Be stirred frequently to distribute temperature evenlyBe cover to help maintain temperature & prevent contaminationHave its temperature checked frequently
39 Temperatures Product Minimum Temperature Additional Information Poultry (Includes ground poultry)165°F for 15 SecondsCook stuffing separateStuffing, Stuffed meats and casserolesGround or flaked meats (Hamburger, sausage)155°F for 15 SecondsNoneSteaks (Beef, pork, lamb)145°F for 15 SecondsRoasts (Beef, pork, lamb)145°F for 4 MinutesDue to it’s thickness, roasts must hold temp longerFish/SeafoodsFor stuffed fish use 165°FEggs for immediate serviceEggs to be held (buffet style) must be cooked to 155°FFoods cooked in a microwave or any foods reheated165°F for 2 MinutesCover, rotate and stir frequentlyThese are the mostly commonly used cooking temperatures.The Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature for PHF is to ensure that pathogenic organisms that may be present in the food are killed making it safe to eat. Each type of organism dies at a specific temperature (i.e. Salmonella 165°F, E.coli 155°F), hence the foods commonly associated with this organism are required to be cooked to this temperature.The Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature requirement came out around 1993 when the "Jack in the Box" E.coli incident happened. It is called the Lauren Beth Rudolph Safety Act of 1997 and was a collaborative effort between the California State Department of Health and the mother (Roni) of Lauren Beth who was a 6 year old little girl who died after eating undercooked E.coli contaminated hamburgers at Jack in the Box. At the time there were no rules or regulations for Minimum Internal Cooking Temperatures.
40 Cooling Hot FoodsFoods that are made in advance or foods to be used as leftovers must be cooled properly before storing in a refrigeratorMove through the TDZ as quickly as possibleRemember: only foods that have NOT been served from and have been kept at safe temperatures may be kept as leftoversDivide into smaller portions first (cut up roasts, distribute soups into smaller/shallow pans, etc)Portion control will limit the necessity for leftovers
41 Cooling Hot FoodsWhy do you need to cool them first? Why not just place that hot kettle in the refrigerator?A large pot of chili will take almost 12 days to cool down to 41° - during this time it is in the TDZ and bacteria are growing rampantlyThe hot/cool zone will create condensation and allow mold to grow or it may drip from the top into other foods contaminating themThe refrigerator will work over time – prematurely wearing out the cooling pumpThe other foods in the refrigerator will now be at higher temperatures, making them unsafeThat’s just 4 too many reasons! Lets look at a much safer method.
42 Cooling Hot Foods Two stage cooling 4 hours total time Cool hot foods from whatever temperature they are at (ideally at 140°F) to 70°F within 2 hoursThen cool them from 70°F to 41°F in an additional 2 hours4 hours total timeIf the first stage only takes 1 hour the extra hour can carry over to the second stage (3 hours)Do not extend first stage this is the temperature range bacteria grows most! (140°-70°F)
43 Cooling Hot Foods So how do we do it? Ice water bath Ice cooling paddleBlast chiller
44 Thawing Frozen FoodsFoods must be properly thawed out to ensure they are not temperature abusedIdeally thaw under refrigeration – place in the refrigerator a 2-3 days before cookingThaw under cool running waterThaw in a microwave (however it must be cooked immediately)Thaw as part of the cooking process (frozen hamburger patties on the grill)
45 Thawing Frozen Foods Thawing at room temperature is NOT ALLOWED! How many of you do this? Set foods out on the counter in the sunlight to “thaw” – what’s so bad about it? Temperature abuse, again that food is right in the TDZ!When thawing in water, NEVER fill the sink or a tub up with hot water – cool running water not only flushes away contaminates and keeps the food at a safe temperature, but it also ensures the drain is not clogged up or backing up sewage!
46 LeftoversOnly foods that have not been served from and have been held at safe temperatures may be retained as leftoversLeftovers may only be held for 24 hoursLeftovers must be labeled with name of the product, date prepared and discard dateYES!NO!Leftover? Yes or No?Leftover? Yes or No?
47 Leftovers Why? This has obviously been served from – Not a Leftover! This has NOT been served from – It’s ok as a Leftover!Leftover? Yes or No?Leftover? Yes or No?
48 Cold StorageAir movement – very important! Air must be able to circulate around objects stored in the refrigerator or freezer to ensure adequate cooling. Do not crowd or over stock.Refrigerator Temp – 32 to 41°FFreezer Temp – 0°F or below
49 Chapter 5: Cross Contamination Enabling ObjectivesDefine cross contaminationIdentify methods to prevent cross contaminationIdentify storage conditions that will minimize the potential for cross contamination
50 Safe Storage Practices Ensuring food is stored safely is just as important as any other processGeneral guidelines for storage:Label everything! Date receivedRotate stock: Do you know FIFO? First-In, First Out; always use your oldest stock firstStore at minimum 6 inches off the floor
51 Preventing Cross Contamination Cross contamination comes in many forms:Most obvious: cutting raw chicken, then cutting vegetables without cleaning, sanitizing or using new equipmentDrop that knife on the floor – just wipe it off on your apron right? NO! Clean & sanitize or get a new oneVery obscure: During an inspection we found cooked, ready to eat pizza being stored on a metal rack – this is fine however, the pizza was halfway on the pan – halfway up the wall!! When do you think the last time that wall was cleaned & sanitized?
52 Preventing Cross Contamination Hand washing, hand washing, hand washing!Store raw meats on the lower shelves of the refrigeratorKeep different types of meat separate from one anotherKeep any unwashed or raw food well away from cooked and ready to eat foodsWash, rinse & sanitize all Food Contact Surfaces before and after each useStore cleaning supplies, chemicals, etc away from food
53 Preventing Cross Contamination Use equipment designed to prevent cross contaminationColor Coded Cutting boards are the best bet, since each color is assigned ONE specific food product. Generally GREEN is used for VEGETABLES, WHITE is used for COOKED and READY-TO-EAT food products, RED is used for RAW MEATS (Beef/Pork), YELLOW is used for RAW POULTRY and BLUE is used for RAW FISH.
54 Food Contact Surface What is a Food Contact Surface? Anything food comes into contact withPots, pans, plates, spoons, cutting boards, knives, preparation table tops
55 Proper Food Storage In what order do they go from top to bottom? Why? Raw PoultryIn what order do they go from top to bottom?Why?Raw Ground BeefCake (Ready to Eat)The reason these products are stored in this order from top to bottom has everything to do with the organism that affects that type of food and it’s Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature. Poultry is commonly associated with Salmonella, salmonella dies at 165°F; Ground Beef is commonly associated with E. coli, E. coli dies at 155°F; Fish are commonly affected by Parasites, parasites die at 145°F. If juices from the Ground Beef were to splash or spill onto the Poultry below, the E. coli would still be killed off since the Poultry would be cooked at 165°F, which is higher than 155°F. However, if we were to store these products wrong and place the Poultry above everything else, juices that splashes or spills onto the Fish or Ground Beef would carry Salmonella to them and the Salmonella would not be killed since that product is cooked at a lower temperature (145/155°F).Raw FishRefrigerator
56 Proper Food StorageWhy do we store food this way? There are 2 reasons:Obvious reason: Cross contamination – you don’t want that raw poultry dripping on the cake!Less obvious reason: Look at their cooking temps; poultry has the highest at 165°F, ground beef at 155°F and fish at 145°F
57 Cleaning and Sanitizing Know how to use the product! Always follow the MSDS or the label directionsNEVER MIX 2 CHEMICALSKeep all chemicals away from food and food storageKeep all chemicals in their original container – otherwise label the new container properly and clearly
58 Cleaning and Sanitizing Food contact surfacesWash in hot soapy waterRinse in clean hot waterSanitize with either heat or chemical sanitizerHeat SanitizingHot Water Temperature 171°FChemical SanitizingUse chlorine or other approved chemicalUse at proper concentrationUse proper water temperature
59 Cleaning and Sanitizing 3 compartment sink methodPresoak, scrapeWashRinseSanitizeAir DryClean & sanitize the drain boards first!
60 Cleaning and Sanitizing Case study – Use the right tool for the right job!Local health department was called to a small ice cream stand that was making a lot of people sick with E. coli. They discovered it was the soft-serve machine. The inspector ordered the employees to clean and sanitize, the next day they tested it, still positive for E. coli. Over and over until finally a different inspector asked to demonstrate how the machine was being cleaned and sanitized. The young man responsible for the machine promptly broke it down, went to the cleaning closet and came back with a scrub brush – the manager immediately realized “That’s the brush we use to clean the toilets with!”This really happened!
61 Pests There are many pests associated with foods Roaches are the most commonFliesCertain beetles and moths
62 Calibrate a Thermometer Ice Point MethodSafest!Water always freezes at 32°FPlace thermometer in cup of ice waterWait until it stops movingWait a little longerAdjust dial to 32°F
63 Thank You!Remember: YOU are the most important aspect of Food Safety, keep yourself healthy and maintain good personal hygiene.If you ever have any questions, please feel free to give us a call