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Annual 4 Hour Food Safety Training

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1 Annual 4 Hour Food Safety Training
FOOD SERVICE WORKER Annual 4 Hour Food Safety Training

2 Welcome! Instructor introduction
Watch “Digital Health Department” video

3 Why? To provide you with the basic understanding of food safety.
To maintain industry standards. Assist managers who are responsible for ensuring food safety. To reduce or eliminate the incidence of Foodborne Illness (FBI).

4 Terminal Objective Describe how, by proper personal hygiene, use of approved food sources, proper cooking and holding temperatures, cleaning and sanitizing, you as a food service worker may prepare meals without the occurrence of foodborne illness.

5 Chapter 1: Foodborne Illness
Enabling Objectives Describe foodborne illness Explain the various symptoms of foodborne illness Describe the three types of foodborne illness State the four types of microorganisms that may cause foodborne illness Explain the acronym FATTOM

6 What Makes People Sick? Foodborne Illness
People get sick when the food they eat contains harmful microorganisms called pathogens. Some pathogens affect you directly (infections). Some pathogens produce toxins that cause poisoning.

7 Potentially Hazardous Foods (PHF)
Potentially Hazardous Foods are defined as foods that allow the rapid growth of harmful microorganisms. PHF contain moisture PHF contain nutrients such as proteins and carbohydrates

8 Potentially Hazardous Foods (PHF)
Most PHF Beef Poultry Fish Lamb Pork Shellfish Milk Eggs Cooked Vegetables Tofu Garlic and oil mixtures Raw sprouts Soy protein/ meat alternatives Baked potatoes Sliced melons* *Why sliced melons? They grow on the ‘dirty’ ground. They have a protective shell around them, once you cut into that you can contaminate the inside.

9 Riddle Me This: What ingredient in potato salad can make you sick?
How many of you said mayonnaise? WRONG! Believe it or not - it’s potatoes! Where do you find mayo in the grocery store? On the shelf at room temp. Mayo has been “pH modified” to increase the acidity so these organisms cannot live in it. You really don’t have to store mayo in the refrigerator, however it will separate and look nasty but will not make you sick. However, once potatoes are cooked they become Potentially Hazardous Food!! This has been a common misconception for a very long time that Mayonnaise is what makes people sick. In years past this may have been true when the mayo was made from just eggs and oil or if the mayo was/is homemade. Modern food manufacturing processes have helped to do away with this. Really, by adding mayo to the potato salad makes it safer because it raises the pH of the whole product.

10 Microorganisms Bacteria Viruses Parasites Fungi
Most common cause of FBI Some produce toxins which cannot be destroyed by cooking Viruses Make you sick without knowing Can be passed easily on unwashed hands Parasites Usually tiny worms that live in fish and meats Cooking to proper temps will kill parasites Fungi Commonly spoil food more than making you ill One may product harmful toxins (Aflatoxin)

11 Contamination Food can become contaminated in many ways
Biological – Bacteria, Viruses, Parasites Chemical – Any chemicals; pesticides, etc Physical – Dirt, debris, glass, hair, etc What do you do if you KNOW food is contaminated? Do not take any chances notify your supervisor and discard it!!!

12 Types of Foodborne Illness
Infection – caused by consuming food that contains living disease-causing microorganisms Intoxication – Illness caused by consuming food that contains a chemical or a toxin Toxin-mediated Infection – Illness caused by consuming an organism that then produces a toxin while living inside your intestines (combination of infection & intoxication) All foodborne illness causing microorganisms fall into one of these 3 categories, either it is classified as an Infection or an Intoxication or a Toxin-mediated Infection.

13 F-A-T-T-O-M Acronym for all the elements microorganisms need to survive F – Food A – Acidity T – Temperature T – Time O – Oxygen M - Moisture FOOD – Generally Potentially Hazardous Foods is what we are talking about ACIDITY – All foods have some sort of acidity, microorganisms need a Neutral to just Slightly Acidic environment to live in (Lemons are very acidic, organisms generally wouldn’t be able to live on them however Milk is very Neutral and is a perfect environment for many different types of organisms). TEMPERATURE – The temperature range of 41°F to 140°F is the perfect environment for these organisms to live and grow. TIME – As a rule, 4 Hours at unsafe Temperatures (41-140°F) is enough time for the organisms to multiply/reproduce enough to make people sick OXYGEN – Some organisms NEED oxygen to grow, some organisms DO NOT NEED oxygen to grow, while others can grow WITH or WITHOUT oxygen MOISTURE – Very few organisms can grow without moisture, ALL Foodborne microorganisms need moisture to live and grow

14 Symptoms of Foodborne Illness
Foodborne Illness symptoms may include Abdominal pain/cramps Vomiting Diarrhea Fever Chills Headache Fatigue (tired) Neurological (dizziness, blurry vision) Death

15 High Risk Populations Certain groups of people are at higher risk for contracting foodborne illness Children Elderly Pregnant women People taking certain medications People with certain medical conditions CHILDREN – Children are at higher risk of foodborne illness because they have not been exposed to a lot of diseases and their immune system is not as developed as a normal adults is ELDERLY – Elderly people are at higher risk of foodborne illness because with age our immune system does not work as well PREGNANT WOMEN – Pregnant women are at higher risk for foodborne illness because their body and immune system is being taxed by taking care of and protecting the fetus MEDICATIONS – Certain medications can temporarily or permanently damage the body’s immune system (Chemotherapy, Steroids, Antibiotics) MEDICAL CONDITIONS – Certain medical conditions can make one more susceptible to foodborne illness, for instance many organ transplant recipients have to have their immune system “destroyed” to prevent their body from rejecting the new organ. Also there are many people out there who have been born without an immune system or one that never developed.

16 Your Are The Most Important Aspect of Food Safety!
Good practices Proper hand washing (most important!) Good personal hygiene DO NOT come to work if you are ill Prevent cross-contamination Cook to proper temperatures Hold foods at proper temperatures Properly thaw foods Properly clean and sanitize equipment

17 Chapter 2: Approved Sources
Enabling Objectives Define approved sources Army Vet Inspectors (AVI) responsibilities Define Acceptance Authority

18 Approved Sources Approved sources are listed in the Army Veterinary Services “DoD Directory of Sanitarily Approved Food Establishments for Armed Forces Procurement” But what does this mean? This means that only facilities that have been inspected by federal, state or local health authorities and that maintain compliance with the guidelines are allowed to provide food to military installations.

19 Approved Sources Anyone can become an Approved Source, however there is a application process and you will be subject to routine inspections and reviews. Organizations that are not on the list are not allowed to prepare, serve or sell food or food products aboard any base. DO NOT use food purchased from roadside vendors, private farmers, your garden or any home canned foods in your facilities.

20 Approved Sources Prime Vendor Army Veterinary Inspectors (AVI)
Serves numerous areas Based on best value criteria Army Veterinary Inspectors (AVI) Inspect at delivery point Inspect for wholesomeness Acceptance Authority Person authorized and trained Must be in writing Only PMA, Army Vet, USDA & USDC Inspectors

21 Chapter 3: Personal Hygiene and Employee Illness
Enabling Objectives Describe the components which make up good personal hygiene Why jewelry must not be worn in food preparation areas Describe when hands should be washed Explain the symptoms that a manager must be aware of Explain why the food worker cannot handle food with an infected boil, cut, burn or sore on their fingers, hand, wrist or arms.

22 Personal Hygiene Good personal hygiene involves more than just bathing regularly. It also includes such things as: Clean clothing Proper hand washing Avoiding unsanitary habits Reporting any illnesses Proper hair restraints Remove jewelry (a simple wedding band may be worn)

23 Hand Washing Step 1 – Wet your hands with water as hot as you can comfortably stand (110°F – or as hot as the faucet should get) Step 2 – Apply soap and scrub for 15 seconds Step 3 – Rinse thoroughly Step 4 – Dry hands with a single use paper towel or warm air dryer You should also use the paper towel to turn off the faucet and to open the door!

24 Hand Washing Boring statistics:
Did you know 65 out of 100 people (that’s 65%) do NOT wash their hands after using the restroom? Don’t believe me? Watch closely the next time you’re in a public restroom! Almost 80% of common illnesses are spread by touch

25 Your turn: Let’s see how well you wash your hands!
Using the “Glitterbug Potion” apply a small amount to your hands just like you would with lotion Imagine that you just cut up raw chicken and there is now nasty raw chicken juice on your hands. (YUCK!) Go to the restroom and wash your hands – when you THINK they are clean come back & look at them under the Ultraviolet Light.

26 Your Turn: Surprised by what you saw?
Anything that was glowing is still chicken juice not washed off your hands! Most common places missed – cuticles, under fingernails, wrist and between fingers. Use of a nail brush increases effectiveness

27 When to Wash Before During After Starting work Putting on gloves
Food preparation as necessary After Breaks Using restroom (before & after) Coughing, sneezing or blowing your nose Smoking, eating or drinking Touching raw foods Using chemicals Taking out the trash Touching hair, mouth, eyes and open wounds & sores

28 Gloves Gloves are a double edged sword
Used properly they are an excellent tool However they give a false sense of security How many times have you seen someone wearing gloves scratch themselves & then touch food? Gloves are NOT required – but are highly encouraged to prevent “bare hand contact” of foods that are ready to eat.

29 They’re Everywhere! Microorganisms grow everywhere
Most are not harmful Since most are spread by touch its better not to touch food directly. Instead use: Tongs Gloves Forks Other utensils

30 Employee Illness To prevent foodborne illness from occurring, food service employees with illness and infections are restricted from handling food and utensils. It doesn’t make much sense for someone with a foodborne illness to work with food now does it?

31 Employee Illness Do not work if you have a fever & sore throat
Do not work if you have diarrhea Do not work if you are throwing up Do not work if you have jaundice (a yellow coloring in the eyes or skin) Jaundice is a sign of Hepatitis A Ensure that you cover any cuts, boils or open sores on your hands & arms.

32 Employee Illness Employees are required to report to their supervisor when they are ill with: Hepatitis A Salmonella Shigella E. coli Norwalk/Norovirus Supervisors are also require to report these illness directly to us.

33 Chapter 4: Temperature Control
Enabling Objectives Identify potentially hazardous foods Identify the “Temperature Danger Zone” Explain why food that is being cooled or heated must be moved through the TDZ as quickly as possible State the proper temperature for hot holding State the proper temperature for cold holding Explain when food is considered unsafe to eat

34 Potentially Hazardous Foods
PHF are moist nutrient-rich foods that have a neutral or slightly acidic pH Due to the methods used to process these foods, they have a potential for contamination They have a history of being involved with or the cause of foodborne illness outbreaks

35 Temperature Danger Zone
The TDZ is between 41°F to 140°F PHF should not be held between these 2 temperatures for greater than 4 hours If it has been greater than 4 hours DISCARD IT, because it is UNSAFE!

36 Temperatures How do you take proper temps? With a thermometer!
Insert the thermometer into the thickest portion of the food Most common types: Which thermometer you use is going to be determined by your work environment and situation. One would not use a laser thermometer to measure the temperature of a Pot Roast or very large Turkey, since it only measures surface temperature. In this situation the Stem Thermometer or Thermocouple would be more accurate. Thermocouple Bimetallic Stem Laser

37 Temperatures When is cooked food safe? No matter how you cook it (bake, fry, broil, etc): Certain foods have to reach certain temperatures in order to be considered safe Ensure that each food is cooked to it’s proper temperature for an adequate amount of time

38 Temperatures Cold Holding Cold foods must be held at 41°F or below
Not only will this slow down organism growth, it keeps the food fresh longer Hot Holding After food has been cooked, it may be a while before it is served use of hot holding ensures the food stays at safe temperatures Hot foods must be held at 140°F or higher In either case food must: Be stirred frequently to distribute temperature evenly Be cover to help maintain temperature & prevent contamination Have its temperature checked frequently

39 Temperatures Product Minimum Temperature Additional Information
Poultry (Includes ground poultry) 165°F for 15 Seconds Cook stuffing separate Stuffing, Stuffed meats and casseroles Ground or flaked meats (Hamburger, sausage) 155°F for 15 Seconds None Steaks (Beef, pork, lamb) 145°F for 15 Seconds Roasts (Beef, pork, lamb) 145°F for 4 Minutes Due to it’s thickness, roasts must hold temp longer Fish/Seafoods For stuffed fish use 165°F Eggs for immediate service Eggs to be held (buffet style) must be cooked to 155°F Foods cooked in a microwave or any foods reheated 165°F for 2 Minutes Cover, rotate and stir frequently These are the mostly commonly used cooking temperatures. The Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature for PHF is to ensure that pathogenic organisms that may be present in the food are killed making it safe to eat. Each type of organism dies at a specific temperature (i.e. Salmonella 165°F, E.coli 155°F), hence the foods commonly associated with this organism are required to be cooked to this temperature. The Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature requirement came out around 1993 when the "Jack in the Box" E.coli incident happened. It is called the Lauren Beth Rudolph Safety Act of 1997 and was a collaborative effort between the California State Department of Health and the mother (Roni) of Lauren Beth who was a 6 year old little girl who died after eating undercooked E.coli contaminated hamburgers at Jack in the Box. At the time there were no rules or regulations for Minimum Internal Cooking Temperatures.

40 Cooling Hot Foods Foods that are made in advance or foods to be used as leftovers must be cooled properly before storing in a refrigerator Move through the TDZ as quickly as possible Remember: only foods that have NOT been served from and have been kept at safe temperatures may be kept as leftovers Divide into smaller portions first (cut up roasts, distribute soups into smaller/shallow pans, etc) Portion control will limit the necessity for leftovers

41 Cooling Hot Foods Why do you need to cool them first? Why not just place that hot kettle in the refrigerator? A large pot of chili will take almost 12 days to cool down to 41° - during this time it is in the TDZ and bacteria are growing rampantly The hot/cool zone will create condensation and allow mold to grow or it may drip from the top into other foods contaminating them The refrigerator will work over time – prematurely wearing out the cooling pump The other foods in the refrigerator will now be at higher temperatures, making them unsafe That’s just 4 too many reasons! Lets look at a much safer method.

42 Cooling Hot Foods Two stage cooling 4 hours total time
Cool hot foods from whatever temperature they are at (ideally at 140°F) to 70°F within 2 hours Then cool them from 70°F to 41°F in an additional 2 hours 4 hours total time If the first stage only takes 1 hour the extra hour can carry over to the second stage (3 hours) Do not extend first stage this is the temperature range bacteria grows most! (140°-70°F)

43 Cooling Hot Foods So how do we do it? Ice water bath
Ice cooling paddle Blast chiller

44 Thawing Frozen Foods Foods must be properly thawed out to ensure they are not temperature abused Ideally thaw under refrigeration – place in the refrigerator a 2-3 days before cooking Thaw under cool running water Thaw in a microwave (however it must be cooked immediately) Thaw as part of the cooking process (frozen hamburger patties on the grill)

45 Thawing Frozen Foods Thawing at room temperature is NOT ALLOWED!
How many of you do this? Set foods out on the counter in the sunlight to “thaw” – what’s so bad about it? Temperature abuse, again that food is right in the TDZ! When thawing in water, NEVER fill the sink or a tub up with hot water – cool running water not only flushes away contaminates and keeps the food at a safe temperature, but it also ensures the drain is not clogged up or backing up sewage!

46 Leftovers Only foods that have not been served from and have been held at safe temperatures may be retained as leftovers Leftovers may only be held for 24 hours Leftovers must be labeled with name of the product, date prepared and discard date YES! NO! Leftover? Yes or No? Leftover? Yes or No?

47 Leftovers Why? This has obviously been served from – Not a Leftover!
This has NOT been served from – It’s ok as a Leftover! Leftover? Yes or No? Leftover? Yes or No?

48 Cold Storage Air movement – very important! Air must be able to circulate around objects stored in the refrigerator or freezer to ensure adequate cooling. Do not crowd or over stock. Refrigerator Temp – 32 to 41°F Freezer Temp – 0°F or below

49 Chapter 5: Cross Contamination
Enabling Objectives Define cross contamination Identify methods to prevent cross contamination Identify storage conditions that will minimize the potential for cross contamination

50 Safe Storage Practices
Ensuring food is stored safely is just as important as any other process General guidelines for storage: Label everything! Date received Rotate stock: Do you know FIFO? First-In, First Out; always use your oldest stock first Store at minimum 6 inches off the floor

51 Preventing Cross Contamination
Cross contamination comes in many forms: Most obvious: cutting raw chicken, then cutting vegetables without cleaning, sanitizing or using new equipment Drop that knife on the floor – just wipe it off on your apron right? NO! Clean & sanitize or get a new one Very obscure: During an inspection we found cooked, ready to eat pizza being stored on a metal rack – this is fine however, the pizza was halfway on the pan – halfway up the wall!! When do you think the last time that wall was cleaned & sanitized?

52 Preventing Cross Contamination
Hand washing, hand washing, hand washing! Store raw meats on the lower shelves of the refrigerator Keep different types of meat separate from one another Keep any unwashed or raw food well away from cooked and ready to eat foods Wash, rinse & sanitize all Food Contact Surfaces before and after each use Store cleaning supplies, chemicals, etc away from food

53 Preventing Cross Contamination
Use equipment designed to prevent cross contamination Color Coded Cutting boards are the best bet, since each color is assigned ONE specific food product. Generally GREEN is used for VEGETABLES, WHITE is used for COOKED and READY-TO-EAT food products, RED is used for RAW MEATS (Beef/Pork), YELLOW is used for RAW POULTRY and BLUE is used for RAW FISH.

54 Food Contact Surface What is a Food Contact Surface?
Anything food comes into contact with Pots, pans, plates, spoons, cutting boards, knives, preparation table tops

55 Proper Food Storage In what order do they go from top to bottom? Why?
Raw Poultry In what order do they go from top to bottom? Why? Raw Ground Beef Cake (Ready to Eat) The reason these products are stored in this order from top to bottom has everything to do with the organism that affects that type of food and it’s Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature. Poultry is commonly associated with Salmonella, salmonella dies at 165°F; Ground Beef is commonly associated with E. coli, E. coli dies at 155°F; Fish are commonly affected by Parasites, parasites die at 145°F. If juices from the Ground Beef were to splash or spill onto the Poultry below, the E. coli would still be killed off since the Poultry would be cooked at 165°F, which is higher than 155°F. However, if we were to store these products wrong and place the Poultry above everything else, juices that splashes or spills onto the Fish or Ground Beef would carry Salmonella to them and the Salmonella would not be killed since that product is cooked at a lower temperature (145/155°F). Raw Fish Refrigerator

56 Proper Food Storage Why do we store food this way? There are 2 reasons: Obvious reason: Cross contamination – you don’t want that raw poultry dripping on the cake! Less obvious reason: Look at their cooking temps; poultry has the highest at 165°F, ground beef at 155°F and fish at 145°F

57 Cleaning and Sanitizing
Know how to use the product! Always follow the MSDS or the label directions NEVER MIX 2 CHEMICALS Keep all chemicals away from food and food storage Keep all chemicals in their original container – otherwise label the new container properly and clearly

58 Cleaning and Sanitizing
Food contact surfaces Wash in hot soapy water Rinse in clean hot water Sanitize with either heat or chemical sanitizer Heat Sanitizing Hot Water Temperature 171°F Chemical Sanitizing Use chlorine or other approved chemical Use at proper concentration Use proper water temperature

59 Cleaning and Sanitizing
3 compartment sink method Presoak, scrape Wash Rinse Sanitize Air Dry Clean & sanitize the drain boards first!

60 Cleaning and Sanitizing
Case study – Use the right tool for the right job! Local health department was called to a small ice cream stand that was making a lot of people sick with E. coli. They discovered it was the soft-serve machine. The inspector ordered the employees to clean and sanitize, the next day they tested it, still positive for E. coli. Over and over until finally a different inspector asked to demonstrate how the machine was being cleaned and sanitized. The young man responsible for the machine promptly broke it down, went to the cleaning closet and came back with a scrub brush – the manager immediately realized “That’s the brush we use to clean the toilets with!” This really happened!

61 Pests There are many pests associated with foods
Roaches are the most common Flies Certain beetles and moths

62 Calibrate a Thermometer
Ice Point Method Safest! Water always freezes at 32°F Place thermometer in cup of ice water Wait until it stops moving Wait a little longer Adjust dial to 32°F

63 Thank You! Remember: YOU are the most important aspect of Food Safety, keep yourself healthy and maintain good personal hygiene. If you ever have any questions, please feel free to give us a call

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