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Generalization and Maintenance of Behavior Change Chapter 28.

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1 Generalization and Maintenance of Behavior Change Chapter 28

2 Are These Skills Useful? Bobby has learned to independently wash his hands, but he only does this when Mrs. Kirk is with him. Melanie sits nicely and remains on-task during math class but not social studies class. Rachel learned to count to 100 using blocks last year. This year her teacher asked her to count out 100 pennies, but Rachel doesn’t seem to know how. Leo can name all of the states using his favorite U.S. puzzle, but cannot name them if he is asked using the class map.

3 Generalization It is meaningless to change behavior unless the change can be made to last. The behavior has got to occur in a setting other than the original training site and in the absence of the original trainer.

4 Behavior Principle of Generalization –Baer, Wolf & Risley A behavior change may be said to have generalization: –if it proves durable over time, –if it appears in a wide variety to other possible environments –if it spreads to a wide variety of related behaviors

5 Stimulus Generalization When a response is reinforced in the presence of one stimulus, –That same type of behavior tends to be evoked by stimuli that share similar physical properties with that controlling antecedent stimulus

6 Stimulus Generalization If you teach “green” using this color circle … Student’s most likely to say “green” Student’s less likely to say “green” (discrimination)

7 Stimulus Generalization So…when a response has been trained with a specific teacher, materials, or setting It may occur with other, similar teachers, materials, or settings The more similar the novel teacher, materials, and setting are to the training teacher, materials, and setting… –The more likely stimulus generalization will occur

8 Discrimination vs. Generalization Essentially opposite processes –As one increases, the other decreases Discrimination –Responding differently to 2 or more stimuli –Tight degree of stimulus control Generalization –Responding similarly to 2 or more stimuli –Loose degree of stimulus control

9 Stimulus Discrimination &Stimulus Generalization are a Continuum Stimulus Discrimination Stimulus Generalization

10 Articles to Know… Baer, Wolf, and Risley (1968) –Some ______________ of applied behavior analysis –Very 1 st issue of JABA –Generality of Behavior Change as 1 of ABA’s defining characteristics Stokes and Baer (1977) –An ________________ of generalization –Reviewed 270 studies on generalization –Categorized 9 techniques for assessing and training generalization

11 Types of Generalization Response Maintenance Setting/Situation Generalization Response Generalization

12 Response Maintenance Extent to which a learner continues to perform the target behavior after a portion or all of the intervention is terminated –AKA durability, behavioral persistence Examples?

13 Setting/Situation Generalization Extent to which a learner emits the target behavior in a setting or stimulus situation that’s different from the instructional setting Mrs. Kirk taught Bobby how to wash his hands in the school restroom Will Bobby wash his hands at home?

14 Setting/Situation Generalization The more similar the novel teacher, materials, and setting are to the training teacher, materials, and setting… –The more likely setting/situation generalization will occur (PG 619) Mrs. Kirk taught Bobby how to wash his hands in the school restroom Bobby is more likely to wash his hands at home if the sink and bathroom are similar to the one at school

15 Ducharme and Holborn (1997) Schedule of S R like in gen setting; multiple exemplars

16 Barker et al. (2004)

17 Response Generalization Extent to which a learner emits untrained responses that are functionally equivalent to the trained target behavior Can we teach creativity?

18 Wetterneck and Woods (2006) SUDS = Subjective Units of Distress Scale Tx = ERP

19 Planning for Generalization Select target behaviors that will meet natural contingencies of reinforcement –Example Evan’s falling out of his chair is maintained by attention In choosing a replacement behavior, observe what the other students in the class do that result in attention for them Teach Evan to do that! Specify all desired variations of the target behavior and the settings/situations in which it should and should not occur after instruction has ended –List all the forms of the target behaviors that need to be changed – examples? –List all the settings/situations in which the target behavior should occur – examples?

20 5 Major Strategies for Promoting Generalization 1.Teach the Full Range of Relevant Stimulus Conditions and Response Requirements 2.Make the Instructional Setting Similar to the Generalization Setting 3.Maximize Contact with Reinforcement in the Generalization Setting 4.Mediate Generalization 5.Train to Generalize

21 1. Teach the Full Range of Relevant Stimulus Conditions and Response Requirements Teach sufficient examples –Teach the student to respond to a subset of all possible stimulus and response examples and then assess generalization on untrained examples (generalization probe) –Examples: Item taught, format of presentation, setting, person teaching General Case Analysis –Select teaching examples that represent the full range of variations in the generalization setting –Example: Teaching the concept of dog

22 2. Make the Instructional Setting Similar to the Generalization Setting Program common stimuli –Include typical features of the generalization setting into the instructional setting –Examples: preschool and classroom setup Teach loosely –Randomly vary noncritical aspects of the instructional setting within and across teaching sessions –If some aspect of the materials, setting, method of presentation doesn’t matter… Change it from time to time so the learner’s response doesn’t come under tight stimulus control of those irrelevant features…

23 Baer’s (1999) Recommendations Use 2 or more teachers Teach in 2 or more places Teach from a variety of positions Vary your tone of voice Vary your choice of words Show the stimuli from a variety of angles, using sometimes one hand and sometimes the other Have other people present sometimes and not other times Dress quite differently on different days Vary the reinforcers Teach sometimes in noisy settings, sometimes in quiet ones In any setting, vary the decorations, vary the furniture, and vary their locations Vary the times of day when you and everyone else teach Vary the temperature in the teaching settings Vary the smells in the teaching settings Within the limits possible vary the content of what’s being taught Do all of this as often and as unpredictably as possible

24 3. Maximize Contact with Reinforcement in the Generalization Setting Teach the target behavior to levels of performance required by naturally existing contingencies of reinforcement –Example: Teaching a greeting, holding a door Program indiscriminable contingencies –Arrange it so that the learner can’t tell if the next response will produce reinforcement… –So that when he’s in the natural environment, he’ll continue to engage in the target behavior often enough/long enough to contact reinforcement –Guidelines Begin teaching with CRF – gradually thin the schedule (e.g., FR5) and make variable (e.g., VR5) Begin teaching with a 0 sec delay between response and reinforcer – gradually increase the delay Each time a delayed reward is delivered, explain to the learner that he’s receiving the reward for specific behaviors performed earlier (to help the learner learn the rule describing the contingency)

25 3. Maximize Contact with Reinforcement in the Generalization Setting Ask people in the generalization setting to reinforce the target behavior Teach the learner to recruit reinforcement How? Applicability?

26 4. Mediate Generalization Arrange for something or someone to ensure the transfer of the target behavior from the instructional setting to the generalization setting –Contrive a mediating stimulus Bring the target response under the control of a stimulus that will be in the gen setting Example: train mom and send the spoon home Example: reinforcement systems in gen ed –Teach self-management skills Learner takes the self-management system into the generalization setting

27 5. Train to Generalize Reinforce generalization as a response class –Instruct the learner to generalize –Reinforce response variability… How?

28 Newman et al. (2000)


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