Presentation on theme: "Articles of Confederation The representatives of the thirteen states agree to create a confederacy called the United States of America, in which each."— Presentation transcript:
Articles of Confederation The representatives of the thirteen states agree to create a confederacy called the United States of America, in which each state maintains its own sovereignty and all rights to govern, except those rights specifically granted to Congress.
These thirteen states enter into a firm "league of friendship" for the purpose of defending each other.
Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? I. Currency Issues The United States did not have a common currency. Americans carried money from the federal government, state government, and foreign nations.
Merchants stopped accepting money from outside of their own state, causing a lot of money to become worthless. This caused an increase in inflation. (Steady rise in prices relating to an increased volume of money and credit resulting in a loss in the value of the currency.)
Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? II. Debt Congress could not tax the people and depended on money from the states. (no power to tax) Therefore, the U.S. was unable to pay its debts! Examples: - The U.S. owed money to France, Holland, and Spain for loans made during the Revolutionary War. - The U.S. had not paid many of their own soldiers!
Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? III. International and Domestic Problems The U.S. lacked the military power to defend itself against Great Britain and Spain. States acted as individual countries and seldom agreed. (i.e. sending troops to fight) Example: - Connecticut and Virginia almost went to war over land claims!
Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? Courts (Judicial Branch) The nation lacked a national court system. Supreme Court
Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? President (Executive Branch) The nation did not have a President, or Chief Executive. White House
Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? Congress (Legislative Branch) Laws were difficult to pass, needing the approval of nine states. Congress was responsible to the states (legislatures or Governors), not the people. Congress had no power to collect taxes, coin money, or establish a military. Congress had one house. (unicameral) Capitol Building
Comparison Articles of ConfederationConstitution of the United States Major power held by individual states Powers shared between states and central government National government had no power to tax, no power to enforce laws National government had power to tax and regulate trade At the national level-one house legislature, no executive, no court system Three branches at the national level—executive, legislative, judicial
Introduction to the U.S. Constitution Written in Philadelphia Original intent was to revise the Articles Washington was the President of the convention; James Madison was the “Father” of the Constitution 39 men signed it in 1787
Objective: Three major problems would arise during the convention…How do we solve them? COMPROMISE!!!!!
3 BIG FIGHTS!! North vs. South Big vs. Little Federalist vs. Antifederalist
How to count slaves for representation (Southern) and taxation (Northern) purposes 3 out of every 5 slaves would be counted. North vs. South: Three- Fifths Compromise
- It called for a unicameral legislature, in which every state received one vote. Virginia PlanNew Jersey Plan - Both plans called for a strong national government with 3 branches. - It called for a bicameral legislature, in which the number of representatives in each house would depend on the population of the state. Big v. Little: Great Compromise-Connecticut Compromise eCompromise ComCompromise Compromise) It provided for a bicameral Congress. A. House of Representatives – each state is represented according to its population (satisfied the VA Plan) B. Senate – each state has 2 Senators (satisfied the NJ Plan) * Both houses of Congress must pass every law.
Federalism vs. Antifederalism Some states wanted to preserve more states rights. Others wanted to protect individuals’ rights. Compromise? Bill of Rights!
I. Popular Sovereignty The people hold the ultimate authority The first three words of the Constitution are “We the People” A representative democracy lets the people elect leaders to make decisions for them. Sen. Jim Webb, Sen. Mark Warner, and Rep. Randy Forbes are our elected officials in Congress
II. Limited Government Framers wanted to guard against tyranny Government is limited to the power given them in the Constitution. The Constitution tells how leaders who overstep their power can be removed
III. Federalism The division of power between State and National Governments Some powers are shared The National Government has the “supreme power”
IV. Separation of Powers No one holds “too much” power Legislative branch makes the laws Executive branch carries out the laws Judicial branch interprets the laws
Legislative Branch Senate and House of Representatives Make our laws Appropriate Money Regulate Immigration Establish Post Offices and Roads Regulate Interstate Commerce and Transportation Declare War
Executive Branch The President enforces the law Chief Diplomat Chief Executive Chief of State Chief Legislator (suggests laws to Congress) Commander in Chief Economic Planner Party Leader
Judicial Branch Interprets the law Supreme Court and other Federal Courts Preserve and protect the rights guaranteed by the Constitution Considers cases involving national laws Declares laws and acts “unconstitutional”
V. Checks and Balances Prevents the abuse of power in government Each branch can check each other branch
Executive Checks Propose laws to Congress Veto laws made by Congress Negotiate foreign treaties Appoint federal judges Grant pardons to federal offenders
Legislative Checks Override president’s veto Ratify treaties Confirm executive appointments (S.C. Judges, Cabinet Officials) Impeach federal officers and judges Create and dissolve lower federal courts
Judicial Checks Declare executive acts unconstitutional Declare laws unconstitutional Declare acts of Congress unconstitutional The Supreme Court holds the final check