Presentation on theme: "Generalization and Maintenance of Behavior Change"— Presentation transcript:
1Generalization and Maintenance of Behavior Change Chapter 28
2Are These Skills Useful? Bobby has learned to independently wash his hands, but he only does this when Mrs. Kirk is with him.Melanie sits nicely and remains on-task during math class but not social studies class.Rachel learned to count to 100 using blocks last year. This year her teacher asked her to count out 100 pennies, but Rachel doesn’t seem to know how.Leo can name all of the states using his favorite U.S. puzzle, but cannot name them if he is asked using the class map.
3GeneralizationIt is meaningless to change behavior unless the change can be made to last.The behavior has got to occur in a setting other than the original training site and in the absence of the original trainer.
4Behavior Principle of Generalization –Baer, Wolf & Risley A behavior change may be said to have generalization:if it proves durable over time,if it appears in a wide variety to other possible environmentsif it spreads to a wide variety of related behaviors
5Stimulus Generalization When a response is reinforced in the presence of one stimulus,That same type of behavior tends to be evoked by stimuli that share similar physical properties with that controlling antecedent stimulus
6Stimulus Generalization If you teach “green” using this color circle …Student’s most likely to say “green”Student’s less likely to say “green” (discrimination)Student’s less likely to say “green” (discrimination)
7Stimulus Generalization So…when a response has been trained with a specific teacher, materials, or settingIt may occur with other, similar teachers, materials, or settingsThe more similar the novel teacher, materials, and setting are to the training teacher, materials, and setting…The more likely stimulus generalization will occur
8Discrimination vs. Generalization Essentially opposite processesAs one increases, the other decreasesDiscriminationResponding differently to 2 or more stimuliTight degree of stimulus controlGeneralizationResponding similarly to 2 or more stimuliLoose degree of stimulus control
9Stimulus Discrimination &Stimulus Generalization are a Continuum
10Articles to Know… Baer, Wolf, and Risley (1968) Some ______________ of applied behavior analysisVery 1st issue of JABAGenerality of Behavior Change as 1 of ABA’s defining characteristicsStokes and Baer (1977)An ________________ of generalizationReviewed 270 studies on generalizationCategorized 9 techniques for assessing and training generalization
11Types of Generalization Response MaintenanceSetting/Situation GeneralizationResponse Generalization
12Response MaintenanceExtent to which a learner continues to perform the target behavior after a portion or all of the intervention is terminatedAKA durability, behavioral persistenceExamples?
13Setting/Situation Generalization Extent to which a learner emits the target behavior in a setting or stimulus situation that’s different from the instructional settingMrs. Kirk taught Bobby how to wash his hands in the school restroomWill Bobby wash his hands at home?
14Setting/Situation Generalization The more similar the novel teacher, materials, and setting are to the training teacher, materials, and setting…The more likely setting/situation generalization will occur (PG 619)Bobby is more likely to wash his hands at home if the sink and bathroom are similar to the one at schoolMrs. Kirk taught Bobby how to wash his hands in the school restroom
15Ducharme and Holborn (1997) Schedule of SR like in gen setting; multiple exemplarsDucharme and Holborn (1997)
17Response Generalization Extent to which a learner emits untrained responses that are functionally equivalent to the trained target behaviorCan we teach creativity?
18Wetterneck and Woods (2006) SUDS = Subjective Units of Distress ScaleTx = ERPWetterneck and Woods (2006)
19Planning for Generalization Select target behaviors that will meet natural contingencies of reinforcementExampleEvan’s falling out of his chair is maintained by attentionIn choosing a replacement behavior, observe what the other students in the class do that result in attention for themTeach Evan to do that!Specify all desired variations of the target behavior and the settings/situations in which it should and should not occur after instruction has endedList all the forms of the target behaviors that need to be changed – examples?List all the settings/situations in which the target behavior should occur – examples?
205 Major Strategies for Promoting Generalization Teach the Full Range of Relevant Stimulus Conditions and Response RequirementsMake the Instructional Setting Similar to the Generalization SettingMaximize Contact with Reinforcement in the Generalization SettingMediate GeneralizationTrain to Generalize
21Teach sufficient examples 1. Teach the Full Range of Relevant Stimulus Conditions and Response RequirementsTeach sufficient examplesTeach the student to respond to a subset of all possible stimulus and response examples and then assess generalization on untrained examples (generalization probe)Examples: Item taught, format of presentation, setting, person teachingGeneral Case AnalysisSelect teaching examples that represent the full range of variations in the generalization settingExample: Teaching the concept of dog
22Program common stimuli 2. Make the Instructional Setting Similar to the Generalization SettingProgram common stimuliInclude typical features of the generalization setting into the instructional settingExamples: preschool and classroom setupTeach looselyRandomly vary noncritical aspects of the instructional setting within and across teaching sessionsIf some aspect of the materials, setting, method of presentation doesn’t matter…Change it from time to time so the learner’s response doesn’t come under tight stimulus control of those irrelevant features…
23Baer’s (1999) Recommendations Use 2 or more teachersTeach in 2 or more placesTeach from a variety of positionsVary your tone of voiceVary your choice of wordsShow the stimuli from a variety of angles, using sometimes one hand and sometimes the otherHave other people present sometimes and not other timesDress quite differently on different daysVary the reinforcersTeach sometimes in noisy settings, sometimes in quiet onesIn any setting, vary the decorations, vary the furniture, and vary their locationsVary the times of day when you and everyone else teachVary the temperature in the teaching settingsVary the smells in the teaching settingsWithin the limits possible vary the content of what’s being taughtDo all of this as often and as unpredictably as possible
243. Maximize Contact with Reinforcement in the Generalization Setting Teach the target behavior to levels of performance required by naturally existing contingencies of reinforcementExample: Teaching a greeting, holding a doorProgram indiscriminable contingenciesArrange it so that the learner can’t tell if the next response will produce reinforcement…So that when he’s in the natural environment, he’ll continue to engage in the target behavior often enough/long enough to contact reinforcementGuidelinesBegin teaching with CRF – gradually thin the schedule (e.g., FR5) and make variable (e.g., VR5)Begin teaching with a 0 sec delay between response and reinforcer – gradually increase the delayEach time a delayed reward is delivered, explain to the learner that he’s receiving the reward for specific behaviors performed earlier (to help the learner learn the rule describing the contingency)
253. Maximize Contact with Reinforcement in the Generalization Setting Ask people in the generalization setting to reinforce the target behaviorTeach the learner to recruit reinforcementHow?Applicability?
264. Mediate Generalization Arrange for something or someone to ensure the transfer of the target behavior from the instructional setting to the generalization settingContrive a mediating stimulusBring the target response under the control of a stimulus that will be in the gen settingExample: train mom and send the spoon homeExample: reinforcement systems in gen edTeach self-management skillsLearner takes the self-management system into the generalization setting
27Reinforce generalization as a response class 5. Train to GeneralizeReinforce generalization as a response classInstruct the learner to generalizeReinforce response variability…How?