THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: COUNTRY AND PEOPLE
Данный проект разработан Дисюн Юлией Геннадьевной, учителем английского языка МБОУ СОШ №7 г.Заринска. Он может быть использован как часть элективного курса по теме « Соединенные Штаты Америки» в 10 классе. Рассчитан на 4 часа. Цель: познакомить учащихся с историей, культурой, достопримечательностями и традициями существующими в США. Задачи: Образовательные: - познакомить учащихся с историей США - познакомить учащихся с выдающимися деятелями США - познакомить учащихся с культурой, традициями, образом жизни американцев. Развивающие: - способствовать развитию интеллектуальной, мотивационной сферы личности учащихся - развивать познавательную активность учащихся - развитие памяти, логического мышления. Воспитательные: - воспитывать интерес к культуре изучаемого языка - воспитывать уважение к другой культуре.
Актуальность темы проекта 90-е годы прошлого столетия радикально изменили социокультурный контекст изучения языков международного общения в России и других странах, что не могло не привести к появлению новых тенденций в соизучении языков и культур. Положение о необходимости изучения ИЯ в неразрывной связи с культурой народа – носителя данного языка уже давно воспринимается в методике ИЯ как аксиома. Основной целью обучения ИЯ является развитие личности учащегося средствами языка в неразрывной связи с изучением культуры страны изучаемого языка. 90-е годы прошлого столетия радикально изменили социокультурный контекст изучения языков международного общения в России и других странах, что не могло не привести к появлению новых тенденций в соизучении языков и культур. Положение о необходимости изучения ИЯ в неразрывной связи с культурой народа – носителя данного языка уже давно воспринимается в методике ИЯ как аксиома. Основной целью обучения ИЯ является развитие личности учащегося средствами языка в неразрывной связи с изучением культуры страны изучаемого языка. Социокультурный компонент имеет огромный потенциал в плане включения учащихся в диалог культур, знакомства с достижениями национальной культуры в развитии общечеловеческой культуры. Как известно, отсутствие непосредственного контакта с носителями ИЯ в условиях искусственной среды усиливает общеобразовательную значимость ИЯ и, таким образом, более последовательную опору на социокультурный компонент содержания образования. Социокультурный компонент имеет огромный потенциал в плане включения учащихся в диалог культур, знакомства с достижениями национальной культуры в развитии общечеловеческой культуры. Как известно, отсутствие непосредственного контакта с носителями ИЯ в условиях искусственной среды усиливает общеобразовательную значимость ИЯ и, таким образом, более последовательную опору на социокультурный компонент содержания образования. Данная концепция акцентирует свое внимание на том, как подготовить обучаемого к жизнедеятельности в многокультурном пространстве и помочь овладеть общечеловеческой культурой и общечеловеческими ценностями. Кроме того, обучение иностранным языкам в рамках социокультурного подхода значительно повышает интерес учащихся к изучению иностранных языков, расширяет кругозор. Данная концепция акцентирует свое внимание на том, как подготовить обучаемого к жизнедеятельности в многокультурном пространстве и помочь овладеть общечеловеческой культурой и общечеловеческими ценностями. Кроме того, обучение иностранным языкам в рамках социокультурного подхода значительно повышает интерес учащихся к изучению иностранных языков, расширяет кругозор.
Содержание: American cities Typical American holidays The Presidents of the US The Discovery of America
AMERICAN CITIES Washington New York San Francisco Chicago Los Angeles Atlanta Boston Las Vegas
Washington Washington is the capital city of the USA. It is situated on the Potomac River. The place was chosen by George Washington, the first American president, in 1790. Since 1800 the main departments of the US government have been there. It is known for its historical monuments and buildings, including the Capitol, the White House, the Supreme Court, the National Gallery of Art, etc. Тhe central place of the city is the Mall, a large open space, a kind of park, stretching from the building of the Capitol to Lincoln Memorial, with Washington Memorial in the middle. The Mall is often used by people for public meetings, picnics, concerts, etc.
White House The official residence of the President of the USA in Washington, his home and office. It was built of stone painted white and was designed in 1900 by James Hoban. Tourists can visit parts of it, including the Blue Room and the State Dining Room.
National Gallery of Art The US museum supported by the government. It was established in 1937, when Andrew Mellon, a rich US businessman, died and left his collection of art to the nation. It contains works of such great artists as Raphael, Rubens, Rembrandt.
The Capitol The building where the US Congress meets. It was burnt by the British army in 1814 and built again in 1863.
The Lincoln Memorial A large building in memory of President Abraham Lincoln. It is situated at one end of the Mall. Abraham Lincoln's statue in the Lincoln Memorial The words of his speech at his Inauguration Day are cut into stone.
The Pentagon The building which contains the offices of the US Department of Defense and divisions of the US armed forces. It has five sides and is the largest office in the world.
New York New York, one of the largest and most exciting cities in the world, is situated at the mouth of the Hudson River, and consists of five parts: Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, Bronx and Staten Island. New York is famous for skyscrapers. The first skyscraper was built in 1902. Manhattan is the most popular part of New York. It is the centre of American finance, advertising, art, theatre, publishing, fashion, etc. Its main streets are Broadway and Fifth Avenue. Manhattan
The Statue of Liberty The famous US statue is on Liberty Island in New York harbour. It is a woman holding the burning light of freedom. It was designed by Frederic Bartoldie and given to the US people by France in 1884.
The World Trade Centre The twins towers were built in 1973. It had 110 floors. There was an observation deck on the 107 th floor, from which you could get a good view of New York. In 2001 the twins towers were ruined as a result of terrorist attack.
San Francisco It is built on hills by the Spanish in 1776. The city grew rapidly after the Gold Rush but was badly damaged by an earthquake in 1906. San Francisco is an unusual and beautiful city. It is famous for its cable cars, which climb up and down the hills. It has a reputation of an intellectual, liberal and crazy city. Hippies appeared there in the mid- 1960`s.
Chicago Chicago is the third largest US city. It is situated on Lake Michigan and is sometimes called the «Windy City». It had the world's first skyscrapers and the Sears Tower is the tallest building in the world. Chicago is the centre of the American Middle West and has the busiest airport in the world.
Los Angeles Los Angeles is known as the centre of movie industry. The city is famous for Hollywood and Beverly Hills. Many film stars live in or near Los Angeles. It is a rich and glamorous place. But the city is not only a centre of entertainment and tourism. It is also a big centre of manufacturing, finance, oil and trade. Local industry produces aircraft, chemicals, drugs and electronic products.
Atlanta The capital city of the US state of Georgia. It is a major commercial centre for the south-eastern US. During the Civil War Atlanta was destroyed by the Northern army. The city was rebuilt and became the state capital. In 1996 the Olympic Games were held there. Atlanta is the home of Coca Cola.
Boston Boston is the capital of the US state Massachusetts. It is a major port and cultural centre, having 30 colleges and universities. It has the oldest underground railway in the USA.
Las Vegas Las Vegas is a city where many people go to gamble. There are a lot of casinos, hotels, nightclubs here. It became popular in the 1940s. Las Vegas is also a place where many couples go to get married quickly.
Mount Rushmore Mount Rushmore is a high rock cliff in South Dakota. It is famous for the very large heads of four US presidents cut in the rock: George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln and Theodore Roosevelt. The heads were cut by Gutzon Borglum between 1867 and 1941. Mount Rushmore is a high rock cliff in South Dakota. It is famous for the very large heads of four US presidents cut in the rock: George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln and Theodore Roosevelt. The heads were cut by Gutzon Borglum between 1867 and 1941.
Test yourself Answer the questions: What city is the capital of the USA? What is the central place of the capital city? Where does the President of the USA live? Where does the US Congress meet? How many parts does New York consists of? How is the main part of New York called? In which American city did the first skyscraper appear? What American city is the centre of entertainment and movie industry? Where were the 1996 Olympic Games held? What city is the home of Coca Cola? Which is the tallest building in Chicago?
Typical American holidays Thanksgiving In 1620 the Mayflower brought a group of Pilgrims to America. The Pilgrims founded a settlement in Massachusetts. They arrived late in November, and it was too late to plant crops. It was very difficult for the Pilgrims to survive the first winter, but they were greatly helped by the Indians who lived nearby. The Indians showed the Pilgrims where to fish, and in spring helped them to plant crops. The next November, when the Pilgrims had gathered the crops, they invited the Indians to a great feast. It was the first Thanksgiving. Thanksgiving is celebrated every year in November. Families make a big feast, which traditionally includes roast turkey, a sweet sauce made of cranberries, and pumpkin pie. settlement – поселение to survive – выжить nearby – поблизости, рядом feast – пир
Independence Day The fourth of July, or Independence Day, is, of course, the most important American holiday. In 1776 the Declaration of Independence was written and signed. It was the document in which the thirteen colonies declared their independence from Britain. It was mostly written by Thomas Jefferson and received the approval on 4 July 1776. The day is celebrated with fireworks, family picnics, processions, flags and speeches. Presidents’ Day This holiday is celebrated on the third Monday in February. It is the day on which two great Americans are honored: George Washington, the country’s first President, and Abraham Lincoln, the President who headed the country during the Civil War and put an end to slavery.
The Presidents of the US George Washington (1732-1799) Americans have always admired Washington as one of their best and most moral presidents. He is called ‘the Father of His Country’. George Washington was born in the family of a Virginian planter. When he was 20, he became major of Virginia militia, and three years later he was made commander of all Virginia’s forces. In 1775, when the War for Independence began, Washington was appointed commander-in-chief of all the colonial forces. Although his army was badly equipped and poorly trained, General Washington managed to build up a strong army, which won a victory in the war. In 1789 he was elected as the country’s first president. He served two terms (1789-1797). George Washington died in 1799. In honour of the first President, the newly-built capital of the country was named Washington.
Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) Abraham Lincoln was born on a small farm in Kentucky in the family of a labourer. The family was constantly on the move, and so Abraham did not get any regular education. When Abraham was a young man, his family moved to Illinois, where he worked in shop, doing other jobs, and studying grammar, law, reading newspapers. In 1836 Lincoln began practicing law. In 1846 he was elected to the United States Congress. He was a quiet, gentle person and he was against slavery. On November 6, 1860, Lincoln was elected sixteenth President of the US. The country was split into two opposing camps: the free-from-slavery Northern States and the slave-owning Southern states. This fact led to the Civil War. The North was stronger than the South. It had more soldiers, more supplies and better transportation. On 9 April, 1865 the South could fight no more. The war was over, the slaves were freed. On the evening of April 14, 1865, President Lincoln and his wife went to see a play at Ford’s theatre in Washington, D.C. During the play, John Wilkes Booth, an actor and a southerner, shot the President. Lincoln died the next morning.
The Discovery of America Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus was born in Italy and grew up near the sea. In 1476, when he was 24 years old, his ship sank near the coast of Portugal, but he managed to get to the shore. Columbus remained in Portugal and learned Latin, geography, and shipbuilding there. He became a sea captain. He decided to try to find a quick way to the East by sailing west, but the King of Portugal refused to pay for the voyage. So, in 1485, Columbus went to Spain for help. Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain liked Columbus’s plan and agreed to give him money for sailors, ships and supplies. On August 3,1492, three ships left Spain and sailed to the west. The three small ships sailed for weeks with no sight of land. The sailors became nervous. They asked Columbus to turn back. “Sail on,” was the answer. The sailors agreed to sail on for three more days. On the morning of the third day a sailor saw land.
On October 12, 1492, Columbus stepped ashore, holding the Spanish flag. He thought that he had reached a group of islands near the coasts of China and India which were called the Indies. That’s why he called the people he saw Indians. Columbus made three more voyages to the New World. But he never knew that he had discovered a new world. He was sure that he had approached China and India from the east.
Test yourself Thanksgiving Day is celebrated in: October October November November August August The Declaration of Independence was written by: George Washington George Washington Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson Samuel Adams Samuel Adams George Washington served: One term One term Two terms Two terms Three terms Three terms The slavery was abolished by: George Washington George Washington Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln The President called “the Father of His Country” is: F.D. Roosevelt F.D. Roosevelt G. Washington G. Washington A. Lincoln A. Lincoln America was discovered by Christopher Columbus in: 1.1492 2.1264 3.1482 Christopher Columbus was born in: 1.Spain 2.Italy 3.Portugal Christopher Columbus got money for his voyage from: 1.Portugal 2.Italy 3.Spain Christopher Columbus was sure that he reached: 1.China and India 2.The New World 3.Newfoundland
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