prohibition * drug supply * drug demand How are they related, according to Grim?
This is Your Country on Drugs: Sociological Perspectives on the American Drug Scene 1.The amount and type of drugs Americans use is the result of a complex interplay of social, cultural, political, and economic forces. 2.Efforts to suppress drug use have rarely succeeded, as one high is simply replaced with another. 3.Drug legalization has already occurred. 4.Criminalization happened as drugs were associated with marginalized groups. 5.Cultural and social forces shape patterns of drug use, but those patterns in turn shape society. 6.Drug crusades are led by “moral entrepreneurs” who unite around the project of drug control, but often have other objectives. 7.A history of cultural hang-ups over pleasure shape current drug policy.
Early Roots of Drug Control: 19 th Century –General Trends Advances in medicinal chemistry uncover new substances: opium, morphine, cocaine, heroin, codeine Unregulated use in patent medicines Growth of patent medicine industry, advertising, and print journalism –Important Events: Invention of hypodermic syringe for morphine injection in Civil War-era Importation of smoking opium by Chinese laborers on US rail system Temperance movement search for new highs
Early 20 th Century Shifts Science of addiction advances Knowledge of cross-dependence Tolerance and negative side effects of widespread use Progressive political climate –Muckraking journalists –Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle –Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 –Organized opposition by progressive groups (WCTU, women’s suffrage) Decline of patent medicine industry First drug legislation emerges
From “The Great American Fraud” by Samuel Hopkins Adams in Collier’s Weekly, 1905
Major Events in the History of American Drug Control 1878: Anti-Opium Ordinance – “America’s first drug war” 1906: Pure Food and Drug Act 1914: Harrison Narcotics Act 1919: Passage of Prohibition, 18 th Constitutional Amendment 1937: Marijuana Tax Act 1971: Comprehensive Drug Abuse Act, creation of Drug Schedules, Nixon officially declares “War on Drugs”
Required all distributors of opiates and cocaine to register with Treasury Dept. and pay special tax Made medical prescription to addicts unlawful, effectively criminalizing addiction Introduced after demographics of users shifted Racial fears manipulated to gain political support for expansion of federal powers Harrison Narcotics Act of 1914
The Temperance Movement Alcohol use declined substantially with the industrialization of America in the early 1800s – why? –Economy needs sober workers –Development of railroads spread religion, which condemned alcohol use Grim: As one substance is prohibited, others often rise to assume its place. –As the Temperance Movement took off, the use of cocaine and opiates was on the rise
A-bomb ace Assassin of Youth bammy banana Bazooka blow a stick Budda cheroot chillums chips Colas ditchweed fire up Funk funny stuff ganja get on ghanja giggle weed good stuff grefa grifa gunga gungeon gunja gunney gunney sack hit hookah hubbly bubbly Indian hemp Indiana ditchweed Indiana hay Johnson grass Kif lamb's bread light up limbo loco Lucas Lumber Moocah Muggles Munchies paca lolo peace weed Phillies Blunt picked up pin pinhead poke potlikker pot liquor P.R. Shlook Shotgun Skin Snop Spring Steamboat Sticks super grass super weed taking on a number tea head tighten someone's wig Tijuana TJ Toak toke pipes toke up vipe viper Wacky terbacky Zombie weed Acapulco gold Acapulco red Ace African black African bush African woodbine Airhead Airplane Alice B. Toklas Amp joint Angola Ashes Atom bomb Atshitshi Aunt Mary B B-40 Baby Baby bhang Bad seed Bale Bambalacha Bar Bash Basuco Belyando spruce Bhang Bite one's lips Black Black bart Black ganga Black gold Black gungi Black gunion Black mo/black moat Black mote Blanket Blast Blast a joint Blast a roach Blast a stick Block Blonde Blow Blow a stick Blow one's roof Blowing smoke Blue de hue Blue sage Blue sky blond Blunt Bo-bo Bobo bush Bogart a joint Bohd Bomb Bomber Bone Bong Boo Boom Boot the gong Brick Broccoli Brown Bud Buda Bullyon Burn one Burnie Bush Butter Butter flower Cam trip Cambodian red/Cam red Can Canadian black Canamo Canappa Cancelled stick Cannabis tea Carmabis Cartucho Catnip Cavite all star Charas Charge Chase Cheeba Cheeo Chiba chiba Chicago black Chicago green Chira Christmas tree Chronic Churus Citrol Climb Cochornis Cocktail Cocoa puff Coli Coliflor tostao Colorado cocktail Columbian Columbus black Cosa Crack back Crazy weed Cripple Crying weed Cubes Culican Dagga Dawamesk Dew Diambista Dimba Ding Dinkie dow Dirt grass Ditch Ditch weed Djamba Do a joint Domestic Don jem Dona Juana Dona Juanita Doobie/dubbe/duby Dope Dope smoke Doradilla Draf weed Drag weed Dry high Durog Duros Dust Dusting Earth El diablito El diablo Endo Esra Fallbrook redhair Fatty Feed bag Fiend Fine stuff Finger Fir Fire it up Flower Flower tops Fly Mexican airlines Fraho/frajo Frios Fry daddy Fu Fuel Fuma D'Angola Gage/gauge Gange Gangster Ganja Gash Gasper Gasper stick Gauge butt Geek Get a gage up Get high Get the wind Ghana Giggle smoke Gimmie Go loco Gold Gold star Golden leaf Gong Good butt Good giggles Goof butt Grass Grass brownies Grata Green Green goddess Greeter Greta Griefo Griff Griffa Griffo Gungun Gyve Hanhich Happy cigarette Has Hawaiin Hay Hay butt Hemp Herb Herb and Al Herba Hit Hit the hay Hocus Homegrown Honey blunts Hooch Hooter Hot stick Indian boy Indian hay Indo Indonesian bud J Jane Jay smoke Jay Jim Jones Jive Jive stick Joint Jolly green Joy smoke Joy stick Ju-ju Juan Valdez Juanita Juice joint Kali Kaya Kentucky blue KGB (killer green bud) Kick stick Kiff Killer Killer weed (1980s) Killer weed (1960s) Kilter Kind Kumba L.L. Lace Lakbay diva Laughing grass Laughing weed Leaf Lid Light stuff Lima Little smoke Llesca Loaf Lobo Locoweed Log Love boat Love weed Lovelies Lubage M M.J. M.O. M.U. Machinery Macon Magic smoke Manhattan silver Mari Mary Mary and Johnny Mary Ann Mary Jane Mary Jonas Mary Warner Mary Weaver Matchbox Maui wauie Meg Megg Meggie Messorole Mexican brown Mexican red Mighty mezz Modams Mohasky Monte Mooca/moocah Mooster Moota/mutah Mooters Mootie Mootos Mor a grifa Mota/moto Mother Mow the grass Muggie Mutha Nail Number O.J. P.R. (Panama Red) Pack Pack of rocks Pakalolo Pakistani black Panama cut Panama gold Panama red Panatella Paper blunts Parsley Pat Pin Pipe Pocket rocket Pod Poke Pot Potten bush Prescription Pretendica Pretendo Primo Puff the dragon Queen Ann's lace Ragweed Railroad weed Rainy day woman Rangood Rasta weed Red cross Red dirt Reefer Righteous bush Roach Roach clip Rockets Root Rope Rose marie Salt and pepper Santa Marta Sasfras Scissors Seeds Sen Sess Sezz Shake Siddi Sinse Sinsemilla Skunk Smoke Smoke Canada Snop Spark it up Speed boat Spliff Splim Square mackerel Squirrel Stack Stems Stick Stink weed Straw Sugar weed Supergrass Sweet Lucy T Taima Takkouri Tea Tea party Tex-mex Texas pot Texas tea Thai sticks Thirteen Thumb Tin Toke Toke up Torch Torch up Torpedo Turbo Twist Twistum Up against the stem Viper's weed Wac Wacky weed Weed Weed tea Wheat White-haired lady Wollie Woolah Woolas Woolies Wooly blunts X Yeh Yellow submarine Yen pop Yerba Yerba mala Yesca Yesco Zacatecas purple Zambi Zig Zag man Zol Zooie Zoom parker burrito Marley 4:20 four twenty fry wack wet-wet amp water-water wetdaddy Moral entrepreneur: an individual, group, or formal organization working for the adoption or maintenance of a social norm. Includes rule creators and rule enforcers. (Howard Becker)
THE MORAL ENTREPRENEURS OF ALCOHOL PROHIBITION **Big Industry **Progressive Social Reformers **Women’s Suffrage Activists **Public Health and Medical Advocates
Dr. Benjamin Rush Pioneered conception of alcoholism as disease 1785: Moderation– Just avoid the hard stuff. 1812: Abstinence and sober housing – All of the evil drink must be avoided! Early medicalization of addiction
Industrialization and the Evils of Alcohol "If booze ever comes back to the U. S., I am through with manufacturing. I would not be bothered with the problem of handling over 200,000 men and trying to pay them wages which the saloons would take away from them." -- Henry Ford
Devil drug, assassin of youth, weed of madness… Reefer Madness, 1936 anti-drug propaganda film
Moral Entrepreneurs of the Marijuana Tax Act, 1937 1)Harry Anslinger, Commissioner of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, saw marijuana as vehicle to institutional power 2)Federal govt. wanted to expand general powers in New Deal era 3)Construction of racial and cultural Others: Southern African Americans, Mexican immigrants in Southwest, underground jazz scene, poor and working-class laborers – connected to and stigmatized through pot prohibition 4)DuPont and synthetic fabric makers– saw hemp industry as major competition 5)Big Pharma– unregulated plant was competition for lab-made products 6)Temperance advocates– unhappy over defeat of Prohibition, eager to take on pot 7)AMA – sole opposition, defended cannabis’ medicinal/research value
drug scare (n): ideological moral panic which blames a drug for pre-existing social problem(s) unemployment poverty violence family dysfunction homelessness depression
Reinarman’s Recipe for Drug Scares The Ingredients: A kernel of truth Media Moral entrepreneurs Professional interest groups Historical context Link drugs to a “dangerous class” Use drugs as a scapegoat Bake at 420 degrees.
1.Vocabulary of attribution 2. Mandate to work hard and produce 3. Mandate to play hard and consume Why do we get “drug-scared” so easily?
The Cultural Contradictions of Capitalism Hard work, discipline, self- control! Consumption, pleasure, indulgence!
Turn of the Century to Mid-20 th Century Medicalization of cocaine, opiate, and marijuana use Full criminalization of use of these drugs Medicalization: the process by which human problems come to defined and treated as medical conditions “Addict-patient” “Criminal-addict” Polarization of two views on addiction –Medical community’s view of addiction as a physical disease that should be treated –Law enforcement’s view that addiction is a criminal tendency that should be contained and punished
USE, ABUSE, ADDICTION Reasons for first use (initial experimentation) v. reasons for addiction (compulsive use or relapse) Drug Use – usage of a substance defined as “drug” Drug Abuse (Misuse) – Continuum of meanings: Any use of psychoactive substance Recreational use of any illegal drug Using a substance in such a way that it leads to harmful personal or social consequences Drug Addiction Refers to everything and nothing Substance Abuse v Substance Dependence – DSM IV Criteria Dependence associated with negative reinforcement (withdrawal) Dependence associated with positive reinforcement (pleasure effects) Alexander: Addictions 1, 2, 3, and 4