Presentation on theme: "Linguistic Varieties and"— Presentation transcript:
1 Linguistic Varieties and SociolinguisticsChapter 4Linguistic Varieties andMultilingual Nations
2 Learning Objectives Vernacular languages Standard languages World EnglishesLingua francasPidgins and creoles
3 VernacularA language which has not been standardised and does not have official status.
4 Vernacular Three components: 1. It is an uncodified or unstandardised variety2. It is acquired at home as a first variety.3. It is used for relatively circumscribed functions.Exercise 1
5 Standard language A standard variety is one: which is written and has gone some degree of regularisation or codificationwhich is recognised as a prestigious varietywhich is used for H functions
6 World EnglishesThe term World Englishes is used to emphasise the range of different varieties of English that have developed since the nineteenth century.
7 Kachru’s Three Concentric Circles The Expanding CircleChina, Egypt, Indonesia,Israel, Japan, Korea,Nepal, Saudi Arabia,Taiwan, Russia,Zimbabwe, South Africa,Caribbean Islands(EFL)The Outer CircleBangladesh, IndiaGhana, Kenya, Nigeria, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Zambia(ESL)The Inner CircleUSAUKCanadaAustraliaNew Zealand
8 5 phases of World English Phase 1 Foundation and consolidationEnglish becomes generally dominant, a standard form evolving with the arrival of the printing press and the spread of organised education.
9 5 phases of World English Phase 2 The adventurersEnglish-speaking settlers emigrate to North America (the United States and Canada), Australia and New Zealand, where they establish English-speaking colonies.
10 5 phases of World English Phase 3 The independent coloniesBeginning with the breakaway of the Thirteen Colonies in America, the phase covers the increasing emancipation from the mother country of Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and so forth.
11 5 phases of World English Phase 4 The colonial subjectsEnglish is deliberately taught, especially from about 1925 onward, to colonial peoples through English-medium education systems in Africa, South Asia, East Asia, the Pacific and elsewhere.
12 5 phases of World English Phase 5 Cultural independenceIn previous phases, the centre of gravity of English had been culturally ‘nativist’ and in the Phase 4 had been taught paternalistically, ‘embedded’ in the matrix of English (or America) social and cultural ideas.
13 5 phases of World English Example:School textbooks in English fixated on the behaviour and attitudes of a mythical Mr. and Mrs. Smith, their son John, their daughter Mary, and their dog Spot.
14 5 phases of World English In Phase 5, the nativist approach was increasingly dismissed and disdained, as various countries developed English ‘for national unity, for international communication, as a window on world events.’
16 The Circle of World English Highlights the broad three-part spectrum that ranges from the ‘innumerable’ popular Englishes through the various national and regional standards to the remarkably homogenous but negotiable ‘common core’ of World Standard English.
17 Activity 4.1 Does English English make sense? Is it likely that a uniform standard will emerge for English in East Asia?Is Canadian English sufficiently distinct from American English to merit a separate section?Can’t the English of Scotland be separated out as having its own national standard?Isn’t Tok Pisin an entirely different language?
18 Nativised variety of English – The case of Singapore English The local aspirations and identities are reflected in linguistics characteristics such as:stress patternsgrammatical features which reflect the influence of local languagesvocabulary from local languages
19 Activity 4.2Watch a clip from the Singapore film production ‘I Not Stupid’小孩不笨, and identify features of Colloquial Singapore English.
20 Lingua francaA language serving as a regular means of communication between different linguistic groups in a multilingual speech community.
21 Pidgins and creolesPidgins develop as a means of communication between people who do not have a common language.A pidgin is no one’s native language.
22 Pidgins and creolesA pidgin language has three identifying characteristics:1. It is used in restricted domains and functions2. It has a simplified structure3. It generally has low prestigeExercise 5
23 Pidgins and creolesA creole is a pidgin which has acquired native speakers.Exercise 7
24 Case study – Chinese Pidgin English Chinese Pidgin English is one of the oldest varieties of English-lexicon pidgin.
26 Activity 4.3Watch the video and answer the questions.
27 Case study – Chinese Pidgin English PhonologyAvoidance of difficult sounds (e.g. consonant clusters)Simple syllable structure (CV)
28 Case study – Chinese Pidgin English Phonology1. Consonant clusters broken up by the insertion of vowels2. Clusters are simplified by losing one of the consonants
29 Case study – Chinese Pidgin English SemanticsMaximum use of a minimum lexiconExtension of meanings
30 Case study – Chinese Pidgin English TenseThe context alone indicates tense. Adverbials like before, day after tomorrow provide necessary clues.
31 Case study – Chinese Pidgin English NegationThe negator is always a separate word and invariant in form. It occurs before the verb. This may be because of a universal preference among languages with SVO word order for preverbal modification.
32 Case study – Chinese Pidgin English Use of classifierWun piece wifooOne piece wife一 個 妻子NUM Cl NOUN