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THE BIGGEST LIE EVER TOLD

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1 THE BIGGEST LIE EVER TOLD

2 THE FIRST THING JESUS THOUGHT OF TO TELL US ABOUT THE LAST DAYS:
3 And as he sat upon the mount of Olives, the disciples came unto him privately, saying, Tell us, when shall these things be? and what shall be the sign of thy coming, and of the end of the world? 4 And Jesus answered and said unto them, Take heed that no man deceive you. Matt 24:3-4 (KJV)

3 The view from the Mount of Olives

4 What will happen just before Jesus comes back?
... that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition; 4 Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, shewing himself that he is God. 2 Thess 2:3-4 (KJV) In the 1900 years since this was written, no one has ever sat in the temple claiming to be God. It is still in the future.

5 When the Temple is rebuilt, it will be somewhere in here.

6 How is the “Man of sin” going to get people to follow him?
... Even him, whose coming is after the working of Satan with all power and signs and lying wonders, 10 And with all deceivableness of unrighteousness in them that perish; because they received not the love of the truth, that they might be saved. 11 And for this cause God shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe a lie: 12 That they all might be damned who believed not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness. 2 Thess 2:9-12 (KJV)

7 What lie could be so strong that people refuse to love the truth and believe it instead? And what could this “strong delusion” be?

8 THE FIRST LIE EVER RECORDED
(Genesis chapter 3) Stage 1: “Hath God said?” Is this really the word of God? Stage 2: “Ye shall not surely die.” The Word of God is not reliable anyway. Stage 3: “Ye shall be as gods.” You don’t need God; mankind is going to keep getting better and better!

9 SATAN’S TACTICS: STILL THE SAME
Stage 1: Is the Bible really the word of God? After all, it’s changed so much that you don’t even know if it’s what was originally written. Stage 2: The Bible is not reliable anyway. It’s full of mistakes and contradictions. Stage 3: You don’t need God: mankind is evolving! Evolution is proven scientific fact.

10 WHICH PART OF GOD’S WORD IS UNDER THE GREATEST ATTACK?
“In the beginning God created.”

11 DOES EVOLUTION MATTER? Reports across America indicate that a high percentage of Christian students – some say over 70% -- abandon the Christian faith within their first year of college. The most common reason: they cannot respond to evolutionary claims that contradict their faith, so they conclude Christianity is all a lie! How many Christian youths are “ready always to give an answer to every man that asketh you a reason of the hope that is in you” (1 Pet. 3:15)?

12 THE FASTEST-GROWING RELIGION IN AMERICA:
“NO RELIGION!” A 2009 survey by Trinity College shows that those who call themselves Christians have decreased to 76%, while “No religion” has increased to 15%. The biggest drop has been in churches that have abandoned the Bible.

13 Why such a decrease in many churches? BUT HOW POWERUL IS THEIR GOD?
This know also, that in the last days perilous times shall come. For men shall be lovers of their own selves… Having a form of godliness, but denying the power thereof… Now as Jannes and Jambres withstood Moses, so do these also resist the truth: men of corrupt minds, reprobate concerning the faith. (2 Tim 3:1-8) Is there a “form of godliness” in the shrinking churches? Of course! They are churches! BUT HOW POWERUL IS THEIR GOD?

14 2. Lied about it on purpose, or
As of 3/27/09, almost 12,000 American MINISTERS have signed the “Clergy Letter Project” stating that they believe in evolution. 1,049 congregations held “Darwin Day” in February. Their God either: 1. Doesn’t care if he tells the truth about how everything began, 2. Lied about it on purpose, or 3. Was not intelligent enough to tell the truth until Darwin did it for him. Having a form of godliness but denying its power!

15 WHAT WE ARE CONSTANTLY TOLD:
EVOLUTION IS SCIENCE CREATION IS NOTHING BUT RELIGION - THE BIBLE IS WRONG!

16 IS IT DIFFICULT TO KNOW THAT THERE IS A CREATOR?
Romans 1: For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth in unrighteousness; Because that which may be known of God is manifest in them; for God hath shewed it unto them. For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse: Because that, when they knew God, they glorified him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened. Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools, And changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things.

17 WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO “KNOW” SOMETHING?
1. Personal Experience through the five senses. I know a bee sting hurts; I know how to ride a bike. 2. Reliance on Authority. I know the sun is 93 million miles away; Jesus loves me, this I know, for the Bible tells me so. 3. Logic. I know 2 million + 2 million = 4 million, even though I’ve never counted that high. I know I have a brain, even though I’ve never seen it. 4. Feeling or Intuition. I know she’s the one for me; I know God has called me to the ministry.

18 THE PREHISTORIC PAST 1. No living person has personal experience.
2. There are no eyewitness accounts except the Bible, which is unacceptable to skeptics. SO HOW DO WE “KNOW” ABOUT THE BEGINNING? Through LOGIC ONLY.

19 HOW ABOUT APE-MEN?

20 The Biblical Origin of Humans:
The first man’s body was made miraculously from the dust of the earth. The first woman was made miraculously from part of his body. If Adam had not sinned, he and Eve would have lived forever. Theistic Evolution: (also known as “progressive creation”) The first humans were a pair of highly evolved apelike creatures into whom God placed souls. They came from biological parents who were slightly less advanced than they were. Since death had been here for billions of years, they had nothing to do with bringing it into the world. From birth, they were destined to die. Atheistic Evolution: Humans evolved by chance. There is no such thing as an eternal soul or spirit.

21 SO WHAT’S WRONG WITH THAT?
But what about people who claim to believe in both God and evolution? It’s not the God of the Bible! Their idea of God is that he started the universe billions of years ago, then go out of the way and let everything run by evolution. SO WHAT’S WRONG WITH THAT?

22 EVOLUTION CREATION If God used evolution, the Bible is false -
Death and struggle led to the existence of man. CREATION Man was the direct cause of death and struggle. If God used evolution, the Bible is false - but if the Bible is true, evolution is false.

23 THE CLEAREST STATEMENT OF THE GOSPEL:
Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye have received, and wherein ye stand; By which also ye are saved, if ye keep in memory what I preached unto you, unless ye have believed in vain. For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures; And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures: And that he was seen of Cephas, then of the twelve: After that, he was seen of above five hundred brethren at once; of whom the greater part remain unto this present, but some are fallen asleep. After that, he was seen of James; then of all the apostles. And last of all he was seen of me also, as of one born out of due time. (1 Cor. 15:1-8)

24 Paul’s Defense of The Gospel
(1 Cor. 15) Some denied the Future resurrection (v. 12) - the Promise of the Gospel. Paul’s reply (v ) - this removes our Present hope - the Power of the Gospel. Paul’s explanation for why Jesus had to die (v , 45): The fall of Adam in the Past shows the Purpose of the Gospel. For since by man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive. (v ) And so it is written, The first man Adam was made a living soul; the last Adam was made a quickening spirit. (v. 45) If death was here before man sinned, then Adam was a myth. If the First Adam was a myth, then what do you need a Last Adam for? Jesus died because of something that never happened!

25 NO DEATH BEFORE ADAM Gen. 1: And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which [is] upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which [is] the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat. And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein [there is] life, [I have given] every green herb for meat: and it was so. Gen. 3:17 - And unto Adam he said, Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it: cursed [is] the ground for thy sake... Rom. 8: For the earnest expectation of the creature waiteth for the manifestation of the sons of God. For the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him who hath subjected [the same] in hope, Because the creature itself also shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God. For we know that the whole creation groaneth and travaileth in pain together until now.

26 NO DEATH BEFORE ADAM Isa. 11:6-8 - The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them. And the cow and the bear shall feed; their young ones shall lie down together: and the lion shall eat straw like the ox. And the sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp, and the weaned child shall put his hand on the cockatrice’ den. Rom. 5: Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned... Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam’s transgression, who is the figure of him that was to come... For if through the offence of one many be dead, much more the grace of God, and the gift by grace, [which is] by one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many. 1 Cor. 15:21-22, 45 - For since by man [came] death, by man [came] also the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive. And so it is written, The first man Adam was made a living soul; the last Adam [was made] a quickening spirit.

27 AN ATHEIST ON THE MEANING OF EVOLUTION
Christianity has fought evolution because... evolution destroys utterly and finally the very reason Jesus’ earthly life was supposedly made necessary. Destroy Adam and Eve and the original sin, and in the rubble you will find the sorry remains of the son of god. (sic) ...It becomes clear now that the whole justification of Jesus’ life and death is predicated on the existence of Adam and the forbidden fruit he and Eve ate. Without the original sin, who needs to be redeemed? Without Adam’s fall into a life of constant sin terminated by death, what purpose is there to Christianity? None. G. Richard Bozarth, “The Meaning of Evolution,” The American Atheist, Sept. 1978, p. 30

28 THE PREHISTORIC PAST 1. No living person has personal experience.
2. There are no eyewitness accounts except the Bible, which is unacceptable to skeptics. SO HOW DO WE “KNOW” ABOUT THE BEGINNING? Through LOGIC ONLY.

29 Logical Implications of Creation and Evolu-tion Concerning Fossil Apes and Humans:
1. If we evolved from some apelike ancestors, it would have taken millions of years. We should find a great many fossils of the transitional steps (ape-men). 2. If humans were created as humans and apes were created as apes, we should find a complete lack of ape-men in the fossil record.

30 PRIMATE FOSSILS: FEW AND FAR BETWEEN.
All the fossils of alleged human ancestors known today “would barely cover a billiard table.” (J. Reader, New Scientist, March 26, 1981) “...all the physical evidence we have for human evolution can still be placed, with room to spare, inside a single coffin.” (L. Watson, Science Digest, May 1982) WHY SO FEW PRIMATE FOSSILS? EVOLUTION -- They just weren’t in the right place at the right time. CREATION -- The Flood produced most of the fossil record, so the creatures that were most mobile and intelligent (such as primates) would have been least likely to be buried and fossilized. Some primates may have been buried in LOCAL floods soon after the global flood (ca B.C.), but humans had not yet spread out from Babel!

31 PRIMATE CLASSIFICATION mandrills,macaques, etc.)
Order Primates Suborder Prosimii Suborder Anthropoideia Lemurs/ Lorises Tarsiers Platyrrhines (New World Monkeys – Capuchin, squirrel monkey, howler, etc.) Catarrhines Old World Monkeys – (baboons, mandrills,macaques, etc.) Apes Humans

32 OUR EVOLUTIONARY “FAMILY TREE”
Chimpanzee Gorilla Man Orangutan Gibbon ??? Common ancestor ??? Common ancestor of Asian apes of African apes ????? Common ancestor of African apes and man ??? Common ancestor of hominoids Old World Monkeys New World Monkeys ??? Common ancestor of higher primates Lemurs/Lorises Tarsiers ??? Common ancestor of all primates ??? Transition from insectivores ??? Insectivore ancestor Question marks represent unknown forms.

33 YEARS SINCE CREATION (Massoretic Text)
1656 ADAM years SETH yrs d. 1042 ENOSH yrs d. 1140 KENAN yrs d. 1235 MAHALALEL yrs d. 1290 JARED yrs d. 1422 ENOCH, 365 yrs (walked with God) METHUSALEH yrs, d. 1656 LAMECH yrs d. 1652 NOAH yrs d. 2006 THE FLOOD Earth divided Death of Noah Tower of Babel (between 1757 and 1996) SHEM yrs d. 2157 Arpachshad, d. 2096 Shelah, d. 2126 Eber, d. 2187 Peleg, d. 1996 Reu, d. 2026 Serug, 230 - d. 2049 Nahor-- 147, d. 1997 Terah ----- 205, d. 2082 Abraham- 195, d. 2122 Isaac ---- 180, d. 2227 Jacob- 149, d. 2254 Death of Adam

34 The Geologic (Evolutionary) Time Scale
ERA PERIOD EPOCH Approx. Beginning (Years Ago) Cenozoic Quaternary Holocene (Recent) 10,000 Pleistocene 1.8 million Tertiary Pliocene 5.3 million Miocene million Oligocene million Eocene million Paleocene 65 million Mesozoic Cretaceous million Jurassic million Triassic million Paleozoic Permian million Pennsylvanian million } CARBON- Mississippian million } IFEROUS Devonian million Silurian million Ordovician million Cambrian million Archaeozoic Precambrian billion (incl. Ediacaran or Vendian, 650 million) Source: Univ. of Calif. Museum of Paleontology

35 DOES JESUS KNOW WHAT HAPPENED AT THE BEGINNING OF THE WORLD?
John 1:1 - 3 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made. Col 1: his dear Son: In whom we have redemption through his blood, even the forgiveness of sins: Who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of every creature: For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by him, and for him: And he is before all things, and by him all things consist.

36 New Testament Clues for a Young Earth
J E S U P A L “But from the beginning of the creation God made them male and female. For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and cleave to his wife...” (Mark 10:6-7, quoting Gen. 2:24, the creation of Eve and the origin of marriage). He didn’t say “In the last one millionth of earth’s history.” “... he [the devil] was a murderer from the beginning...” (Jn. 8:44) He didn’t say “he became a murderer after millions of years.” “... the mystery, which from the beginning of the world hath been hid in God, who created all things by Jesus Christ: To the intent that now unto the principalities and powers in heavenly [places] might be known by the church the manifold wisdom of God...” (Eph. 3:10). Did God have to wait through 4.5 billion years of evolution be-fore He could accomplish His purposes through the Church?

37 HOW LUCIFER BECAME THE DEVIL
How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations! For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congrega-tion, in the sides of the north: I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the most High. (Isa. 14:12-14) WHEN DID THIS HAPPEN? Son of man, take up a lamentation upon the king of Tyrus, and say unto him, Thus saith the Lord GOD; Thou sealest up the sum, full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty. Thou hast been in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering, the sardius, topaz, and the diamond, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the emerald, and the carbuncle, and gold: the workmanship of thy tabrets and of thy pipes was prepared in thee in the day that thou wast created. Thou art the anointed cherub that covereth... (Ezek 28:12-14) Lucifer was still beautiful when he first went into Eden!

38 REASONS PEOPLE BELIEVE
THE EARTH IS OLD: 1. Belief that it takes millions of years to form a fossil. 2. Radiometric dating. 3. Geologic features (separation of con-tinents, Grand Canyon, etc.) that are supposed to have taken millions of years to form.

39 IF THERE WAS A WORLDWIDE FLOOD, WHAT WOULD WE EXPECT TO FIND?
Billions and billions of dead things buried in rock layers laid down by water all over the whole earth, even on top of the highest mountains. WHAT DO WE ACTUALLY FIND? Billions and billions of dead things buried in rock layers laid down by water all over the whole earth, even on top of the highest mountains!

40 HOW DO YOU MAKE A FOSSIL? HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE?
1. Bury something quickly so it doesn’t rot. 2. Make sure the right kind of minerals are in the mud or water. 3. Apply lots of heat and pressure. HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE? CHICKEN BONES: ? OIL:

41 Spark plugs from Durban harbor
You may have heard that it takes millions of years to make a fossil. Wrong! Chicken bones have been turned into mineralized fossils in laboratories in 5 to 10 years. Organic garbage (banana peels, etc.) has been turned into crude oil, otherwise known as “fossil fuel,” in as little as 20 minutes. Spark plugs are often used as fishing sinkers in Durban, S. Africa. The water has such a high concentration of minerals that they become coated and look like fossils in just a few years! Spark plugs from Durban harbor Courtesy of Joshua Gilbert

42 THE FOUNDATION OF EVOLUTION:
Uniformitarianism. This is the UNPROVABLE geological doctrine (a statement of FAITH) that everything happens by slow, gradual, uniform processes. (“The present is the key to the past.”) There can never have been a worldwide flood. The Bible warns us: First of all you must understand this, that scoffers will come in the last days with scoffing, following their own passions and saying, “Where is the promise of his coming? For ever since the fathers fell asleep, all things have continued as they were from the beginning of creation. They deliberately ignore this fact, that by the word of God heavens existed long ago, and an earth formed out of water and by means of water, through which the world that then existed was deluged with water and perished. (2 Peter 3:3-7 RSV)

43 The Geologic (Evolutionary) Time Scale
ERA PERIOD EPOCH Approx. Beginning (Years Ago) Cenozoic Quaternary Holocene (Recent) 10,000 Pleistocene 1.8 million Tertiary Pliocene 5.3 million Miocene million Oligocene million Eocene million Paleocene 65 million Mesozoic Cretaceous million Jurassic million Triassic million Paleozoic Permian million Pennsylvanian million } CARBON- Mississippian million } IFEROUS Devonian million Silurian million Ordovician million Cambrian million Archaeozoic Precambrian billion (incl. Ediacaran or Vendian, 650 million) Source: Univ. of Calif. Museum of Paleontology

44 the fossil record to be their ancestor.
LOWER MAMMAL ANCESTOR OF PRIMATES UNKNOWN! Because there is nothing else to offer in its place, the only candidate is an insectivore called Tupaiia (a tree shrew). Besides having major physical and anatomical differences from primates, the tree shrew appears in the wrong layer of the fossil record to be their ancestor. The hypothetical ancestor of primates should have evolved millions of years earlier than the primates themselves. However, tree shrews first appear in the same geologic layer as primates (the Eocene). According to evolution, this is millions of years too late.

45 ANCESTOR OF PROSIMIANS
UNKNOWN! Lemurs, Lorises, and Tarsiers all appear in the fossil record in Eocene rocks (the same layer as tree shrews), sud- denly and fully formed, with no known ancestry. None of them have evolved since then. Smilodectes, an Eocene lemur Artist’s conception of Smilodectes (Denver Museum of Natural History)

46 WHAT ABOUT DARWINIUS MASILLAE (“Ida”)?
One of the latest “missing links,” Darwinius masillae, was announced in 2009 with a great deal of hype as absolute proof of evolution. It is nothing more than the most complete lemur skeleton known so far. It’s not even the oldest! It was first discov-ered in Why did they wait so long? Wikimedia Commons image Since this now “proves” evolution, that means all the previous claims were lies! Of course this one is absolutely true, right? (Until the next one!)

47 OUR EVOLUTIONARY “FAMILY TREE”
Chimpanzee Gorilla Man Orangutan Gibbon ??? Common ancestor ??? Common ancestor of Asian apes of African apes ????? Common ancestor of African apes and man ??? Common ancestor of hominoids Old World Monkeys New World Monkeys ??? Common ancestor of higher primates Lemurs/Lorises Tarsiers ??? Common ancestor of all primates - UNKNOWN ??? Transition from insectivores - UNKNOWN ??? Insectivore ancestor - UNKNOWN Question marks represent unknown forms.

48 The Geologic (Evolutionary) Time Scale
ERA PERIOD EPOCH Approx. Beginning (Years Ago) Cenozoic Quaternary Holocene (Recent) 10,000 Pleistocene 1.8 million Tertiary Pliocene 5.3 million Miocene million Oligocene million Eocene million Paleocene 65 million Mesozoic Cretaceous million Jurassic million Triassic million Paleozoic Permian million Pennsylvanian million } CARBON- Mississippian million } IFEROUS Devonian million Silurian million Ordovician million Cambrian million Archaeozoic Precambrian billion (incl. Ediacaran or Vendian, 650 million) Source: Univ. of Calif. Museum of Paleontology

49 OLD WORLD MONKEYS include:
ANCESTOR OF MONKEYS UNKNOWN! OLD WORLD MONKEYS include: Guenon monkeys, mangabeys, macaques, rhesus monkeys, drills, mandrills, baboons, langurs, proboscis monkeys, guereza monkeys, etc. NEW WORLD MONKEYS include: Capuchins, squirrel monkeys, spider monkeys, howler monkeys, marmosets, etc. The first monkeys appear suddenly and fully formed in the Oligocene layer. Even the “later” modern types appear in the fossil rec- ord suddenly with no known ancestors. Skull of Aegyptopithecus, believed to be an Oligocene monkey (Denver Museum)

50 OUR EVOLUTIONARY “FAMILY TREE”
Chimpanzee Gorilla Man Orangutan Gibbon ??? Common ancestor ??? Common ancestor of Asian apes of African apes ????? Common ancestor of African apes and man ??? Common ancestor of hominoids Old World Monkeys New World Monkeys ??? Common ancestor of higher primates - UNKNOWN Lemurs/Lorises Tarsiers ??? Common ancestor of all primates - UNKNOWN ??? Transition from insectivores - UNKNOWN ??? Insectivore ancestor - UNKNOWN Question marks represent unknown forms.

51 The Geologic (Evolutionary) Time Scale
ERA PERIOD EPOCH Approx. Beginning (Years Ago) Cenozoic Quaternary Holocene (Recent) 10,000 Pleistocene 1.8 million Tertiary Pliocene 5.3 million Miocene million Oligocene million Eocene million Paleocene 65 million Mesozoic Cretaceous million Jurassic million Triassic million Paleozoic Permian million Pennsylvanian million } CARBON- Mississippian million } IFEROUS Devonian million Silurian million Ordovician million Cambrian million Archaeozoic Precambrian billion (incl. Ediacaran or Vendian, 650 million) Source: Univ. of Calif. Museum of Paleontology

52 ANCESTOR OF HOMINOIDS (APES AND MAN)
UNKNOWN! AFRICAN APES (gorillas and chimpanzees) appear in the Miocene fossil record suddenly and fully formed, with no known ancestors leading up to them. ASIAN APES (orangutans and gibbons) do too. Orang skulls are identical to a “12 million year old” Miocene fos- sil known as Sivapithecus. They forgot to evolve!

53 OUR EVOLUTIONARY “FAMILY TREE”
Chimpanzee Gorilla Man Orangutan Gibbon ??? Common ancestor ??? Common ancestor of Asian apes of African apes – UNKNOWN UNKNOWN ????? Common ancestor of African apes and man ??? Common ancestor of hominoids - UNKNOWN Old World Monkeys New World Monkeys ??? Common ancestor of higher primates - UNKNOWN Lemurs/Lorises Tarsiers ??? Common ancestor of all primates - UNKNOWN ??? Transition from insectivores - UNKNOWN ??? Insectivore ancestor - UNKNOWN Question marks represent unknown forms.

54 WHY WOULD HUMANS EVOLVE FROM APES?
There would have to be a series of beneficial mutations in DNA, each building on all the ones from previous generations. There are about 3 billion base pairs in human DNA. Even if it really were 98% similar to that of chimps, there would still be 60 million genetic differences! There would have had to be millions of beneficial mutations in both the human and chimpanzee lines. Though some mutations benefit individuals, we have never seen a single one that helped the affected species, or that added any genetic information.

55 WHY WOULD HUMANS EVOLVE FROM APES?
Suppose there really are only 60,000,000 genetic differences between humans and chimps. 1. The wildest estimate for our common ancestry is about 10,000,000 years ago. This is an average of 6 beneficial mutations per year. 2. In order to be passed on, mutations must occur in breeding individu-als. If the line evolving toward humans began breeding at age 10, then each breeding individual would have to acquire an average of beneficial mutations. 3. Some of the mutations would have to be identical in the males and females; others would have to be complementary so that the reproductive systems worked together. 4. The mutations would have to ALL be concentrated in the reproduc-tive cells, not randomly distributed throughout the body. 5. The process could never miss a single generation, for about a million generations!

56 Why do we have so more brain capacity than evolution should give us?
WHY DID HUMANS EVOLVE SO MUCH? Most adult human brains are in the range of cc. The smallest ever known was about 750 cc. No ape brain ever known has been anywhere near 750 cc. If we evolved by a few mutations in each generation, we should have just a little more intelligence than we need to survive -- like chimpan-zees, who know how to climb, use sticks to get insects, etc. Likewise, humans should be able to do things that help us survive such as trapping animals, crossing streams, and perhaps even building simple shelters. However, we have far more brain capacity than we need to simply sur-vive. There is no reason evolution would give us the mental capacity to design space probes or understand the detailed structure of atoms, the fine structure constants of the universe, the dual nature of light, the composition of distant stars, etc. Why do we have so more brain capacity than evolution should give us?

57 Candidates for Human Ancestors Through the Years
Originally named from a few bones or tooth fragments - regarded as too apelike after more evidence was discovered. Multiple species and genus names assigned based on very fragmentary evidence. Some types given different names were later reclassified as belonging to the same species. All are nothing more than apes. Rudapithecus Ramapithecus Dryopithecus Oreopithecus Limnopithecus Kenyapithecus Aegyptopithecus

58 WHAT IS A “SPECIES?” To a biologist, a species is a group whose mem-bers cannot breed with any other group. However, it is impos-sible to do breeding experiments on extinct animals. Researchers have to simply guess whether they belong to different species, based on how different the specimens seem to be. If you had only bones to go by, would you guess that Andre the Giant (7 ft 4 in) and Verne Troyer (2 ft 8 in) were the same species? They are! Pictures from andrethegiant.com and rotttentomatoes.com There is no way to be sure whether differences in extinct creatures mean they belonged to different species, or just showed normal variation within the same species.

59 Candidates for Human Ancestors Through the Years
“Nebraska Man” (Hesperopithecus) Mistake Artist’s conception of “Nebraska Man” (Hesperopithecus haroldcookii) based on a single tooth that actually belonged to a pig. (Illustrated London News, June 24, 1922) Human skull fragments (stained to look old) “Piltdown Man” (Eoanthropus) Filled in by imagination Fragments supposedly found in a gravel pit in England; despite obvious file marks, accepted as an ape-man for over 40 years until the hoax was exposed. Fraud Ape jaw (filed to fit skull) Cast of the Piltdown skull at Sterkfontein

60 Candidates for Human Ancestors Through the Years
Proconsul Sivapithecus Photo by Wikimedia Commons user Funk Monk Miocene – similar to a small chimp (Denver Museum) Miocene - skull identical to orangutan and Ramapithecus Australopithecus (“Southern Ape,”a.k.a. Paranthropus / Zinjanthropus) Appears suddenly, with no known ancestry. Regarded as an evolutionary dead end – too committed in the direction of apes to be a human ancestor The “Taung Child” – juvenile Australopithecus africanus (discovered 1924) Paranthropus robustus female, dis- covered 1994 (also known as Austra- lopithecus and Zinjanthropus) “Littlefoot” – most complete specimen of Australopithecus known (discovered 1998) Skull photos except Sivapithecus by the author- “Cradle of Humankind” museum, Sterkfontein, S. Africa

61 How Could These Belong to the Same Genus?
The “Taung Child” – juvenile Australopithecus africanus Paranthropus robustus (also known as Australo- pithecus and Zinjanthropus) Distorted skull of A. boisei (Denver museum) Like humans, apes experience drastic changes in their faces and skulls as they mature. The specimen on the left is believed to have died while very young, while the ones on the right are thought to have been buried as adults. Photos by the author- “Cradle of Humankind” museum and Denver Museum of Natural History

62 WHAT ABOUT “LUCY?” (Australopithecus afarensis) The same skeleton
(Denver museum) The same skeleton in Look how much more complete it seems, even showing Lucy walking upright. The changes are NOT based on new discoveries. The light colored “bones” – most of the display, including the feet -- are plaster, based on imagination! 1988 photo of A. afarensis skel-eton at Denver museum (9 year old boy for size comparison) No one has found a complete foot of Australopithecus, but the most complete one, from “Littlefoot” in Sterkfontein (see right), is typical of apes. There is no evidence that “Lucy” had human-type feet. Human feet are different from hands; ape feet are like hands. Right: foot of a Hamadryas baboon. Photos by the author

63 WHAT IF Australopithecus WALKED UPRIGHT?
The skull of Australo-pithecus is not at all like humans. Instead, it is extremely similar to that of the bonobo, a type of pygmy chimpanzee that spends a fair amount of time walking upright. Australopithecus skull Modern human skull (Sterkfontein) Professional scientists recognize that Australopithecus is not a human ancestor, but an extinct ape similar to a chimpanzee. Living Bonobo (photo by Kabir Bakie – from Wikimedia Commons) Bonobo skull

64 ARDIPITHECUS RAMIDUS (“Ardi”)
Reannounced in Oct. 2009, but already known for more than 15 years. Based on fragments spread out over almost a mile such as eight teeth, part of the base of a skull found 550 m away, and arm bone fragments found 270 m away. It’s only a big deal because it was found in lower (“older”) rocks than previous australopith-ecines. Not at all human-like; merely some sort of extinct ape. Originally classified as Australopithecus. Later renamed Ardipithecus not because of newly discovered evidence but because evolutionists needed a new “missing link”! (image by Wikimedia Commons user FunkMonk)

65 Candidates for Human Ancestors Through the Years
Homo habilis (handy man”) First unearthed in at the Olduvai Gorge in Kenya. Placed in the human genus by discoverer Louis Leakey not because of anatomical features but because the bones were found with tools, which only humans are known to make. Photos by the author – Sterkfontein museum Artist’s conception of habilis However, thirteen years later Leakey found, in his words, “bones virtually indistinguishable from those of modern man” at a lower level. Thus, true humans must have occupied the area before Australopithecus or H. habilis. Many scientists recognize that H. Habilis was nothing more than a variant of Australopithecus. Compare H. habilis to this Australo-pithecus skull (Karoo Natl. Park, S. Africa)

66 THE ONLY CANDIDATE LEFT:
Homo erectus (“upright man”) Java skullcap First found in 1899 in the banks of the Solo River in Java, East Indies (In- donesia) and called Pithecanthropus or “Java Man.” Unusually small brain, but within the range of humans. Undisputed Homo sapiens leg bones found in the same place, so it’s not older than humans. Later reclassified H. erectus. Artist’s conception of “Java Man” Photo by the author – Sterkfontein museum

67 WHAT IS A “SPECIES?” To a biologist, a species is a group whose mem-bers cannot breed with any other group. However, it is impos-sible to do breeding experiments on extinct animals. Researchers have to simply guess whether they belong to different species, based on how different the specimens seem to be. If you had only bones to go by, would you guess that Andre the Giant (7 ft 4 in) and Verne Troyer (2 ft 8 in) were the same species? They are! Pictures from andrethegiant.com and rotttentomatoes.com There is no way to be sure whether differences in extinct creatures mean they belonged to different species, or just showed normal variation within the same species.

68 THE ONLY CANDIDATE LEFT: Homo erectus (“upright man”)
“Peking Man” skull, now classified as H. Erectus – National Museum, Xi’an, China Photo by the author H. erectus was next discovered in a cave in China in the 1920s and 1930s. At first it was called Sinanthropus or “Peking man” – later recognized to be the same species as “Java Man” and reclassified to its present status. The skulls were small, but within human range. No bones were found other than the skulls, which were all bashed in. Undisputed human skeletons were later found in the same cave. Many suspect cannibalism.

69 THE ONLY CANDIDATE LEFT: Homo erectus (“upright man”)
H. erectus has also been found in Kenya, Tanzania, Hungary, and Australia. Average skull size is low but still within the human range. Teeth similar to humans, not apes. Some creationists think it was an unknown type of apelike creature; however, most think it was an ethnic group of H. sapiens. Whatever it was, every- where H. erectus has been found, so have modern type human skeletons. Rather than a human ancestor, it was a contemporary. Photos by the author – Sterkfontein museum Sterkfontein museum Denver museum

70 ORIGIN OF RACES ACCORDING TO EVOLUTION
The full title of Darwin’s book was “The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or, The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.” All of us evolved from the same an-cestors, but some races evolved farther than others. Hitler’s ideas on the “Master Race” came from the evolution-ary writings of Ger- man scientists from the 1800s such as Ernst Haeckel; the British extermina-ted Australian aborigines because they were consid-ered a lower form of life; American Indians were considered savages, and so on. Picture from “Our Face From Fish to Man” by William K. Gregory, Guess what race he belonged to. (Hint: If a black man was the author, who would be on top?) Which is the most highly evolved race? The one the evolutionists belong to!

71 WHO DECIDES IF A FOSSIL WAS Homo sapiens?
The authors of most evolutionary books and articles are Europeans and Americans. They use their own ethnic group as the defining example of Homo sapiens. However, some members of modern ethnic groups around the world (e.g., the Quechua Indians of South America and the Tamil and Khmer people of Asia) have the facial characteristics typical of “Homo erectus.” They are fully Homo sapiens – Photo by the author – Sterkfontein they just don’t look like Europeans! Artist’s conception of “Java Man” Modern Asians H. erectus specimens were probably just people that had non-European features.

72 Candidates for Human Ancestors Through the Years
Left - Homo ergaster -- not a separate species, but a different name for many of the African H. erectus fossils (right) Artist’s conception of H. ergaster Photos by the author- Sterkfontein Homo ergaster Homo erectus Height 1.3 – 1.7 metres 1.3 – 1.7 metres Physique Robust, but "human" skeleton Robust, but "human" skeleton Cranial Volume 750 – 1250 cc 750 – 1250 cc Evolutionary Date 1.8 – 1.2 million years ago 1.8 – 0.1 million years ago Distribution Africa into Asia Africa, Asia and Indonesia (and Europe?) Skull form Higher cranial vault, thinner cranial Flat, thick skull with large occipital bone, absence of sagittal keel and and brow ridge certain cranial base characteristics Jaws/Teeth Robust jaw in larger individuals; Robust jaw in larger individuals; smaller teeth than H. habilis smaller teeth than H. habilis Source:

73 Candidates for Human Ancestors Through the Years
Homo heidelbergensis -- considered archaic, but accepted as true Homo – perhaps a variation of Neanderthal Photos by the author- Sterkfontein Artist’s conception of Heidelbergensis H. heidelbergensis H. neanderthalensis Height Roughly 1.5 metres 1.5 – 1.7 metres Physique Robust, but "human" skeleton As H. heidelbergensis, but adapted for cold Cranial Volume 1100 – 1400 cc 1200 – 1750 cc Known Date 400,000 – 100, ,000 – 30,000 Distribution Africa, Asia and Europe Europe and Western Asia Skull form Higher skull; face less protruding Reduced brow ridge; thinner skull; large nose: midface projection Jaws/Teeth Similar to H. erectus, but teeth Similar to H. heidelbergensis; teeth smaller may be smaller except for incisors; chin development in some Source:

74 HOW ABOUT NEANDERTHAL MAN?
Named for the Neander Valley in Europe. Some had skeletal deformities characteristic of arthritis, rickets, or acromegaly, but most did not. On average, Neanderthals were bigger than modern humans and had thicker bones and bigger brains -- physically superior to modern man. They buried their dead in what seem to be religious rituals. Many regard them as a subspecies (separate race) of H. sapiens. Right: Artist Zdenek Burian’s very apelike conception of Neanderthal (1960). Left: Neanderthal skull at the Sterkfontein museum Below Left: The latest artist’s conception of Neanderthal (2007) at Sterkfontein – no longer apelike! Below right: his conception of a Neanderthal burial

75 WEREN’T NEANDERTHALS CAVE-MEN?
What does it take to be a cave man? You have to be a man and live in a cave. Unusual living arrangements have nothing to do with evolution. Some of the people of Israel lived in caves (Judges 6:2, 1 Sam. 13:6, Job 30:6 et al.). Some still do. That doesn’t mean they are ape-men!

76 ISN’T NEANDERTHAL DNA MUCH DIFFERENT FROM H.Sapiens?
Recent reports have hinted that Neanderthal may have been a subspecies of H. sapiens. However, these are based on a single bone sample from Croatia, supposedly over 30,000 years old. 1. Mitochondrial DNA: Out of about 16,500 base pairs, re-searchers were able to analyze only one 379 unit se-quence. DNA breaks down in a matter of a few thousand years, so it is difficult to obtain a good quality sample. 2. Nuclear DNA: Of the parts able to be analyzed, there was over a 99% similarity to H. sapiens. 1. Ward & Stringer, “A molecular handle on the Neanderthals,” Nature 388 2. Green et al., “Analysis of one million base pairs of Neanderthal DNA,” Nature 444 Noonan et al., “Sequencing and analysis of Neanderthal genomic DNA,” Science, 314

77 CRO-MAGNON MAN Named for a cave at Cro-Magnon, France,
where the fossils were first located. Burian’s conception of Cro-Magnon Man in his tent village Physically superior to modern humans; regarded as true man. Sophisticated in culture. Elaborate cave art, tools, etc.

78 CRO-MAGNON MAN Cro-Magnons are known for cave art of animals and nature scenes. Some-times they painted them-selves. Cave painting at Lascaux, France show-ing a man and three boys. Note clothing on all four and shoes on at least three. (Denver Museum) Detail of boys (above) and of man with bow (right)

79 (But wait – that’s what you said last time. Were you lying then?)
HOW ABOUT “FLORES MAN?” Every few years the news media report that the “missing link” between apes and man has finally been found. (But wait – that’s what you said last time. Were you lying then?) The latest candidate is from Flores, Indonesia; nicknamed “Hobbit” because the specimens were less than four feet tall. Now recog-nized as fully human. Nothing more exotic than a group of pygmies.

80 OUR EVOLUTIONARY “FAMILY TREE”
Chimpanzee Gorilla Man Orangutan Gibbon ??? Common ancestor ??? Common ancestor of Asian apes of African apes – UNKNOWN UNKNOWN ????? Common ancestor of African apes and man - UNKNOWN ??? Common ancestor of hominoids - UNKNOWN Old World Monkeys New World Monkeys ??? Common ancestor of higher primates - UNKNOWN Lemurs/Lorises Tarsiers ??? Common ancestor of all primates - UNKNOWN ??? Transition from insectivores - UNKNOWN ??? Insectivore ancestor - UNKNOWN Question marks represent unknown forms.

81 Logical Implications of Creation and Evolu-tion Concerning Fossil Apes and Humans:
1. If we evolved from some apelike ancestors, it would have taken millions of years. We should find a great many fossils of the transitional steps (ape-men). 2. If humans were created as humans and apes were created as apes, we should find a complete lack of ape-men in the fossil record.

82 WHAT DO FOSSILS TELL US ABOUT EVOLUTION?
There are fossil apes, there are fossil men, but there are no fossil (or living) Ape-Men. Logically, we should conclude that evolution didn’t happen with humans! THE BEST EXPLANATION FOR THE ORIGIN OF HUMANS: “Let us make man in Our image.”

83 ORIGIN OF RACES ACCORDING TO EVOLUTION
The full title of Darwin’s book was “The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or, The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.” All of us evolved from the same an-cestors, but some races evolved farther than others. Hitler’s ideas on the “Master Race” came from the evolution-ary writings of Ger- man scientists from the 1800s such as Ernst Haeckel; the British extermina-ted Australian aborigines because they were consid-ered a lower form of life; American Indians were considered savages, and so on. Picture from “Our Face From Fish to Man” by William K. Gregory, Guess what race he belonged to. (Hint: If a black man was the author, who would be on top?) Which is the most highly evolved race? The one the evolutionists belong to!

84 ORIGIN OF RACES ACCORDING TO GENESIS
1. All of us came from Noah’s sons and their wives. 2. Until Babel people were freely inter- breeding so their genes were not sorted out. There would have been no sharply defined groups.

85 SOURCE OF SKIN COLORS Possible combinations of dominant (dark skin) alleles from two parents, each with all six possible alleles AaBbCc. Across: mother’s contribution. Vertical: father. Each square shows the number of dark skin alleles received by an individual child. Gametes ABC ABc AbC Abc aBC aBc abC abc ABC AABBCC AABBCc AABbCC AABbCc AaBBCC AaBBCc AaBbCC AaBbCc ABc AABBCc AABBcc AABbCc AABbcc AaBBCc AaBBcc AaBbCc AaBbcc AbC AABbCC AABbCc AAbbCC AAbbCc AaBbCC AaBbCc AabbCC AabbCc Abc AABbCc AABbcc AAbbCc Aabbcc AaBbCc AaBbcc AabbCc Aabbcc aBC AaBBCC AaBBCc AaBbCC AaBbCc aaBBCC aaBBCc aaBbCC aaBbCc aBc AaBBCc AaBBcc AaBbCc AaBbcc aaBBCc aaBBcc aaBbCc aaBbcc abC AaBbCC AaBbCc AabbCC AabbCc aaBbCC aaBbCc aabbCC aabbCc abc AaBbCc AaBbcc AabbCc Aabbcc aaBbCc aaBbcc aabbCc aabbcc One pair of parents could have seven different shades of offspring based on the number of dark skin genes they pass on (from zero to six). Source:

86 ORIGIN OF RACES ACCORDING TO GENESIS
1. All of us came from Noah’s sons and their wives. 2. Until Babel people were freely inter- breeding so their genes were not sorted out. There would have been no sharply defined groups. 3. At Babel God decided which people would speak which languages, perhaps according to their genes. From then on they were no longer interbreeding. Clearly defined groups could develop quickly. 4. Natural selection did not cause the group- ing, but would have reinforced it. 5. The “races” are just large extended families within the human race. They are a visual reminder that God will not allow mankind to unite in rebellion against Him.

87 The Devil’s First Lie to Himself: His First Lie to Us: His Modern Lie:
I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north: I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the most High… Isa. 14:13-14 (I don’t need God!) His First Lie to Us: Ye shall not surely die: For God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods… Gen 3:4-5 (You don’t need God!) His Modern Lie: You are a product of evolution. You don’t need God!

88 THE BIGGEST LIE EVER TOLD:
“Ye shall be as gods.” Don’t fall for the devil’s deception – evolution is NOT true. You shall NOT be as gods!

89 The middle verse of the whole Bible:
It is better to trust in the LORD than to put confidence in man. (Ps. 118:8) If you have to make a choice between the word of God and the word of scientists, trust God! God is God; you are not. You will never evolve and stop needing Him. Accept it. He calls you to trust Him, surrender your life to Him, and be saved.

90 For more information, contact: David Prentice (M.Ed., M.A.S.T.)


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