Presentation on theme: "Mercantilism An economic theory intended to allow the accumulation of national wealth by developing industry in order to create a positive trade balance,"— Presentation transcript:
Mercantilism An economic theory intended to allow the accumulation of national wealth by developing industry in order to create a positive trade balance, in which more goods are exported than imported. The British sought to use the North American colonies as a mercantilist venture, serving primarily to increase the wealth of England by producing more goods for trade. The British Parliament therefore exercised strict economic controls when it came to trade, enacting different policies to enforce import/export rules, along with taxes to provide for the financial burden of administering the colonies. These policies, less strict in the early years of the colonies, became a source of conflict as they became more strongly enforced, as the colonists felt as if their rights were being infringed upon, specifically their right to “no taxation without representation.”
Stamp Act Congress In a response to the acts passed by the British Parliament, specifically the Stamp Act of 1765, colonists organized a meeting of representatives from nine out of the thirteen colonies in New York City in 1765. Colonists felt that the Stamp Act, which required all paper items bought and sold in the colonies carry a stamp signifying the British crown, allowed for the British Parliament to raise their revenues without colonial governments’ approval, thus engaging in “taxation without representation.” Representatives drafted a document to be sent to the king, listing the violations of their rights and discussing what the relationship between colonial governments and the British Parliament should consist of. This had very little impact on the British Parliaments’ treatment of the colonies, but it did serve as the first time the colonies began to work as a unified nation.
Committees of Correspondence ●First formed in 1764 in Boston ●Used to relay information regarding the British throughout the colonies ●Primarily used to notify resistance forces of British actions ●In 1773, the House of Burgesses asked for all colonies to have a standing committee of correspondence ○Within a year nearly all had joined the network ●Also existed within towns ○Built a sense of community and loyalty throughout the colonies
First Continental Congress ●After the Boston Tea Party, Parliament passed the Coercive acts, also known as the Intolerable Acts ○These acts closed Boston Harbor, established military rule in Massachusetts, made British officials immune to punishment in America, and force private citizens to house British troops ●In response, the First Continental Congress met on September 5, 1774 ○Comprised of 56 delegates, they wrote a formal petition of rights the colonists had and grievances against the king ○One idea put forth was the Union Plan, which would establish a Parliamentary form of government in the colonies with a President General speaking and voting for the king of England. ○This was discarded after more British soldiers poured into Boston ○They voted to meet again in two years if the grievances were not addressed by the King
Second Continental Congress ●First met on May 10, 1775 in Philadelphia. ●On July 5, 1775 Congress attempted a last effort to avoid conflict with the Olive Branch Petition. ○Asked King George to end hostilities towards the colonies. ○King George responded with another 20,000 troops. ●Congress appointed George Washington as commander and chief of the newly created Continental Army. ○Washington was appointed because he was from the Virginia a southern state. ○Oppression by King George was mainly in the northeast. ●On June 7, 1776 a resolution calling for independence from Great Britain was presented by Richard Henry Lee of Virginia. ○called for independence ○creation of foreign alliances ○preparations for a plan of confederacy ●Six out of the thirteen states instructed their delegates to vote for independence before congress was suspended so that the members could consult their local legislature.
Declaration of Independence ●A committee of six were designated with the task drafting the Declaration of Independence; Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Robert Livingston, Roger Sherman, and after protest by John Adams for a southern delegate Thomas Jefferson. ○Most of the declaration was penned by Thomas Jefferson. ●Independance was voted for by twelve of the thirteen colonies on July 2, 1776. ●July 4, 1776 two days after the states passed it the Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Second Continental Congress. ○Laid out the grievances of King George. ○July 9, 1776 the Declaration was read in Philadelphia ○written in simple language ○The basic ideas of the Declaration of Independence came from John Locke and social contract theory.
8 Articles of Confederation Written in 1777 to unify the states in a war effort Documents linking the thirteen colonies together Created a government that gains power from the states unlike Great Britain Created a “league of friendship” between the states
9 Confederation A form of government that gets its power from the states it governs Has less power then the states combined The states consider themselves independent Only linked for limited purposes
Shays' Rebellion A rebellion in 1786. This was pushed over the edge when Mass. enacted a new law requiring the payment of all debts in cash. Led by Daniel Shay, a farmer who fought against the Massachusetts’ government to stop foreclosing mortgages on his farm. He and 1500 other farmers marched into Springfield, Mass. and forcibly restrained the state court from, once again, foreclosing mortgages on their farms. This was a problem to colonies government because they did not have funds to stop the rebellion. Massachusetts paid for a private militia after not being able to raise a state militia, eventually stopping the rebellion on Feb. 4, 1787. This showed how many economic problems the colonists would need to overcome to be a successful colony.
constitution A document establishing the structure, functions, and limitations of a government. Used by the colonists as a take off point for the new country. To form a stable document meant to structure a country’s government requires men who had a vast amount of political, educational, legal, and business experience. Our Framers, including George Washington, Ben Franklin, John Rutledge, and George Mason, were all well qualified to write such an important document. This was the basis of all government, and depending on the quality led to a country’s rise or fall.
●When the Constitutional Convention met in May of 1787, the delegates decided to scrap the Articles of Confederation. ●They came prepared with two plans the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan. ●Virginia being the biggest state was in favor of big states and legislature by population, New Jersey was in favor of the one vote one state idea.
Virginia Plan ●Proposed by James Madison and Edmund Randolph in favor of big states. ●Major Points: ○ Central Government has three branches judicial, legislative, and executive. ○ Two house legislative- One that is chosen by state legislative and one that is elected by the people. ○ Lastly a legislative with the power to select the judiciary and executive.
New Jersey Plan ●Proposed by William Paterson in favor of the small states. ●Major points: ○ Strengthen Articles instead of replacing them. ○ One house legislature with one vote per state and members chosen by the state legislative. ○ Congress has the power to raise money from duties on imports and from postal service fees. ○ Creating a Supreme court with members appointed for life by the executive officers.
Great Compromise The issue of state representation in Congress caused the most disagreement between the Virginia and New Jersey plans. (See Virginia and new Jersey Plans) Connecticut's purposed compromise that the House of Representatives would be determined by population and each state then would have an equal vote in the Senate was not welcomed by the assembly. A large committee was then drafted to create the Great Compromise and took ideas from both the Virginia and New Jersey plans.
Great Compromise It stated: A two-house, or bicameral, legislature In one house of the legislature (House of Representatives), there would be fifty-six representatives— one representative for every 30,000 inhabitants. They would be elected directly by the people. That house should have the power to originate all bills for raising and spending money. In the second house of legislature (Senate), each state should have equal vote and the representative would be selected by the state legislatures. By dividing the power between the state and national governments, national power would be supreme.
Great Compromise Met the approval of all the states in attendance. Smaller states got equal representation in the Senate Larger states got proportional representation in the House of Representatives However, no group could ultimately dominate because both houses are needed to pass legislation.
Three-Fifths Compromise The Great Compromise stated that the representation of the House of Representatives would be determined by the population of the state. Even though slaves were unable to vote, the southern stated wanted them to count towards their population size. After much consideration, it was decided that population, in regards to representation and direct taxation, that “All other persons” (Slaves) would be counted as three-fifths of a free person. This promised that the South would hold 47% of the House. This allowed Slavery to continue in the south, but not allow it to spread northward.