Presentation on theme: "Jie Li, B.S. Jessica Schiff, B.A. Sarah Brengman Ken Gilbertston, PhD EnEd 5325 Environmental Issues Investigation."— Presentation transcript:
Jie Li, B.S. Jessica Schiff, B.A. Sarah Brengman Ken Gilbertston, PhD EnEd 5325 Environmental Issues Investigation
Overview Introduction Problem ID and Definition Impact Evaluation Criteria Global Data Local Data Impacts Recommendations Conclusion
Introduction Sports and Health Center (SpHC) built in ,000 ft² 6:30 a.m.-midnight(until 10 p.m. in summer months) Six-lane swimming pool Therapy pools Multiple locker rooms Full-sized ice rink Various restroom facilities and drinking fountains Draws water from City of Duluth water supply
Problem ID and Definition Potential overuse of domestic water consumption in SpHC. Can this amount be reduced? If so, how and how much? If not, why not? Domestic water: Treated water that comes in contact with humans to support everyday life Water consumption: Any and all domestic water used in SpHC (may or may not be returned to the Earth’s water cycle) To waste water: To use, consume, spend, or expend water thoughtlessly, carelessly, or purposefully (The American Heritage Dictionary, 2009)
Background to Problem 2025: The anticipated year for world-wide water shortages (waterfootprint.org) Lake Superior = 20% of world’s fresh surface water Figure 1: Distribution of Earth's Water (USGS, 2009).
Impact Evaluation Criteria “Water efficiency is the long-term ethic of saving water resources through the employment of water-saving technologies and activities” (EPA) Determine baseline water requirements needed for SpHC to function Determine if more than this baseline amount of water is being used
Global Data Glocal: Thinking globally and acting locally Worldwide water uses: Agricultural, Industrial, Domestic Global USA SpHC Figure 4: Average per capita domestic consumption from different nations (WBCSD, 2009).
Global Impacts Case Study: Aral Sea Environmental Impacts Economic Impacts Social Impacts
The Aral Sea An example of a shrinking lake: Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan 26,254 mi 2 Now 10% of original size 2,625 mi 2 Impacts: Economic-fishing industry, shift in job market Social-shift in job market, sources/uses of water Environmental-salinity changes, loss of natural body of water
Local Data and Research Areas researched: Methods: City of Duluth water system UMD and SpHC water system Main water consuming areas in SpHC Water fixtures and facilities Costs associated with water consumption Interviews Tours Photography Internet Research
Minnesota Water Use Minnesota per capita water usage: 68 gallons National per capita water usage: 98 gallons Figure 8: Minnesota Water Use by Category, 2005 (Fairbairn, 2010) NOTE: The light pink portion represents Thermoelectricity.
Domestic Water Schematic Two water sources 8” and 10” (two pipes coming from same supply) Not metered individually for SpHC Back-up not metered by City of Duluth One waste water pipe: 15”
Water Consumption in SpHC Awareness of possible areas in SpHC that are or could be major water users (locker rooms, rest rooms, pool, ice rink, etc.) Water meter data for SpHC (hot, cold, steam) Water flow for each water fixture (shower heads, faucets, toilets) Are there ways to improve their efficiency?
Water Consumption in SpHC Table 1: Water Usage in SpHC. (Sawyer, 2010), (Russel- Ausley, 2002) & (Stevens, 2010). Amount of water used in primary water-consuming areas of SpHC Showers2.0 or 2.5 gpm depending on brand Faucet0.5 gpm Toilets1.6 gallons per flush Urinals1 gallon per flush Pool 136,000 gallons to fill it, minimal loss and add-in based on chemical mixing, evaporation, and leakage Cooling Tower See SpHC Cooling Tower Water Use by Month and SpHC Cooling Tower Annual Water Use Ice rink 200‘ x 100' sheet of 1” thick ice is 20,000 gallons Average of gallons for resurfacing NOTE: Complete data is not available for every area of SpHC that uses water. This table represents data that is currently available.
Ice Rink and Cooling Tower Figure 11: SpHC Cooling Tower Annual Water Use (Sawyer, 2010). Figure 10: SpHC Cooling Tower Water Use by Month (Sawyer, 2010).
Pool 136,000 gallons of water (3 Room 9’s) Drained and refilled usually twice/year hot and cold water Water is filtered and returned to the pool Some domestic water is added in the process Surge Tank Catches water overflow and drained water for recirculation Filter Tank Filters water from surge tank before it is pumped back into the pool
Pool Ventilation New Pool Pack Unit installed March 2010 Pulls air out of the natatorium Dehumidifies and adds 10% fresh air Goal: Regulate temperature and humidity to control evaporation W = ( v)(p w -p a )/Y W = evaporation rate, lb/h·ft 2 (pounds per hour per square foot) v = air velocity at water surface, ft/min p w = saturation vapor pressure at water temp, in Hg (inches of Mercury) p a = saturation vapor pressure at air dew point, in Hg, also partial pressure of water in pool atmosphere Y = latent heat at pool temperature, Btu/lb (British thermal unit per pound) Figure 12: Rates of Evaporation from Swimming Pools in Active Use
Impacts Environmental Effect caused by human activity or natural phenomenon on an environment that is related to or dependent upon water. Economic Any increase or decrease in the productive potential of the economy. Social The consequences to human population of any public or private actions related to water that alter the ways in which people live, work, play, relate to one another, organize to meet their needs and generally cope as members of society.
Environmental Impacts Wildlife and plant species Decrease in water quality Increase in temperature Change in Oxygen levels Increase in concentration of pollutants Disturbance of contaminated sediments
Economic Impacts Financial expenditures vs. savings Water costs start at $2.56/100ft³ up to 4,000ft³ UMD utility bill: Water = 6% of total cost $288,000-$390,000 annually Figure 14: 2009 UMD Utility Bill Percentages (Sawyer, 2010) Community/Global Domino Effect: Shipping Industry 1” water level drop = 250 tons of coal left on dock when a thousand-footer weighs anchor
Social Impacts U.S. is using water more efficiently, but population growth is negating those gains in efficiency Abundance of fresh lake water in Duluth Leads to less awareness of responsible water consumption UMD’s reputation as an environmentally conscious campus
Recommendations Environmental Economic Social Other NOTE: The research team does not propose that areas of SpHC stop using water. Instead, the research team aims to make recommendations for responsibly using water while ensuring these areas continue to serve their purposes.
Environmental Recommendations Use as little as possible Return water that can be reused Maintain water quality Use fewer chemicals Use environmentally-friendly chemicals
Economic Recommendations Install water on domestic cold water pipe 6” pipe with an average cost of ~$5,000 Would complement current meter on domestic hot water Install low-flow water fixtures in any remaining areas of SpHC
Social Recommendations Raise awareness of responsible water consumption “Just One Minute” campaign
Other Recommendations Pool Install a 3” water meter to measure domestic water use in only the pool area Enlarge the surge tank Would decrease amount of new domestic water added Ice rink Improve water quality used for surfacing the ice rink Leads to a better sheet of ice and less required resurfacing
Future Research Water Boilers Assess energy efficiency Potential correlation to water consumption Water Fixtures Collect number of each type of fixture to assess and compare overall efficiency
Conclusion Water-consuming areas of SpHC need to continue functioning Revenue Unknown total domestic water consumption Some calculations made Meters are needed Water use can be reduced in certain areas Surge tank for pool Locker rooms -- low flow fixtures Raise awareness